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					Information
Technology Ethical
Challenges




          Sherri Shade
Ethics
   eth•ic
    Pronunciation: (eth'ik), [key]
    —n.
    1. the body of moral principles or values
    governing or distinctive of a particular culture or
    group: the Christian ethic; the tribal ethic of the
    Zuni.
    2. a complex of moral precepts held or rules of
    conduct followed by an individual: a personal
    ethic.

   Webster’s Dictionary
IT and Ethics
   Who is responsible?
   Who is affected?
   Should IT Professionals be in the ethics
    business?
       Training
       Refer ethical issues to HR
   Development
   Implementation
   Application
Ethical Behaviors?
    Is your 80 gigabyte hard drive full?
      • Music and videos
    That sure is a great music where did you get it?
      • Downloading of music from the web
    Have you given a friend a copy of your Microsoft Project
     software?
      • Software Piracy
    Did you read the confidential company file that was
     accidentally attached to your email?
      • Computer abuse
    Did you gain access to the network and invade other workers
     emails and files?
      • Computer abuse
    You formatted your hard drive prior to leaving your company
     because you were angry about leaving.
      • Destruction of property
    Information Technology Ethics

   Deal with proper use of technology devices, data, services, and
    software.
   Prior to Technology it may have been easier to know whether the
    activity was right or wrong
   Virtual World
        Judging behaviors is no longer straight forward
        Ethical or Unethical?
          • A student downloads a sexually explicit picture from the Internet on a
            computer in the school library. Other students are able to see the picture
          • A student finds the teacher’s password to the school’s information system
            and uses it to change his grades and vi the grades of other students.
          • A student uses the copy and paste commands to place large parts of an
            electronic article into an assigned paper. She turns the paper in as her own
            work
          • A student makes a copy of a software program borrowed from another
            student to use on his computer at home.
          • A student downloads a graphic file from the web to place on his own
            webpage. However, he does provide a link to the author’s site.
          • A student uses another student’s project website as a guideline.
          • A student copies a previous published story in his own handwriting and
            submits it as his own work.
Information Technology Ethics
   New ethical considerations may be required with technology
    capabilities
       Email spamming
         • Does the fact that the financial burden of unsolicited ads etc. now falls on
           the recipient not the sender create new rules?
       Digital photography
         • What obligations does a anyone have to present an undoctored photo,
           even if the message is not as good as the digitally enhanced photo?
       Pornography access
         • What security measures need to be put in place by schools, parents,
           companies and libraries to keep individuals from seeing inappropriate
           materials?
       Intellectual property
         • Do we need better/clearer definitions of property?
       Globalization of the organization
         • What do we need to better understand cultures, language, and behaviors?
Information Technology Ethics
   Some users view their computing actions as less
    serious than their actions in the ―real world‖
       Examples:
         • Stealing software from a store – no way! ….
            • However, SW piracy costs businesses billions of dollars per
              year
         • Most of us would not pick a lock to someone’s house
            • However, guessing passwords to gain access to a website,
              information, or programs is a common
         • Sometimes the technology is not well
           understood…romance and fear may accompany a new
           technologies.
            • Movies, books, TV capitalize on this fear and romance and
              make unethical or illegal actions seem heroic, or necessary
The Ten Commandments of
Computer Ethics
   Computer Ethics Institute
Challenges:
Code of Ethics
   No Form of licensing for computer professionals
       Results in no real way to enforce ethical standards
        within the computing field
       There is movement within the industry to create a
        licensing process but there are many issues to be
        resolved
         • What will be included on the exam?
         • How often will an IT professional be required to renew
           the license?
   Developed by several organizations
       Adoption
       Implementation
       Monitoring
       Example: http://www.acm.org/constitution/code.html
Challenges: Web Design
   Implementation of features
       Pop ups
       Blocking/filters
       Aliases and redirecting
       Cookies
       Privacy policies
       Security policies
       Spyware

