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					     Status of Implementation of the Bologna
     Reforms in the European Higher
     Education Area


Dr. Sebastian Fohrbeck
DAAD, Bonn

Amsterdam, 23 March 2007




                                               1
Changing Times 1989 - 1999




                             2
Europe 1989 - 2007


Europe 1989          Europe 2007




                                   3
The Bologna Anniversary on 19 June 1999




MAGNA CHARTA UNIVERSITATUM

                                          4
Bologna Minister‘s of Conference in Berlin 2003




                                                  5
Objectives of the Bologna Process – Bologna Declaration 1999

1999 Bologna
In 1999, Ministers of Education from 29 European countries signed the
Bologna Declaration which aims to create a coherent and cohesive
European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010. The main objectives
outlined in this statement were as follows:
• adopt a system of easily readable and comparable degrees
• adopt a system with two main cycles (undergraduate/graduate)
• establish a system of credits (such as ECTS)
• promote mobility by overcoming legal recognition and administrative
 obstacles
• promote European co-operation in quality assurance
• promote a European dimension in higher education
                                                                        6
Objectives of the Bologna Process – Bologna Declaration 1999


        Current Topics on the Bologna Agenda

        - Mobility

        - Degree System

        - Quality assurance

        - Attractiveness of Higher Education Area




                                                               7
Driving forces of Bologna


Internal agenda:
    • Internal higher education market (integration)
    • System innovation and preparation for
      a European labour market
External agenda:
    • global higher education market
    • Europe’s higher education no longer unchallenged
    • «degree jungle»
Aims: Enhance mobility, employability and
   attractiveness
Some things to keep in mind


 Consecutive principle: Bachelor, Master
 and Doctorate build upon each other
 Continuity: students are encouraged to do a
Master after their Bachelor in most countries
 Specialised from the start: the Bachelor
does not have any “general education elements”
The Bologna Process
Paris 1998 - Bologna 1999 - Prague 2001- Berlin 2003 - Bergen 2005
45 Signatory States (*since 2005)
Albania                Latvia
Andorra                Liechtenstein
*Armenia               Lithuania
*Azerbaijan            Luxembourg
Austria                Malta
Belgium                FYR of Macedonia
Bosnia - Herzegovina   *Moldova
Bulgaria               Netherlands
Croatia                Norway
Cyprus                 Poland
Czech Republic         Portugal
Denmark                Romania
Estonia                Russia
Finland                Serbia and Montenegro
France                 Slovak Republic
*Georgia               Slovenia
Germany                Spain
Greece                 Sweden
Holy See               Switzerland
Hungary                Turkey
Iceland                *Ukraine
Ireland                United Kingdom
Italy                                                            10
                                                                  6
The Bologna Conference Engine

                                          1999
                                          2001
                       When?              2003
                                          2005
      ?                                   2007
                                          2009
                                           ?


              What?             Where?

                                          (Paris)
                                         Bologna
  29 States                                Prag
  33 States                               Berlin
  40 States
  45 States
                        Who?             Bergen
                                         London
      ?                                     ?

                                                    11
The Bologna Conference Structure

                                     Bologna Secretary
             Chair   Host Country
                     EU Commission
                                              EUA
                     EU Presidency
                                            ERASHE

               Bologna Follow                 ESIB
               up Group                   Council of Europe


                                                ?




                                                              12
Role and Policy of EU in the Bologna Context

      European Union                       Bologna
    Lisbon Declaration 2000        Bologna Declaration 1999
 "Europe as the most competitive       Mobility and Quality
  and dynamic knowledge-based
      economy in the world"


                                              
     European Research                  European Higher
           Area                          Education Area



                                                              13
 Role and Policy of EU in the Bologna Context




      Mobility           Quality               Attractivess



  ERASMUS Programme        Recognition         ERASMUS Mundus
                           of Degrees
(Third Country
                                                 EUROPEAN
Programmes)                   ECTS
                                                 MARKETING
                      European Qualification      Promotion
                           Framework
                                                                14
ERASMUS Mobility in Europe
   Erasmus                   LLP-objectives 2013

                             - 3 mio. students

                             - higher grants
                               (200 Eur/months)

                             - full academic recognition

                             - no tuition fees




        € 15    € 877
        Mio.    Mio.

