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Antarctic tourism_Shaun_Russell.ppt - Wikispaces

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					THE IMPACT OF TOURISM IN ANTARCTICA




 This presentation is based on the work by Dr Shaun Russell, Director, Wales
 Environment Research Hub, Bangor, UK.
           What are Antarctica’s
            tourist attractions?
SIGHTS: Dramatic icebergs and glaciers; wildlife such
as whales, seals, penguins; the midnight sun; the
southern lights
OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES: Wildlife watching; cruising /
flying

CULTURAL ACTIVITIES: Visiting scientific research
stations; visiting Scott’s hut
OVERALL ANTARCTIC ENVIRONMENT: Clear air;
dramatic; space; challenging; long hours of daylight in
summer; snow capped mountains; not anything like it is
at home! Last wilderness
    Clip: Tourism up in Antarctica

   Considered a remote location for so long, Antarctica is
    becoming more accessible to outsiders and as a result,
    tourists are arriving in record numbers. But in the
    continent's pristine environment even the smallest changes
    are magnified despite the best efforts of tour operators to
    prevent this. As Janice McDonald reports for VOA News in
    this third and final report on Antarctica, the human impact
    is making its mark.
   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ih949
    hVs78&
  Tourism to Antarctica is increasing rapidly
       (by 14% last year compared to the 6%
          annual growth in global tourism)




IAATO estimates that more than 40,000 tourists will
      visit Antarctica in the 2007-8 season.
  (IAATO - International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators)
    Antarctic
    tourism:

   Cruise ships (landing and non-landing)
   Fly-cruise and over-flights
   Small commercial and private vessels
   Adventure tourism (climbing, skiing
    kayaking, diving etc)




Patriot Hills Camp (picture courtesy IAATO)
Some individual sites in Antarctica are
receiving large numbers of tourists …



                    e.g.
                    16,000 visitors to
                    the historic site of
                    Port Lockroy in the
                    Antarctic Peninsula
                    last year.
      Human Impacts in Antarctica
   Ozone layer thinning
   Greenhouse warming
   Ice-melt
   Ocean circulation changes
   Disruptions to biological/ecological cycles
        Potential Human Impacts
              in Antarctica
   Introductions of non-native species
   Disturbance to animal and plant populations
   Transmission of diseases
        Potential Human Impacts
              in Antarctica
   Removal of “souvenirs”

   Disruption of
    research activities

   Aesthetic impacts
        Potential Human Impacts
              in Antarctica
   Pollution
   Maritime
    accidents
                              MS Nordkapp grounding 2007




                                         Photos courtesy Dr John Shears, British Antarctic Survey




                Bahia Paraiso fuel spill 1989
            Carbon Footprint
The growing popularity of Antarctic tourism +
less sea-ice is likely to stimulate more voyages
to Antarctica by more ships. This would
contribute to an increase in the “Carbon
footprint” of Antarctic tourism.
Antarctic
tourists may
already have a
higher carbon
footprint than
most other
tourists
#1: Long-haul
  flights to
  reach ports of
  departure in
  the southern
  hemisphere.
Antarctic tourists may already have a higher
carbon footprint than most other tourists

                            #2: Long-
                              distance
                              cruise legs.
                              (It can take
                              up to 10 days
                              at sea to get
                              there from
                              Hobart)
Antarctic tourists may already have a
higher carbon footprint than
most other tourists

#3: Extensive use of
 small power boats for
 landing operations
Antarctic tourists may
already have a
higher carbon
footprint than
most other tourists

#4: Maintenance of
 high-energy
 “luxury” on-board
 environments to
 ensure client
 comfort in polar
 conditions.
        Antarctic tourists generally:
   Value wilderness environments
   Appreciate wildlife
   Are environmentally concerned
   Seek to gain further knowledge and
    understanding of the environment
   Pass on this knowledge to others
   Are good “advocates” for Antarctic conservation
So, shouldn’t the Antarctic tourism industry
be leading the way and doing more to
develop “green” operating standards?
Challenge:
  Not all Antarctic tourism enterprises are
  members of IAATO or stick to the protocols and
  codes of conduct observed by the majority of
  responsible operators.
Summary:
   Antarctica is often cited as the last
    “pristine” and “untouched” wilderness on Earth
   Tourism to Antarctica is increasing rapidly (by 14%
    last year compared to 6% annual growth in global tourism)

   There is an increased potential for maritime
    accidents and damage to habitats
   The “Carbon footprint” of Antarctic tourists may be
    higher than that for other tourists (research needed)
   The industry could be doing more to improve its
    “green credentials”.
            Assessment task 2
   AIM: To demonstrate knowledge and
    understanding of the idea of ecotourism.
   TASK: An in-class writing task which will be
    completed over two periods (1 x 75, 1 x 50)
   You are to construct a response (hand written) of
    approximately 500-1000 words, to the statement
    below.
   Analyse the following statement: “The tourism
    industry in Antarctica is running the risk of
    destroying its main attraction – the
    natural environment. Discuss”
   Ensure you follow the conventions of essay
    writing, that is, an introduction, paragraphs
    addressing one main point, and a conclusion that
    effectively closes your essay.

				
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posted:12/12/2011
language:English
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