   Use of other design features
       Javascript
       Graphics - pictures, buttons, logos, icons
       Content
       Design layout
       Accountability/responsibility
       Outdated material, inaccurate material
Challenges: Commerce
   Fraud
   Taxation
   Free Trade
   Gambling
   Auctions
   Spamming
       Who were Canter and Siegel?
       Spamming cell phones?
   Term papers for sale
       Atlanta Journal Constitution aritcle
Challenges: Workplace
   Accessibility
   Ergonomics
   Outsourcing
   Telecommuting
   Customer relationships – Vendor relationships
   Should IT professionals be in the ethics business
    or should other areas of the business handle
    these issues?
   Monitoring
       Should your employer have the right to monitor private
        email messages?
       What are the two most popular Web sites for American
        workers? Playboy and ESPN
Challenges:Workplace
   62% of employers monitor employees' eMail and Internet use.
   68% cite legal liability as the primary reason to monitor.
   87% of companies that monitor have a written eMail Policy,
   83.1% an Internet Policy,
   68% a Software Policy.
   51% of employers have disciplined or terminated employees for violating
    ePolicy.
   35% of organizations have eMail retention & deletion policies in place.
   10% of companies have been ordered by courts to turn over employee
    eMail related to workplace lawsuits.
   8.3% of organizations have battled sexual harassment and/or sexual
    discrimination claims stemming from employee e-mail and/or Internet use.
Source: The 2001 Electronic Policies & Practices Survey from The American
   Management Association, US News & World Report, and The ePolicy Institute-Click
   Here for Survey Results.
Music Downloads
   Risk of getting caught
       Studies have shown that a majority of the people who share music on
        the Internet are aware that their actions are illegal, said Michael
        McGuire, a analyst with the Gartner Group. ``But they also know
        that the chances of getting caught are pretty remote''
       Why is ―getting caught remote‖?
         • There are an estimated 60 million peer-to-peer network
           subscribers in the United States alone, with tens of
           millions more in other countries
       The RIAA is seeking out people who make their music
        files available for others to download.
         • The networks have features that allow users to block
           others from downloading their files but allow them to
           continue to download files
Challenges:
Speech
   Net Etiquette
   Email privacy
        Email privacy policy
        ―Flaming‖ – insulting, argumentative or chastising replies to messages
   Free Speech
        Accountability and responsibility for web content
           •   Abortion sites
           •   Outdated information
           •   Accurate information
           •   Privacy and security policies
        Porn
           • Professors pc – filled with porn, found by pc maintenance workers
           • Visa – won’t give permission to be used on offensive or pornographic sites
        Hate
           •   MACHADO CASE
        Internet Filters
           • Should filters be in schools or libraries, and /or should they be mandated by law?
           • Filters can also be set up to filter out other subjects, would this be an ethical violation?
   Chain Letters
Challenges:
Computing Resource Abuse
   Computers in the Workplace and the Classroom
       Use or Abuse
       Internet Access
       Instant Messenger
       Laptop use in the classroom
       Email
         • Legal document
         • Can be modified
         • Flaming
       Access
       Computer Usage policy
       Email policy
Challenges: Computing
Resource Abuse
 Computer   Crime
  Viruses
  Hackers

  Theft

  “These cyber swindles and dot-cons
   present new challenges to law
   enforcement” said John Ashcroft
  US Charges 135 With Net Crimes
Challenges:
Privacy
   Privacy issues are at the top of the list in regards
    to ethical use of information.
       •   Loss of control
       •   Misuse of information
       •   Risk to physical privacy
       •   Risk of identity theft (video)
       •   Unwanted intrusions into daily life
   USA Patriot Act (post 9/11)
       • Efforts to detect and deter terrorist activity
       • Datamining corporate data
       • Loss of business and risk of lawsuits due customers being
         outraged at their loss of data privacy
   Cookies
   Privacy policies
Challenges:
Intellectual Property
   Electronic Copyright
   Licensing
   Interoperability
   Licensing
       Cyberlicenses
       Shrinkwrap
       Shareware
       Freeware
   MP3
       RIAA court case against college students
       University Internet Usage policies
   Internet Downloads
       Files
       Graphics
       Text
Challenges:
Intellectual Property
   Patent, trade secrets, and copyright law
       Who owns the program
       Who owns the algorithm
   Software Piracy
       Why shouldn't I use pirated software? Who am I hurting
        by doing so?
       Piracy exists in everywhere.
       Loss of revenue hurts everyone.
       All software piracy is illegal and Software piracy is
        unethical.
       Various studies have found that the software industry
        loses approximately $12 billion every year .
       State Industry Study
   CD-RW
Challenges: Other
 Decision making using Expert
  Systems
 Network Security
 Software accuracy and reliability
  who is ethically responsible?
       Therac-25 Accidents
       Killer Robots
       The Hughes Whistleblowing Case
Conclusion: Some Ideas to Ponder

