The Napoleonic Era

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					The Napoleonic Era

Schoellhorn-World History
          Background on Bonaparte
   Born to wealthy family on
    Island of Corsica in 1769-
    Napoleon di Buonaparte
 Influenced by his strict
  mother.- Nicknamed “The
  disrupter”
 Father represented Corisca
  in Louis XVI’s court.
 Received a scholarship to
  French military academy at
  age 9.
                 A Military Master
   Age 14: Received a scholarship
    to French Military School Ecole
    Royal Militaire.
 Spoke with Italian accent, very
  much an outcast and loner.
 Completed 2 year course in 1
  year.
 Entered the military at 16
 Took side of the Jacobins
  during the Revolution.
           A Revolutionary General
 The Directory appointed
  Napoleon leader of the
  French Army against
  Austria and Sardinia in
  Italy.
 Napoleon’s power and
  popularity made him a
  threat to the Directory.
     He was sent to Egypt to
     disrupt British trade and to
     get him away from France.
        “Soldiers! From the heights of these
        pyramids, forty centuries look down
                      at you.”
   Napoleon wanted to free
    Egypt from Muslim ideas and
    British control, and learn
    more about the area.
       Brought Scientists to study the
        country.
       Found the Rosetta stone to
        decode heiroglyphics.
   The campaign to Egypt was
    a military failure, but no one
    in France knew it.
       Meanwhile, Back in France…
 While Napoleon was in Egypt,
  the Directory was losing
  power.
 1799: Napoleon and his
  brother, Lucien returned to
  France and led a Coup
  D’Etat: An overthrow of the
  State.
     Welcomed  as a hero, Napoleon
     dissolved the Directory and
     named 3 Consuls in control of
     France.
                 The Little Corporal
   People of France were
    desperate for a strong leader
    after the Revolution.
     Napoleon   defeated Austria,
      Britain and Russia bringing
      peace to France.
     Napoleon created a new
      constitution, giving him power
      but supporting the goals of the
      Rev.
     Declared himself, First Consul.
        Conquests of the Consulate
   As First Consul, Napoleon
    took near dictator
    powers.
       Ended elections in France,
        Consulate took power.
       Ended feudalism: Rewards were
        based on citizenship and merit,
        not birth.
       Enemies were eliminated,
        supporters rewarded.
       Royalists were forgiven as long
        as they supported him.
    Napoleon Knows my Name??
 Since he was Italian, Napoleon
  never felt badly about the loss
  of French soldiers.
 He did however win their
  allegiance by learning their
  names.
     He was a master of propaganda
     Used spies to gain information on
      subjects.
                   Fixing France
   Napoleon set out to fix the
    problems of France.
     Set up a national banking system
     Created government run schools,
      requiring government officials to
      be hired based on qualifications,
      not family.
     Separated Church and state by
      signing an agreement with Pope
      Pius VII.
     Created the Napoleonic Code:
      A uniform code of laws for all
      of France.
Peace With Prussia….and Britain,
       and Spain, and….
 Many countries had been united
  against the French Revolution.
 By 1802, Napoleon and his
  armies had brought peace to the
  empire.
     Passed  a decree that all Emigres
      could come back without
      punishment.
     Awarded the title of First Consul
      for life because of peace at home
      and abroad.
          Emerging As Emperor
 1804: Napoleon named
  himself Emperor of France.
 Crowned himself rather than
  allowing the Pope to do it in
  Notre Dame Cathedral.
 Began focusing on
  expanding his Empire to the
  New world AND the Old
  World.
                   Problems at Home
 Napoleon’s Wife
  Josephine, who he really
  loved could not give him
  a son.
 He divorced her and
  married Marie Louise,
  great niece of Marie
  Antoinette.
       He got his son, but
        continued to love
        Josephine the rest of his
        life.
              The Napoleonic Wars
   Napoleon began a
    series of wars to
    expand his empire
    against the alliance
    of Britain, Russia,
    Austria and Prussia.
     By  1805, Only Britain
      hadn’t been
      defeated.
     It was the “Carthage
      to his Rome”
            Thanks Napoleon!
 Since fighting Great
  Britain would be so
  expensive, especially
  against their great navy,
  Napoleon decided to sell
  some real estate.
 He sold the Louisiana
  territory to the United
  States in order to fund
  his war against Britain.
    The British Won’t Back Down
 The only major battle lost
  by Napoleon during the
  Empire creation was the
  Battle of Trafalgar.
 The British fleet led by
  Horatio Nelson defeated
  Napoleon.
     ForcedNapoleon to give up
     on invading Britain.
            Getting Back at Britain
 1806: To punish Britain,
  Napoleon created a
  Blockade against Britain.
 The Continental System:
  was created to cut off the
  European continent from
  British support, forcing them
  to buy French exports.
       His allies went against the
        blockade and Britain began an
        even better one against
        France.
          The New Nationalism
 Many European countries had
  begun to unite within
  themselves against France.
 They were also inspired by the
  pride the French had in
  themselves under Napoleon.
     Thesenew feelings of nationalism
     made countries of Europe fight
     against Napoleon’s bullying ways.
          Problems on the Peninsula:
               Peninsular War
   Portugal would not accept the
    blockade against Britain.
   Napoleon tried to invade Portugal by
    going through Spain.
   When Spain refused to allow this,
    Napoleon put his brother on the
    Spanish Throne.
   Britain sent troops to help the Spanish
    rebellion in the Peninsular War.
   France was greatly weakened by this.
       Getting Back at Britain

