SERVICE STATIONS SYNOPSIS SHEET

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					                                        Gasoline service stations   1




                             SERVICE STATIONS


                               SYNOPSIS SHEET

                            Prepared in the frame work of EGTEI




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1.     ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION AND EGTEI CONTRIBUTION ................................................................. 3
2.     EUROPEAN REGULATION.................................................................................................................. 4
3.     METHODOLOGY DEVELOPED WITHIN EGTEI TO REPRESENT THE SECTOR........................ 4
     3.1 DEFINITION OF REFERENCE INSTALLATIONS ........................................................................................ 4
     3.2 DEFINITION OF EMISSION ABATEMENT TECHNIQUES ............................................................................. 5
       3.2.1  Primary measures ..........................................................................................................5
       3.2.2  Secondary measures .....................................................................................................5
4.     COUNTRY SPECIFIC DATA TO BE COLLECTED............................................................................ 6
5. DEFAULT EMISSION FACTORS AND COST DATA DEFINED WITH THE EGTEI
METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................................... 6
6. RELEVANCE OF EGTEI INFORMATION FOR INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT MODELLING
(IAM) ............................................................................................................................................................... 7
7.     PERSPECTIVE FOR THE FUTURE..................................................................................................... 7
8.     BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................................... 7
EXAMPLE OF DATA COLLECTION AND USE OF EGTEI DATA – CASE OF FRANCE..................... 9
A.           COUNTRY SPECIFIC DATA COLLECTION AND CLE SCENARIO DEVELOPED ................. 9
B.   TRENDS IN EMISSIONS AND TOTAL COSTS OF DIFFERENT SCENARIOS OF USE OF
REDUCTION TECHNIQUES ...................................................................................................................... 10




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1. Activity description and EGTEI contribution
In service stations, NMVOC emissions originate from several sources:
•     Gasoline delivery to the station: gasoline is usually delivered to service stations in large road
      tankers or smaller trucks. Emissions are generated when gasoline vapours in the underground
      storage tank are displaced to the atmosphere by the gasoline being loaded into the tank.
•     Tank breathing: tanks are normally double walled underground tanks and not subject to "above-
      ground" diurnal temperature changes. Breathing losses occur daily and are attributable to
      gasoline evaporation and barometric pressure changes. The frequency with which gasoline is
      withdrawn from the tank, allowing fresh air to enter and to enhance evaporation also has a major
      effect on the quantity of these emissions.
•     Vehicle refuelling: in addition to service station tank loading losses, vehicle-refuelling operations
      are considered to be a major source of NMVOC-emissions. These are attributable to vapour
      displaced from the automobile tank by dispensed gasoline. The major factors affecting the
      quantity of emissions are gasoline temperature, vehicle tank temperature, gasoline vapour
      pressure, and dispensing rates.

Service stations are addressed by the European Directive 94/63/EC of 20 December 1994 which aims
at reducing emissions during gasoline delivery at the station (stage I) [1]. Moreover, in many Member
states, national regulations require to limit emissions during car tank refuelling at the station (stage II).
Service stations have been considered by EGTEI [4] in order to collect the latest available information
on stage I (recovery of NMVOC emission during gasoline delivery to the station) and stage II (recovery
of NMVOC during car tank refuelling) efficiencies and update costs. The methodology for this sector
[4] was developed in close cooperation with CONCAWE and French Union of petroleum Industries
(UFIP) experts [5] in 2003.

At a EU25 level for the year 2000 (according to the RAINS model: version CP_CLE_Aug04(Nov04)),
NMVOC emissions were 160 kt representing 1.8% of total NMVOC emissions [17]. If stage I control is
wide spread in EU15, the stage II control is less used. These estimations could be modified in a near
future due to information delivered by national experts during the bilateral consultation scheduled in
2005.