   Computer ethics today is now a global effort
       The gap among the rich and poor nations, rich and poor citizens
        exists. How can it be eliminated or reduced eithically and morally to
        provide information and services that will move them to into the
        world of cyberspace?
       Will the poor be cut off from job opportunities, education,
        entertainment, medical care, shopping, voting - because they cannot
        afford a connection to the global information network?
       Whose laws will apply in cyberspace when hundreds of countries are
        incorporated into the global network?
   What happened? Where did our knowing right from wrong go
    too?
       Are we missing an opportunity to introduce ethics at an early age in
        children by not integrating these thoughts and practices in video
        games?
       Should more controls and regulations be introduced into the system?
        Will they actually help to improve our moral and ethical behavior?
   Unethical behavior continues to permeate industry, what
    measures, policies, codes of conduct be changed to change this
    behavior?
Works Cited:
   http://www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/its/cei/overvi
    ew/Ten_Commanments_of_Computer_Ethics.ht
    m
   http://www.computingcases.org/case_materials/
    case_materials.html
   http://www.epolicyinstitute.com/
   http://legacy.eos.ncsu.edu/eos/info/computer_e
    thics/
   http://www.spa.org/piracy/
   http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/cases.html
   http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~kschwaig/present
    .ppt
Etika komputer & Etika Pemanfaatan
Teknologi Informasi


Etika Komputer adalah analisa tentang sifat dan
dampak sosial teknologi komputer, serta
formulasi dan pengesahan kebijakan untuk
menggunakan teknologi komputer secara benar.

Etika Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dapat
diartikan sebagai suatu analisa tentang dampak
sosial yang ditimbulkan dalam pemanfaatan
teknologi informasi, baik itu dampak negatif
maupun dampak positif


                                                  24
alasan utama minat masyarakat yang
tinggi terhadap etika komputer


1. Logical Malleability (Kelenturan Logika), Merupakan
   kemampuan memprogram komputer untuk melakukan
   apa pun yang kita inginkan.
2. Transformation Factors (Faktor Transformasi),
   Contohnya fasilitas e-mail yang bisa sampai tujuan dan
   dapat dibuka atau dibaca dimanapun kita berada.
3. Invisibility Factors (Faktor Tak Kasat Mata ),
   Berhubungan dengan segala operasi internal komputer
   yang tak kelihatan sehingga membuka peluang pada
   penyalahgunaan yang tidak tampak.




                                                            25
Hak-Hak User Dalam Etika Pemanfaatan
Teknologi Informasi

1. Hak Sosial dan Komputer


 a) Hak atas akses komputer : Setiap orang berhak untuk
    mengoperasikan komputer dengan tidak harus memilikinya.
 b) Hak atas keahlian komputer : Dengan keahlian di bidang
    komputer dapat membuka peluang pekerjaan yang lebih
    banyak.
 c) Hak atas spesialis komputer : Untuk bidang tertentu
    diperlukan spesialis bidang komputer, karena tidak semua
    pemakai komputer menguasai.
 d) Hak atas pengambilan keputusan komputer : Meskipun
    masyarakat tidak berpartisipasi dalam pengambilan keputusan
    mengenai bagaimana komputer diterapkan, namun
    masyarakat memiliki hak tersebut.


                                                                  26
Hak-Hak User Dalam Etika Pemanfaatan
Teknologi Informasi

2. Hak atas Informasi


  a) Hak atas Privasi : Sebuah informasi yang sifatnya pribadi
     baik secara individu maupu dalam suatu organisasi
     mendapatkan perlindungan atas hukum tentang
     kerahasiannya.
  b) Hak atas Akurasi : Komputer dipercaya dapat mencapai
     tingkat akurasi yang tidak bisa dicapai oleh sistem
     nonkomputer.
  c) Hak atas Kepemilikan : Umumnya dalam bentuk program-
     program komputer yang dengan mudahnya dilakukan
     penggandaan atau disalin secara ilegal.
  d) Hak atas Akses : Informasi memiliki nilai, jadi setiap kali kita
     akan mengaksesnya harus melakukan account atau izin pada
     pihak yang memiliki informasi tersebut.

                                                                        27
Implikasi Etis Dari Pemanfaatan
Teknologi Informasi


      Implikasi etis terhadap pemanfaatan teknologi
      informasi meliputi :
 1.    Moral  Sama dengan tradisi kepercayaan
       mengenai perilaku benar atau salah.
 2.    Etika  Sama dengan satu set kepercayaan,
       standar/pemikiran yang mengisi suatu individu,
       kelompok, masyarakat.
 3.    Hukum  Sama dengan peraturan perilaku formal
       yang dipaksakan oleh otoritas berdaulat seperti
       pemerintah kepada rakyat atau warga negaranya.