 After the loss at the Battle
  of Trafalgar, Napoleon tried
  to hurt Britain by ordering
  countries not to trade with
  them through the
  Continental System.
 Russian Tsar Alexander I
  refused to do this, so
  Napoleon decided to
  invade.
        The Russians Retreat

 June 1812: Napoleon invades
  Russia with 600,000 men.
 Rather than attack, Alexander
  leads his troops back into Russia,
  destroying farms and food as they
  go.
 Alexander burned Moscow in a
  scorched earth tactic rather than
  allow Napoleon to have it.
          The Woe of Winter

 November 1812: Napoleon’s troops
  are unprepared for the Russian
  winter and were forced to retreat.
 Without food or supplies only
  40,000 of Napoleon’s 600,000
  troops returned home from Russia.
 This loss greatly weakened
  Napoleon’s army and popularity.
     The Beginning of the End

 Seeing his weakness,
  Napoleon’s enemies
  (Britain, Prussia,
  Sweden, Russia and
  Austria) all turned on
  him.
 April 1814: Napoleon
  was forced to surrender
  was exiled to the island
  of Elba off of Italy.
        Making a New Monarchy

   After Napoleon’s defeat,
    France restored the
    monarchy, putting Louis
    XVI’s brother on the throne.
     Very unpopular and anti-
      revolution
   Meanwhile Napoleon
    planned an escape from
    Elba and March 1, 1815
    landed in France to an
    excited crowd.
         Napoleon’s Final Fall

 June 1815: At the Battle of
  Waterloo in Belgium, Napoleon led
  his troops against the British and
  Prussian army.
 Napoleon’s young army was
  defeated, ending his last Hundred
  Days of power.
 Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena
  island where he died after 6 years.
                  Meet Me in Vienna

 To create order and peace after
  Napoleon’s exile, France, Britain,
  Prussia, Russia and Austria all met to
  make agreements at the Congress
  of Vienna
 Klemens von Metternich of Austria
  led the meeting.
       Saw the chaos caused by the F. Rev.
       Blamed all of the problems of Revolution
        and Napoleon on liberal democracy.
       EXTREME conservative: Reactionary
          The Political Spectrum
   Radical - Seeks immediate change through any
    means necessary
    Liberal - Seeks change, but slowly and
    incrementally
    Moderate - Accepts some changes, but refuses
    others
    Conservative - Would like to maintain the
    status quo
    Reactionary - Would like to change things back
    to the way they used to be
    What were Metternich’s goals?
 1. Prevent France from ever again
  being powerful by surrounding it with
  strong countries and stopping any
  rebellions through
  censorship/monitoring.
 2. Create a Balance of Power so no
  country was more powerful than the
  other
 3. A Congress to meet periodically.
 4. Restore all the royal families that
  Napoleon destroyed to their thrones.
         Punishment, but Peace

o   Metternich wanted to Punish
    France, but not give it a reason
    for revenge.
o   Only Legitimate rulers were
    returned to power in countries
    Napoleon had given to his
    relatives.
o   All countries agreed to help
    each other in a time of conflict.
           The Lasting Legacy

   The French Revolution and Congress of
    Vienna had many long term effects.
     France  was forever weakened
     Britain and Prussia became powerful.
     Feelings of Nationalism: Intense pride in
      ones country, became very popular
      throughout Europe.
     Democracy became a popular new idea in
      Europe.
    What Happened to Napoleon?
 At first, Napoleon was not allowed to
  “return again” to France.
 1940, he was buried with a state funeral
  in France inside 6 coffins, surrounded by
  12 pillars of victory.
     Napoleon   remained an influence to world
      dictators.
     1940, Adolph Hitler (a Napoleon fan) had his
      second sons body moved from Austria to be
      near his father.

				
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