                                                           15
The Europe of ERASMUS: 144.000 Mobile Students in 2004/2005


  outgoings      22.427
  incomings      17.272

  outgoings      20.819
  incomings      25.511

  outgoings      21.561
  incomings      20.519

  outgoings      16.440
  incomings      13.370

  outgoings      8.390
  incomings      2.332

  outgoings      7.214
  incomings      16.264
                          EU ERASMUS countries

                          Other ERASMUS countries: Bulgaria, Island,
                          Liechtenstein, Norwey, Romania and Turkey

                                                                       16
Quality Assurance in Europe

ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education)
• European Guidelines for Standards for internal and external quality assurance of
higher education and quality assurance agencies
•Establishment of a European register of quality assurance agencies
European Commission
• European Qualification Framework (EQF): a set of eight qualification levels from
compulsory education to the highest academic level (for example: tertiary level 5
to 8); describing what a learner knows, understands and is able to do (Knowledge,
Skills and Competences); shifting the focus from learning input to learning
outcomes
National Level
• national quality assurance agencies / accreditation
•Quality Assurance in Higher Education institutions

                                                                                 17
Implementation of BA/MA Degree Structure in Europe 2005


a) Implementation formally completed:    Predominant Models of Bachelor and
    Italy, the Netherlands, Norway,      Master Programmes in Europe
    Switzerland and the United Kingdom   United Kingdom:   3+1 years
                                         Netherlands:      3+1 years
b) Implementation in progress:           Germany:          3+2 years
  Austria, Germany and Poland            France:           3+2 years
                                         Spain:            4+2 years


c) Implementation at the beginning:
  France, Hungary and Spain



 Source: DAAD Study 2006



                                                                          18
Bologna Reforms in Germany: Degree Structure

             Before Bologna                             After Bologna

  Fachhochschulen            Universities           Fachhochschulen      Universities
    (Universities of                                  (Universities of
   Applied Science)                                  Applied Science)


                                  PHD                                           22
                                  3 to 4                                      PHD
                                  years                                   3 to 4 11
                                                                                 years
              Assessment
                       Magister/ Dipl./ Staatsex.          5 MA                5 MA
    FH-Diplom                       5                                          4
         4                          4                            4
         3                          3                       3 BA              3 BA
         2                          2                         2                 2
         1                          1                         1                 1
                                                                                         19
Implementation of Bologna Reforms in Germany 2006:
BA/MA Structure

2.300 Bachelor courses                         1.800 Master courses
      3.5 year                       4 year
      Bachelor                      Bachelor
       22,6%                          3,7%         1year Master          .5
                                                                        1 year Master
                                                      8,9%                  22,7%




           3 year                                       2 year Master
          Bachelor                                          63,4%
           73,7%




                               4.094 BA/MA Programs in Germany
                                      = 36% of all courses

Source: DAAD Survey May 2006

                                                                                        20
Implementation of Bologna Reforms in Germany 2006:
BA/MA Structure
 BA and MA study programmes in Winter 06:
  5.188 (3.075 BA, 2.113 MA)
  = of all study programmes                          45 %
   of courses at universities:                       39%
   of courses at FH:                                 70%
   of courses at Colleges of Art/Music:              11%

 percentage of graduates (2005): 8.4%
 students enrolled in BA/MA programmes: 12.5 %
 new entrants opting for a BA or MA: 30 %


                                                            21
Implementation of Bologna Reforms in Germany 2006:
Accreditation


    Primary responsibility for quality assurance in Higher Education
     institutions

    Accreditation as a new instrument of quality assurance


    Accreditation to ensure national and international recognition of
     degrees


                  1.781 German BA/MA programs
                       accredited (=43,5%)


                                                                         22
Bologna Reforms in Germany - The System of Accreditation

                            KM K
                       Kultusminister-                          HRK
    Länder/              konferenz
 German states                                           Rectors‘ Conference            HEI


Accreditation
                                        Council
                                                                        The Council accredits
                                  AKKREDITIERUNGSRAT                    the different agencies.
-all new BA/MA have to be
                                             4 repr. of HEIs            The Agencies accredit
 accredited
                                4 repr. of the „Länder/German states“   courses
- costs 10.-20.000 US Dollars       4 repr. of employment market        (not institutions so far).
- to be renewed after 5 years                  2 students
                                      2 international consultants


                                                                                      further
                                                                    further
     AQAS             ASIIN         AHPGS          ACQUIN          Agencies
                                                                                     regional
                                                                                     Agencies
                                 Higher Educational Institutions
                                                 (HEI)
                                                                                                     23
 Bologna Reforms in Italy

