Photography by linxiaoqin

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									Photography
Parts of a Camera
All cameras have 5 components:
 A Lens
 An Aperture
 A Shutter
 Body of the Camera
 Viewfinder
Parts of a Camera
   Lens: Responsible for drawing the light into the
    camera and focusing it
   Aperture: The opening that controls the amount
    of light entering the camera (similar to an eye’s
    pupil)
   Shutter: The curtain which opens and closes,
    controlling the amount of time the image sensor
    is exposed to light (similar to a person’s eyelid)
Parts of a Camera
 Camera Body: The casing of the camera
  which holds the camera parts
 Viewfinder: The opening which the
  photographer uses to frame the shot
Types of Cameras
   There are many types of cameras. The
    most popular, besides the digital are:
     Point and shoot
     Instant Cameras (Polaroid)
     Single Lens Reflex Camera (SLR)
     Digital Cameras
Point and Shoot
 A viewfinder type camera
 Point and shoot cameras require you to
  get close to the subject to make a good
  photograph
 For a group shot or a scenic shot or when
  there is a lot of material to include these
  cameras are ideal
 Used for photos that do not require special
  exposure or shutter techniques because
  they are fully automatic
Instant Cameras (Polariods!)
 An instant camera will produce a finished
  print in from 20 seconds to about 4
  minutes
 The film, after exposure, is passed
  between two stainless steel rollers inside
  the camera.
 The rollers destroy a chemical pod on the
  film and spread developing agent evenly
  over the film's surface
Single Lens Reflex (SLR)
 Single-lens reflex (SLR) both views and
  photographs through one lens
 All SLRs used to be fully manual, where
  the photographer had to control all
  features
 Now most of these cameras are capable
  of acting in a fully automatic
Digital Cameras
  Point & shoot – whereas everything is
  automatic (zoom, shutter speed, flash,
  focus)
 Examples of Point & Shoot Cameras:
  Kodak Easyshare, Canon Sureshot,
  Canon Powershot, Pentax Optio, Nikon
  Coolpix)
Digital Cameras
 Can also be DSLR
 Allow for manual and automatic control
  over: Film speed, aperature,shutter speed,
  flash, zoom and magnification
 Examples of DSLR cameras:Canon Digital
  Rebel, Nikon D80, Pentax K10D
Digital Cameras
 How a digital camera operates depends
  on whether the camera is point & shoot
  (P&S) or DSLR
 The lower end of price range will include
  P&S while the higher end is usually DSLR
How a Digital Camera Works
 When you take a photo, the image is
  recorded on a light sensitive computer
  chip: an image sensor
 This image sensor is covered with
  thousands or millions of pixels
 When shutter is open, each pixel records
  the brightness of the light that falls on the
  pixel
How a Digital Camera works
   Lens system works in the same manner as
    previously explained but instead of recording the
    light on film, the light is recorded by millions of
    pixels on a image sensor
   The camera measures the brightness value of
    each pixel, adjusts the color balance and
    converts it to a digital code
   The code is stored as a picture on the memory
    of the camera
How a Digital Camera works
 A problem with digital cameras are action
  shots because of the camera’s slow frame
  rate
 Frame rate is impacted by the 1-2 second
  delay of the camera once the button is
  pressed
 The next delay occurs after the photo is
  taken because it can take up to 30
  seconds to process and store image
Operating your camera
There are several aspects of a camera
 which impact the photograph, regarding
 technical quality and resolution of the
 image. They include:
     Exposure
     Focus

     Lighting

     Image resolution

     File type,

     Lens type

     Flash
Exposure
 Exposure refers to the lightness or
  darkness of a photograph
 Determined by the amount of the sensor
  that is exposed to light (shutter speed), the
  intensity of the light (aperature) and the
  sensitivity of the sensor to light (ISO)
Exposure
   What happens to a photograph when there
    is:
       Too much light?
       Too little light?
Underexposed
Overexposed
Exposure: Aperture Control
   Determined by shutter speed and aperture
   In expensive digital cameras, the aperture can
    be adjusted, with the lower numbers allowing for
    larger aperture openings
   Less expensive ones uses an EV setting which
    you can set manually depending on how much
    light you desire
   A “+” EV setting lets in more light, a “-” EV
    setting lets in less light
Exposure: Aperture Control
 Aperture also controls the depth of field
 The depth of field refers to the distance in
  front and the distance behind the image
  that is in focus
Exposure: Shutter Speed
 Controls the amount of time that the
  sensor is exposed to light
 Controls how motion of an image is
  captured. The faster the object the faster
  the shutter speed needs to be to control it
 When the shutter speed is slower, it is
  hard to keep the camera still without
  impacting how the photo turns out
Shutter Speed
 More expensive digitals cameras allow
  you to control the shutter speed. Cheaper
  versions may only have a few choices or
  there may be a setting for sports photos or
  action shots
 With a digital camera you can have a
  mechanical shutter or a electronic shutter
Shutter Speed
 Interesting visual effects can be achieved
  with motion is manipulated in a photo
 With fast shutter speeds the object can be
  frozen in place.
 With slow shutter speeds the object will
  appeared blurred
Shutter Speed
 Very fast subjects require fast shutter
  speeds
 When the subject is moving towards the
  camera, the speed will appear slower and
  a lower shutter speed will be needed
 A technique called panning is used to
  create a blurry background but a clear
  subject
Changing the exposure on a digital
Camera
   The exposure on a digital camera can be
    determined on the LED screen or through the
    viewfinder.
   When you see the picture on the screen and it is
    too light or dark, you have the option to adjust
    the brightness of that particular photo.
   You can also accomplish this in photo editing
    software
Mode of Operation
   On your digital camera you will see a number of
    automatic functions
   Portrait function (icon of a face)
   Landscape Function (icon of trees or mountain)
   Close up Function (icon of a flower)
   Sports Function (icon of person running)
   Night Function (icon of person with star)
   There are also settings such as beach and snow
Focus
 All cameras have autofocus settings, while
  some have manual focus
 Autofocus is usually very accurate except
  for subjects in low contrast lighting
  situations
 Autofocus can also experience problems
  with the subject is not centered in the
  photo
Light
   Direction and quality of light are fundamental
    when taking photos
   Two types of light impact a photo, direct light
    and diffused light
   Direct light can cause: Dark shadows, strong,
    contrasts and highlighted textures
   Direct light can come from the top, front, side,
    bottom and back
Direct Front Lighting
Direct Front Lighting
Light
   Side lighting can
    provide interesting
    shadows to portrait
    photography. It shows
    depth
Light

           Back lighting can
            create a silhouette
            effect
Direct Top Lighting
Light
   Direct front lighting
    can make a picture
    appear 2-D
   Using a flash on a
    subject under front
    lighting will cause a
    red eye effect
Light
   Diffused lighting can
    occur outside on
    rainy, foggy or gray
   The light is evenly
    spread out over the
    subject area and may
    appear too dark
   Diffused lighting
    requires additional
    exposure
Light
 The image sensors in digital cameras will
  vary how the color appears and how
  grainy the image
 Look at sample images to determine if that
  is the photo quality that you prefer
Grainy Photo

								
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