                                                         28
Penerapan budaya etika

1.   Corporate credo: Merupakan pernyataan
     ringkas mengenai nilai-nilai yang ditegakkan
     perusahaan.
2.   Program etika: Merupakan suatu system yang
     terdiri dari berbagai aktivitas yang dirancang
     untuk mengarahkan pegawai dalam
     melaksanakan corporate credo.
3.   Kode Etik Khusus Perusahaan: Banyak
     perusahaan merancang kode etik khusus
     untuk perusahaannya.



                                                      29
Tindakan untuk pencapaian operasi
Komputer yang etis


   Formulasikan suatu kode perilaku.
   Tetapkan aturan yang berkaitan dengan
    masalah-masalah IT.
   Jelaskan sanksi yang akan diambil.
   Kenali perilaku etis.
   Fokuskan perhatian pada etika melalui program.
   Promosikan        undang-undang       kejahatan
    komputer.



                                                      30
RUU pemanfaatan teknologi informasi


Adanya RUU mengenai pemanfaatan teknologi informasi
dan juga RUU yang mengatur transaksi elektronik dan
tanda tangan elektronik (digital), termasuk naskah-
naskah lainnya mengenai undang-undang dunia cyber.
Seperti halnya RUU tentang Informasi Elektronik dan
Transaksi Elektronik (RUU-IETE) dan juga RUU tentang
Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi (RUU-TPTI).

Nantinya kedua RUU ini dapat saling melengkapi,
ataupun dilebur menjadi satu, yang sebelumnya
disempurnakan      dengan   mendengar usulan  atau
tanggapan dari beberapa kalangan seperti akademisi,
profesional IT ataupun perusahaan IT.

                                                       31
Perlindungan Hukum terhadap
Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi


1.   Perlindungan pemanfaatan teknologi digital.
2.   Perlindungan atas data dan informasi beserta hak
     aksesnya.
3.   Perlindungan atas hak kekayaan intelektual.
4.   Perlindungan terhadap konsumen internet banking.
5.   Perlindungan terhadap anak-anak sebagai obyek yang
     bertentangan dengan hukum dan etika moral.
6.   Pencegahan pornografi di dunia internet.




                                                          32
pembentukan hukum teknologi
informasi & penegakan hukum


Ada beberapa hal yang menjadi asas dalam pembentukan
hukum perundang-undangan mengenai teknologi informasi.
Asas tersebut adalah Legalitas, Itikad Baik, Etika, dan Moral.
Proses penegakan hukum dan undang-undang yang meliputi
pemanfaatan teknologi informasi sudah dimulai dan masih akan
berjalan panjang bersama dengan penyempurnaan dan
penyesuaian.

Dengan peran serta semua pihak yang terkait, lambat laun
negara kita akan memiliki suatu produk hukum yang dapat
mengatur kehidupan dan pemanfaatan teknologi informasi,
sehingga akhirnya masyarakat menyadari bahwa aktifitas
apapun yang berhubungan dengan pemanfaatan teknologi
informasi memiliki perlindungan hukum dan juga akibat hukum.


                                                                 33
Dampak Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi
yang kurang tepat



   Rasa takut.
   Keterasingan.
   Golongan miskin informasi dan minoritas.
   Pentingnya individu.
   Tingkat kompleksitas serta kecepatan yang sudah
      tidak dapat ditangani.
     Makin rentannya organisasi.
     Dilanggarnya privasi.
     Pengangguran dan pemindahan kerja.
     Kurangnya tanggung jawab profesi.
     Kaburnya citra manusia.

                                                      34
Langkah-Langkah Untuk Menghadapi
Dampak Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi
yang kurang tepat


    A. Desain yang berpusat pada manusia.
    B. Dukungan organisasi.
    C. Perencanaan pekerjaan.
    D. Pendidikan.
    E. Umpan balik dan imbalan.
    F. Meningkatkan kesadaran publik.
    G. Perangkat hukum.
    H. Riset yang maju.


                                            35
Kesimpulan


 Etika dalam pemanfaatan teknologi
 informasi merupakan suatu hal yang
 sangat penting dan krusial. Sebab,
 bila kegiatan pemanfaatan teknologi
 informasi dilakukan tanpa disertai
 dengan etika dapat menimbulkan
 berbagai dampak negatif.




                                       36
Saran

Sosialisasikan mengenai aturan dan
tata cara beretika dan penegakan
aturan dalam hukum harus dilakukan
dengan tegas dan konsisten. Hal ini
dilakukan untuk mencegah berbagai
dampak negatif yang timbul akibat
penyalahgunaan teknologi informasi.




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