ALCOHOL Incidence of Alcohol Use • In the 2000 U.S. Census showed that 42% of youths aged 12 to 17 and 84% aged 18 to 25 have had a drink. • In 2000, about 30 percent of high school seniors and 15 percent of eight-graders reported at least one episode of in the previous two weeks. • Alcohol is a major factor in crime. • After the Vietnam War, many states lowered the drinking age to 18. Why Teens Drink • Physical changes associated with puberty increase a person’s tolerance to alcohol • Teens want to look more mature and less like children • Cognitive views emerge which allows teens to think in more relative than absolute terms • Cognitive conceit makes teens likely to question authority figures • The personal fable makes teens feel invulnerable • Heightened inferential skills make teens aware of adult hypocrisy • The process of finding their identity involves teens trying new experiences • Adolescents have more freedom and independence than children • Adolescents spend more time with their peers than they do with their families. • Teenagers commonly believe that the drinking rate amongst their age group is higher than it really is • Adolescents are interested in romance and sex • Drinking is perceived as a way to relax. Research shows… • Parents attitudes and beliefs about alcohol affect adolescents’ drinking both at home and socially. • A study of families determined to be at high risk for alcoholism found that alcohol expectancies of early adolescents were closer to their parents than those from low risk families who displayed significant negative correlations. Family Influence • Family plays a significant role. • Parents who drink are more likely to have adolescents who drink. • Parents who don’t drink or disapprove are more likely to have adolescents who don’t drink. • STAT: 1/3 of any sample of alcoholics at least have one parent who was an alcoholic. Peer Influence • Peer pressure is another cause of adolescent drinking. • Why? Peer identification, sociability, friendship. • Alcohol consumption tends to be an often response to loneliness and anxiety. • Another major reason: rebellion. • Alienate themselves from their family and community. More Reasons… • 12-14 year olds believe that positive benefits are more likely to occur than negative effects. • One study of 16-19 year olds, the heavy drinkers drank so much because they wished to be intoxicated, or they were motivated to improve their mood. Consequences • Underage drinking substantially increases the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder in adulthood • Adolescents are more susceptible to negative cognitive effects of alcohol than adults • Research shows that drinking is associated with risk- taking and sensation-seeking behavior, which can lead to multiple consequences. • Adolescents who use alcohol are more likely to become sexually active at an earlier age, to have sex more often, and to engage in un protected sex, which places them at a higher risk of HIV infection and other STDs. • Alcohol exposure during adolescence is linked with a reduced ability to learn compared with those not exposed until adulthood. Consequences Cont’d • People who begin to drink before 15 are 4 times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than those who wait until 21. • In 1997, 21% of young drivers ages 15-20 who were killed in car crashes were intoxicated. • Approximately 240,000-360,000 of the nation’s 12 million current undergraduates will ultimately die from alcohol related causes. • According to the SAMHSA, 2.6 million young people do NOT know that a person can die from an overdose of alcohol. • 95% of violent crimes on college campuses are alcohol related and 90% of college rapes involve alcohol use by either the victim and/or assailant. Neurological Consequences • Impaired vision and motor coordination • Memory defects • Hallucinations • Blackouts • Seizures • Permanent brain damage Respiratory Consequences • Respiratory depression or failure • Pneumonia • Tuberculosis • Lung abscesses • Increased risk for mouth or throat cancers Cardiological Consequences • Elevated blood pressure and heart rate • Stroke • Heart failure Liver Consequences • Alcoholic fatty liver • Hepatitis • Cirrhosis Consequences • Most cell loss occurs the cortex of the frontal lobe, the part of the brain involved in higher order thinking, such as planning and impulse control. • Alcohol affects the hippocampus (a part of the brain involved in learning, memory and motivation) and the cerebellum (a part that controls balance and coordination and learning) Short Term vs Long Term • Blackouts • Impaired intellectual development • Hangovers and academic performance • Cognitive dysfunction • Alcohol dependence • Impaired vision • Cirrhosis of liver • Impaired motor coordination • Hemorrhagic stroke • Sleep disturbance • Certain cancers: kidneys, mouth, • Suicide attempts throat • Risky sexual behavior • Major depression • Risk for HIV infection/STDs • Memory defects • Seizures • Permanent brain damage • Apathy • Elevated blood pressure and heart rate • Introversion/antisocial behavior • Risk of stroke • Inability to concentrate • Heart failure • MIP/DWI/DUI • Damage to GI tract • Malnutrition • Suppressed immune function Drinking in Young Adulthood • Many young adults binge drink while in college. • Out of 762 ethnically diverse college undergraduates, 25% engaged in binge drinking. – Compared to non-bingers and abstainers, bingers had higher rates of drinking related problems. UK Study of Undergraduates • Heavy drinkers (50 units or more a week for men, 35 or more for women) scored higher than light drinkers (8-20 a week for men, 5- 14 for women) on measures of: – Tension reduction – Sexual enhancement – Dependency drinking issues UK Study of Undergraduates • Heavy drinkers saw more benefits in drinking while light drinkers saw more drawbacks. • Top 3 Benefits found: – Self-confidence – Fun/humor – Social Life UK Study of Undergraduates • Top 3 Drawbacks – Physical wellbeing – Finances – University Work • Heavy drinkers main concern was financial. • Light drinkers main concern was physical well being. First-Year Study • Study of 265 first-year students: – Perceived parent’s approval of drinking habits – 69% experienced at least 1 drinking problem • Headache/hangover • Regretted sexual situations • Arrested for drunk driving • Over 1/3rd perceived their parents would approve of them drinking occasionally. After College • After graduation, consumption of alcohol greatly decreases • Reasons: – Getting married – Entering workforce – Increased responsibility – Less time socializing References • "Alcohol Use Among Adolescents." Alcohol Health and Research World 22.2 (1998): 85-94. • "Basic Facts About Drugs: Alcohol American Council for Drug Education." (1999). <www.acde.org/common/alcohol.htm>. • Boyle Phd Ms, Jennifer R., and Bradley O. Boekeloo Phd Ms. "Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking and Its Impact on Problem Drinking Behaviors Among First-Year College Students." Journal of American College Health 54. • Rice, F. Phillip, and Kim G. Dolgin. The Adolescent: Development, Relationships, and Culture. 11th ed. Boston: Allyn and Baker, 2005. 451-456. • “SAMHSA Consequences of Underage Alcohol Use." SAMHSA. <www.health.org/govpubs/rbo992>. • Sieving, Renee E., Geoffrey Maruyama, Carolyn L. Williams, and Cheryl L. Perry. "Pathways to Adolescent Alcohol Use: Potential Mechanisms of Parent Influences." Journal of Research on Adolecence 10.4 (2000): 489-514. • Stillwell, Paul. "Personal and Social Correlates of Alcohol Consumption Among Mid- Adolescents." British Journal of Developmental Psychology 23 (2005): 427. • Zeigler, D.W., C.C. Wang, and R.A. Yoast. "The Neurocognitive Effects of Alcohol on Adolescent and College Students." Prev Med 40.1 (2005): 23-32.
Pages to are hidden for
"ALCOHOL"Please download to view full document