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ADHD Powered By Docstoc
					By Rhian Uptegraft
What is AD/HD?
 ADHD is a Disruptive Behavior Disorder
 characterized by the presence of a set of chronic and
 impairing behavior patterns that display abnormal
 levels of inattention, hyperactivity, or their
 combination. (According to the 1994, Diagnostic and
 Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Ed. IV,)
Characteristics & Facts
 Symptoms -- AD/HD has 3 major subtypes
 AD/HD - Primarily Inattentive Type:
 • Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless
 • Has difficulty sustaining attention.
 • Does not appear to listen.
 • Struggles to follow through on instructions.
 • Has difficulty with organization.
 • Avoids or dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort.
 • Easily distracted.
 • Forgetful in daily activities.
AD/HD - Primarily
Hyperactive/Impulsive Type:
 • Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair.
 • Has difficulty remaining seated.
 • Runs around or climbs excessively.
 • Has difficulty engaging in activities quietly.
 • Acts as if driven by a motor.
 • Talks excessively.
 • Blurts out answers before questions have been
 • Has difficulty waiting or taking turns.
 • Interrupts or intrudes upon others.
AD/HD - Combined Type:
 Meets both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive
 Because everyone shows signs of these behaviors at
  one time or another, the guidelines for determining
  whether a child has AD/HD are very specific.
 In children, the symptoms must be more frequent or
  severe than in other children of the same age. These
  behaviors must create significant difficulty in at least
  two areas of life, such as home, social settings and
Symptoms usually appear before
the age of seven
 This means all teachers must be prepared to encounter
  students with AD/HD.
 Many students will enter kindergarten already carrying
  a diagnosis of AD/HD.
 However, as teachers, we must also be prepared to
  recognize the symptoms of AD/HD in other students
  who have not been diagnosed, but are exhibiting
 There is not single test for diagnosing AD/HD.
 It takes many steps by trained professionals to make a diagnosis of AD/HD.
 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM),published by
  the American Psychiatric Association, is the guide that lays out the criteria to
  be used by doctors, mental health professionals, and other qualified clinicians
  when making a diagnosis of AD/HD.
 A good evaluation should first look to rule out other causes for the behavior of
  the child.
 The evaluation should involve a clinical assessment of the child’s school, social
  and emotional functioning and developmental levels.
 The child’s family and the teacher should maintain a detailed chronicle of the
  child’s daily activities.
 If possible, it is good to have the child also track their own history.
 It is the responsibility of the professionals to determine the diagnosis.
It is the most commonly diagnosed
psychiatric disorder in children
 It affects at least 3-5 percent of children in the world.
 Roughly 4.5 million children in the U.S. (about 7
  percent of that age group) have been diagnosed with
 Breaking that number down shows that 11 percent of
  the boys in this age group have AD/HD,
 while 4 percent of girls have been diagnosed with
 That means boys are almost 3 times as likely to be
  diagnosed with AD/HD as are girls.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
(AD/HD) is a neurobiological disorder
 Neurobiological disorders are problems that affect the
  peripheral and central nervous systems of an
 The nervous system comprises the spinal cord, the brain,
  peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, the autonomic nervous
  system, nerve roots, muscles, and neuromuscular junction.
 There are more than 600 neurological disorders ranging
  across a wide spectrum including Alzheimer's disease,
  epilepsy, migraines, Huntington's disease, muscular
  dystrophy and AD/HD that have been recognized.
 Several areas of the brain may be affected by AD/HD
  according to modern research models describing what is
  happening in the brains of people with AD/HD.
The exact cause has not been
 Unlike many diseases and disorders, there are no genetic
  markers, physical characteristics or simple test that can
  identify a child as having AD/HD.
 Researchers have not identified the exact causes, but they
  are certain that heredity plays a major role.
 When heredity can be ruled out, difficulties during
  pregnancy, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco,
  premature delivery, significantly low birth weight,
  excessively high body lead levels, and postnatal injury to
  the prefrontal regions of the brain have all been found to
  contribute to the risk for AD/HD to varying degrees
AD/HD has been studied and
documented for over 100 years
 AD/HD is not a modern phenomenon.