Service stations were already considered in the previous RAINS version [16] but EGTEI provides
some updated pieces of information for reduction technique efficiencies and costs.
Data provided by EGTEI, efficiencies and costs of reduction techniques are presently used in the new
RAINS version [17] for the modelling work carried in the scope of the CAFÉ programme and the
revision of the Gothenburg Protocol and national emission ceiling Directive. In the new RAINS version,
emission factors used depend on temperature and Reid vapour pressure, based on a methodology
developed by CONCAWE. This method of emission estimation enables to better take into account the
temperature influence on VOC emissions but was not considered in EGTEI due to the requirement of
simplicity.

The representative activity unit used is the annual gasoline quantity distributed in service stations
expressed in TJ/year (this parameter is used for other estimations in RAINS related to road traffic).
Three reference installations (RI), different in size, are considered to better represent cost variability
and the different thresholds defined in the regulation.

Two secondary measures are considered. The first one enables to be in compliance with stage I
Directive. The second one enables to reduce emissions from tank refuelling. In some Member states,
stage II regulation limits these emissions.

EGTEI provides default emission factors (EF) with abatement efficiencies, investments, variable and
fixed operating costs (OC) as well as unit costs expressed in €/t NMVOC and €/TJ for the two
secondary reduction techniques in the three reference installations.

Unit costs range from 0.117 to 0.654 k€/t NMVOC abated for stage I reduction technique and from 1.7
to 3.150 k€/t NMVOC for stage II reduction technique. The lowest cost is obtained in the largest
reference installation considered, the highest cost in the smallest one. Expressed per unit of activity,
unit costs range from 3.3 to 18.2 k€/TJ for stage I reduction technique and from 81.3 to 151.0 k€/TJ for
stage II reduction technique.


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National experts have to collect only one country specific parameter (gasoline costs). This parameter
can be very easily known. National experts have also to provide the trends in activity level from 2000
to 2020, the activity shares according to the different RI as well as the application and applicability
rates of each abatement technique. If the share according to reference installation is not known,
EGTEI provides French and English distribution which can be used.
As the sector representation in RAINS is based on the EGTEI proposal, it is recommended to national
experts to complete ECODAT with country specific parameters which are not known from CIAM.
EGTEI proposals for the representation of service stations and abatement technique definitions have
been considered in the last update of RAINS [17]. The unique difference is due to the estimation mode
developed in RAINS for emission factors taking into account the influence of temperature and Reid
vapour pressure not considered in EGTEI.

In the future however, any new technology which could be developed should be considered by EGTEI
in the background document to continuously improve the sector representation and the EGTEI
capacity to describe new technologies. It should be necessary to review the considered efficiencies
regularly to update them and perhaps define an additional reduction technique “stage II with high
efficiency” if necessary.


2. European regulation

Stage I
As mentioned above, the European Directive 94/63/EC of 20 December 1994 [1] applies to service
stations. It refers to the control of NMVOC emissions resulting from the storage of gasoline and its
distribution from terminal to service stations.

Service stations have to be equipped with systems designed to keep NMVOC emissions below the
target reference value of 0.01 w/w % of the throughput.

Compliance dates are as follows:
New installations: 31 December 1995.
Existing installations as indicated in the following table:

                        Service stations throughput            Date of compliance
                                    m3/year                      Not later than (1)
                     > 1000                                   31 December 1998
                     from 500 to 1000                         31 December 2001
                     from 100 to 500                          31 December 2004
(1) Compliance with the EC directive is required for the 3 sizes of installation not later than 3, 6 and 9
years after the date of transcription of the directive in the member state. This transcription must occur
not later than 31 December 1995.

Stage II
Stage II is already implemented in several Member states but no European regulation exists. The
EGTEI background document provides information on the size of installations concerned and the
compliance dates required in some countries with a regulation: Austria, Denmark, France, Germany,
Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Sweden, and United Kingdom.


