The Napoleonic Era Schoellhorn-World History Background on Bonaparte Born to wealthy family on Island of Corsica in 1769- Napoleon di Buonaparte Influenced by his strict mother.- Nicknamed “The disrupter” Father represented Corisca in Louis XVI’s court. Received a scholarship to French military academy at age 9. A Military Master Age 14: Received a scholarship to French Military School Ecole Royal Militaire. Spoke with Italian accent, very much an outcast and loner. Completed 2 year course in 1 year. Entered the military at 16 Took side of the Jacobins during the Revolution. A Revolutionary General The Directory appointed Napoleon leader of the French Army against Austria and Sardinia in Italy. Napoleon’s power and popularity made him a threat to the Directory. He was sent to Egypt to disrupt British trade and to get him away from France. “Soldiers! From the heights of these pyramids, forty centuries look down at you.” Napoleon wanted to free Egypt from Muslim ideas and British control, and learn more about the area. Brought Scientists to study the country. Found the Rosetta stone to decode heiroglyphics. The campaign to Egypt was a military failure, but no one in France knew it. Meanwhile, Back in France… While Napoleon was in Egypt, the Directory was losing power. 1799: Napoleon and his brother, Lucien returned to France and led a Coup D’Etat: An overthrow of the State. Welcomed as a hero, Napoleon dissolved the Directory and named 3 Consuls in control of France. The Little Corporal People of France were desperate for a strong leader after the Revolution. Napoleon defeated Austria, Britain and Russia bringing peace to France. Napoleon created a new constitution, giving him power but supporting the goals of the Rev. Declared himself, First Consul. Conquests of the Consulate As First Consul, Napoleon took near dictator powers. Ended elections in France, Consulate took power. Ended feudalism: Rewards were based on citizenship and merit, not birth. Enemies were eliminated, supporters rewarded. Royalists were forgiven as long as they supported him. Napoleon Knows my Name?? Since he was Italian, Napoleon never felt badly about the loss of French soldiers. He did however win their allegiance by learning their names. He was a master of propaganda Used spies to gain information on subjects. Fixing France Napoleon set out to fix the problems of France. Set up a national banking system Created government run schools, requiring government officials to be hired based on qualifications, not family. Separated Church and state by signing an agreement with Pope Pius VII. Created the Napoleonic Code: A uniform code of laws for all of France. Peace With Prussia….and Britain, and Spain, and…. Many countries had been united against the French Revolution. By 1802, Napoleon and his armies had brought peace to the empire. Passed a decree that all Emigres could come back without punishment. Awarded the title of First Consul for life because of peace at home and abroad. Emerging As Emperor 1804: Napoleon named himself Emperor of France. Crowned himself rather than allowing the Pope to do it in Notre Dame Cathedral. Began focusing on expanding his Empire to the New world AND the Old World. Problems at Home Napoleon’s Wife Josephine, who he really loved could not give him a son. He divorced her and married Marie Louise, great niece of Marie Antoinette. He got his son, but continued to love Josephine the rest of his life. The Napoleonic Wars Napoleon began a series of wars to expand his empire against the alliance of Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia. By 1805, Only Britain hadn’t been defeated. It was the “Carthage to his Rome” Thanks Napoleon! Since fighting Great Britain would be so expensive, especially against their great navy, Napoleon decided to sell some real estate. He sold the Louisiana territory to the United States in order to fund his war against Britain. The British Won’t Back Down The only major battle lost by Napoleon during the Empire creation was the Battle of Trafalgar. The British fleet led by Horatio Nelson defeated Napoleon. ForcedNapoleon to give up on invading Britain. Getting Back at Britain 1806: To punish Britain, Napoleon created a Blockade against Britain. The Continental System: was created to cut off the European continent from British support, forcing them to buy French exports. His allies went against the blockade and Britain began an even better one against France. The New Nationalism Many European countries had begun to unite within themselves against France. They were also inspired by the pride the French had in themselves under Napoleon. Thesenew feelings of nationalism made countries of Europe fight against Napoleon’s bullying ways. Problems on the Peninsula: Peninsular War Portugal would not accept the blockade against Britain. Napoleon tried to invade Portugal by going through Spain. When Spain refused to allow this, Napoleon put his brother on the Spanish Throne. Britain sent troops to help the Spanish rebellion in the Peninsular War. France was greatly weakened by this. Getting Back at Britain After the loss at the Battle of Trafalgar, Napoleon tried to hurt Britain by ordering countries not to trade with them through the Continental System. Russian Tsar Alexander I refused to do this, so Napoleon decided to invade. The Russians Retreat June 1812: Napoleon invades Russia with 600,000 men. Rather than attack, Alexander leads his troops back into Russia, destroying farms and food as they go. Alexander burned Moscow in a scorched earth tactic rather than allow Napoleon to have it. The Woe of Winter November 1812: Napoleon’s troops are unprepared for the Russian winter and were forced to retreat. Without food or supplies only 40,000 of Napoleon’s 600,000 troops returned home from Russia. This loss greatly weakened Napoleon’s army and popularity. The Beginning of the End Seeing his weakness, Napoleon’s enemies (Britain, Prussia, Sweden, Russia and Austria) all turned on him. April 1814: Napoleon was forced to surrender was exiled to the island of Elba off of Italy. Making a New Monarchy After Napoleon’s defeat, France restored the monarchy, putting Louis XVI’s brother on the throne. Very unpopular and anti- revolution Meanwhile Napoleon planned an escape from Elba and March 1, 1815 landed in France to an excited crowd. Napoleon’s Final Fall June 1815: At the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium, Napoleon led his troops against the British and Prussian army. Napoleon’s young army was defeated, ending his last Hundred Days of power. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena island where he died after 6 years. Meet Me in Vienna To create order and peace after Napoleon’s exile, France, Britain, Prussia, Russia and Austria all met to make agreements at the Congress of Vienna Klemens von Metternich of Austria led the meeting. Saw the chaos caused by the F. Rev. Blamed all of the problems of Revolution and Napoleon on liberal democracy. EXTREME conservative: Reactionary The Political Spectrum Radical - Seeks immediate change through any means necessary Liberal - Seeks change, but slowly and incrementally Moderate - Accepts some changes, but refuses others Conservative - Would like to maintain the status quo Reactionary - Would like to change things back to the way they used to be What were Metternich’s goals? 1. Prevent France from ever again being powerful by surrounding it with strong countries and stopping any rebellions through censorship/monitoring. 2. Create a Balance of Power so no country was more powerful than the other 3. A Congress to meet periodically. 4. Restore all the royal families that Napoleon destroyed to their thrones. Punishment, but Peace o Metternich wanted to Punish France, but not give it a reason for revenge. o Only Legitimate rulers were returned to power in countries Napoleon had given to his relatives. o All countries agreed to help each other in a time of conflict. The Lasting Legacy The French Revolution and Congress of Vienna had many long term effects. France was forever weakened Britain and Prussia became powerful. Feelings of Nationalism: Intense pride in ones country, became very popular throughout Europe. Democracy became a popular new idea in Europe. What Happened to Napoleon? At first, Napoleon was not allowed to “return again” to France. 1940, he was buried with a state funeral in France inside 6 coffins, surrounded by 12 pillars of victory. Napoleon remained an influence to world dictators. 1940, Adolph Hitler (a Napoleon fan) had his second sons body moved from Austria to be near his father.
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