1. Review What are the three main tissue systems of
2. Compare and Contrast How do the three main
functions of a plant’s tissue differ
3. Form and Function How might the presence of
meristems explain the ability of plants to
regenerate from cuttings
4. Infer With your prior knowledge of the circulatory
system, write a paragraph comparing and
contrasting the structure and function of the
vascular system of a plant to the human
CH 23 PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
23.1 Specialized Tissues in Plants
Seed Plant Structure
Three principal organs
of seed plants are roots,
stems, and leaves.
Anchor plant in ground
Help prevent erosion
Absorb water and
nutrients and transport
to rest of plant
Hold plant upright.
Support system for the
Transport system that
Defensive system to
predators and disease
Produces leaves and
Regulates water by
controlling air exchange.
Plant Tissue Systems
Three main tissue systems:
Protective outer covering of a plant
Single layer of cells that makes up the dermal tissue
May have tiny hair like projections on leaves and
Supports the plant body
Transports water and
Consist of long, slender cells
that connect almost like
sections of pipe.
Leave cell walls made of
lignin when they die
Openings allow water
movement from cell to
Wider than tracheids
and are arranged end
After cell dies, cell walls
allow water to move
Alive at maturity
Transports sugar throughout plant
Sieve tube elements
Arranged end to end with ends having
many small holes
Lose nuclei and organelles as they
Kept alive by companion cells.
Supports sieve tube element.
Produces and stores sugars
Contributes to physical support of plant
Neither dermal nor vascular
Three types of ground tissue:
Main type of ground tissue
Have thin cell walls
Contain many chloroplasts in leaves.
Strong, flexible cell walls that help support plant
Middle cell wall thickness.
Extremely thick, rigid cell walls
Makes ground tissue such as seed coats tough and
Regions of unspecialized cells in which mitosis
produces new cells
Found in tips of stems and roots.
Meristem at tip of a stem
Cells divide rapidly
Increases plants length.
Produces flowers specialized cells
Develop from apical meristem.