 It has surely been around longer than recorded history.
 The key point is that it has gone through a curve of
  being recognized and defined that has included
  several name changes.
 The first mention of a disorder that was surely AD/HD
  was in 1798. Sir Alexander Crichton describes "mental
  restlessness" in his book An Inquiry Into the Nature
  and Origin of Mental Derangement.
 Multimodal treatment is the most effective form of treatment for
  children and adolescents with AD/HD.
 This treatment approach includes multiple elements which work
  best together and support each other.
The elements of the multimodal treatment approach include:
 Parent and child education about diagnosis and treatment
 Specific behavior management techniques
 Stimulant medication
 Appropriate educational program and supports.
 The level of response or non-response to any or all of these will be
  unique to each individual and cannot be predicted.
 Working closely with health care providers and school personnel,
  treatment should be tailored to the unique needs of each child and
Behavioral Treatment
 Psychosocial treatment is a critical part of treatment
  for AD/HD.
 Behavior modification is the only nonmedical
  treatment for AD/HD with a large scientific evidence
 Behavior treatment involves both social and
  psychological therapies.
 A detail article explain Behavioral Modification can be
  found at:
 Children outgrow AD/HD in adolescence
 It was believed for a long time that people outgrow
  AD/HD as they mature. This is not true.
 It is more common in boys than in girls
 Boys are more than twice as likely to have AD/HD.
  However, some studies suggest that at least some of
  the difference is based in biases of the referring
  teachers. Do not assume that a child does not have
  AD/HD simply based on their gender.
 People with AD/HD cannot be successful as adults
Not true! Look at these famous people:
Vincent Van Gogh, Terry Bradshaw, Pete Rose, Mark
  Twain, Emily Dickenson, Ralph Waldo Emerson,
  Wolfgang Mozart, Andrew Carnegie, Henry Ford,
  Christopher Columbus, Ann Bancroft, Jim Carrey, Jack
  Nicholson, Elvis Presley, Justin Timberlake, Robin
  Williams, Thomas Edison, Benjamin Franklin,
  Alexander Graham Bell, Albert Einstein, John F.
  Kennedy, Abraham Lincoln.
Accommodations for
individual students
 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  provides educational accommodations for students
  with ADHD who don't qualify for special education
 That means we can all expect to encounter students
  with AD/HD during our tenure as teachers.
Lesson Plans and Instruction
 Use visual aids. Put objectives on the blackboard
 Try pair-share between students with 504 Plans and
  student peers in the classroom
 Written outlines or lesson outcomes
 Diversify learning modalities in the presentation of
  instructions and material
 Incorporate technology in instruction
 Divide lessons into smaller chunks of material
 Employ a variety of assessments to verify
  understanding and mastery of learning objectives
Classroom Arrangement
 Plan the seating to make learning more accessible.
 Seat the students with 504 Plans with their student
  helpers whenever needed
 Use proximity in lesson delivery
 Reduce classroom distractions to help minimize
 Try group configurations with 4 students to a group
Assignment Modification
 Provide extra time as needed for processing
  information and turning in assignments
 Present smaller chunks of learning to aid in simplicity
  of outcome
 Use a resource room to provide organizational and
  study skills
 Do pre and post diagnostic assessments to validate
  learning materials
 Allow students to use computer software to assist
  learning and writing assignments
Behavioral Cues
 Provide the students feedback and appropriate
 Encourage students to reflect and journal at the end or
  beginning of the class period
 Give students proactive feedback when they engage in
  distracting behavior
 Use non-verbal cues if possible for students if they
  need redirection
 Post rules and consequences for the classroom.
 Provide students with time-outs and teacher
  interaction when needed
Resources for additional
 -- Children and Adults with
  Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD)
 – National Resource
  Center on AD/HD
 – National Institute of
  Mental Health
 – AD/HD Support
 --
  National Resource Center on AD/HD
Resources for additional
  df -- CDC info, very detailed and informative.
  d-definition.php - The National Association of Parents
  with Children in Special Education

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