• In 2006-07, 98,5% of students below doctoral level are attending Bologna-
modelled programmes; 100% at doctoral level are attending structured
programmes

• 1st cycle: Laurea, 180 Credits over 3 years, all courses contain a period of
practical training

• 2nd cycle: Laurea Specialistica/Magistrale, 120 credits in 2 years

• 3rd cycle: Dottarato di Ricerca, minimum 3 years, universities autonomously
decide wether to structure individual DR programmes in credits or not

• No direct access from Bachelor to PhD level

• 2004: 54% of all graduates of the Bachelor (Laurea) continue their studies

• 92% of doctoral candidates go into research (52% within universities, 42%
outside universities). Only 6% get engaged in other careers.
                                                                                 24
 Bologna Reforms in Spain



•The new Bachelor degrees („Grado“) have 240 credits in 4 years; they are to be
implemented in the academic year 2008-09. Thesis optional.

• During 2006-07 only 1.000 of the new Master courses are under construction. A
Master may have 60 to 120 credits (one to two years). Mandatory thesis.

• There is a possibility for immediate access to doctoral studies after the Bachelor
(admission to the doctorate training period).

• Doctoral studies have a length of 3 to 4 years and consist of a training period
(60 credits) and a research period. A Masters degree can be part of the training
involved in obtaining a doctorate.




                                                                                    25
Bologna Reforms in France

• Most HE institutions are now working under the new LMD system:

• Licence (180 credits, 3 years)

• Master (120 credits, 2 years)

• No direct access from the Bachelor level to PhD level

• 54% continue after the Licence

•Doctoral programmes last 3 years after the Master. No ECTS credits whatsoever
in doctoral schools (different from Spain).

•The 3rd cycle is clearly disconnected from the Master and corresponds to the
PhD alone (different from Spain)

• 66% of PhD holders continue in research (47% in the public sector, 19% in the
private sector) (different from Germany)
                                                                                  26
Everybody is looking for good Students




                                         27
  Bologna – A threat to student mobility?

The Bologna Process has an official „text“ (creating a
European Higher Education Area, enhancing mobility of
students)
But there is also a hidden „subtext“ (if you want to put 50% of
an age group through Higher Education, you need shorter,
more structured versions of study than the traditional
continental model)
The Bologna Process is NOT a threat to student mobility if we
find the right forms of mobility
These forms include credit transfer, curricula with study
periods abroad and highly integrated courses with double or
joint degrees.

                                                                   28
    Bologna-Process in Germany: Facilitating Mobility

 BA/MA programmes offering at least partly courses in a
  foreign language: 66%

 BA/MA programmes taught pre-dominantly in a foreign
  language: 17% (especially MA)

 BA/MA programmes with study abroad period: 20%

 many of the new programmes with internationally orientated
  curricula (European Law, Development Cooperation)



                                                               29
Impact of Bologna on Transatlantic Mobility




      Shorter study periods abroad (1 semester or less) ?

      Increase of vertical mobility (BA at home – MA abroad) ?

      Increase of „bridge mobility“ (between BA and MA) ?

      More organized mobility and less free-mover mobility ?




                                                                 30
International students in Germany 1975-2005:



                     250
Number in Thousand




                     200
                     150

                     100
                     50
                      0
                           1975
                                  1976
                                         1977
                                                1978
                                                       1979
                                                              1980
                                                                     1981
                                                                            1982
                                                                                   1983
                                                                                          1984
                                                                                                 1985
                                                                                                        1986
                                                                                                               1987
                                                                                                                      1988
                                                                                                                             1989
                                                                                                                                    1990
                                                                                                                                           1991
                                                                                                                                                  1992
                                                                                                                                                         1993
                                                                                                                                                                1994
                                                                                                                                                                       1995
                                                                                                                                                                              1996
                                                                                                                                                                                     1997
                                                                                                                                                                                            1998
                                                                                                                                                                                                   1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2004
                                                                            Foreign Students
                                                                            Foreign students with High School leaving certificates from abroad
                                                                            Foreign students with a German High School leaving certificate



                                                                                                                                                           Wissenschaft Weltoffen 2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             31
 How to keep abreast of Bologna Changes

• Country   reports on the Bologna website

• Websites of universities, do in general have the curricula of
all major programmes (will be mostly in the national
language, though)

• Trends V Report on the Bologna website

• Results of the London Conference on the Bologna website




                                                              32
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