3. Methodology developed within EGTEI to represent the sector

3.1    Definition of reference installations
Three reference installations have been defined (RIC) in order to be able to represent the different
dates of compliance to the regulation (both stage I and stage II) and the different thresholds used.
These reference service stations are characterised by their gasoline throughput. Table 3.1.1 presents
the RI considered.




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Table 3.1.1: Definition of the reference installations
     Reference                                               Description
  Installation Code
         (RIC)
01                         Small Installation 1: e. g. independent service station
                           • Gasoline throughput: 650 m3/year
                           • Number of refuelling nozzles: 2
                           Representative of stations with a throughput < 1000 m3/year

02                        Small Installation 2: e. g. supermarket service station, independent service
                          station
                          • Gasoline throughput: 2 400 m3/year
                          • Number of refuelling nozzles: 5
                          Representative of stations with a throughput ranging from 1000 to 3000
                          m3/year
03                        Large Installation: e. g. motorway service station
                          • Gasoline throughput: 3 500 m3/year
                          • Number of refuelling nozzles: 8
                          Representative of stations with a throughput > 3000 m3/year

3.2   Definition of emission abatement techniques

3.2.1 Primary measures
No primary measure exists for this activity.

3.2.2 Secondary measures
Stage IB control: control methods for fuel delivery from road tankers to service station storage tanks

The vapour balance system employs a hose that returns gasoline vapours displaced from the
underground tank to the tank truck cargo compartments being emptied. The emission reduction
efficiency ranges from 93 to 100 % [6]. The minimum efficiency required by the EC directive has been
taken into account that is equivalent to 0.01% weight per weight. This gives an efficiency of 93 % (due
to the fact that total NMVOC emissions are 0.0655 kt NMVOC/PJ. Emissions from filling underground
storage tanks and tank breathing (stage I) are only a part of these emissions: 0.030 kt NMVOC/PJ.
This corresponds to well designed vapour collection systems [7].

Stage II control: control methods for vehicle refuelling

Several systems exist:
     •      Vapour balance system,
     •      Vacuum assisted system,
     •      Hybrid system.

The abatement efficiency of stage II ranges from 60 to 90 % according to the state of maintenance of
the system. Reference [6] gives 90 % of efficiency but according to a French expert [8] this efficiency
is only 60 %. This last efficiency is also recommended by the EMEP/CORINAIR guide book [7] which
presents efficiencies between 11 to 89 %. A recent survey made in Germany [9] indicates that, due to
defaults in maintenance, 50 % of stage II equipments existing in Germany are inefficient and 30 % are
totally out of service. An average abatement efficiency of 60 % has been considered and is a correct
compromise to take into account the real field conditions of maintenance of these types of equipment.
Table 3.2.2.1 presents emission factors for stage I and the combination of stage I and stage II.

Table 3.2.2.1: Secondary measures
  Secondary                         Description                         NMVOC emission factors
Measure Code                                                           kg/t gasoline  kt/PJ
00                No secondary measure                                     2.880     0.06550
01                Stage IB control                                         1.660     0.03773
02                Stage IB + Stage II control                              0.772     0.01755
44 GJ/t considered for gasoline


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4. Country specific data to be collected
Different types of country specific data have to be collected to give a clear picture of the situation in
each Party. EGTEI proposes default values for some economical parameters which can be modified
by the national expert if better data are available.
Information concerning activity levels from 2000 to 2020 as well as the description of the control
strategy is also necessary (these data can be directly entered in the database ECODAT). A full
definition of the work to be done by national experts is provided in the general EGTEI methodology
[10].
For this activity, only one country specific economical parameter is used to calculate variable
operating costs. It is presented in table 4.1 as the default cost proposed by EGTEI.

Table 4.1: Country specific cost
                                     Default value provided               Country specific cost
            Parameter
                                              by EGTEI
Gasoline cost (net of taxes)         434 €/t or 9.864 M€/PJ        To be provided by national expert
(Density of gasoline considered: 0.755 g/l; gasoline low calorific content: 44 GJ/t)

Default data have been used to calculate variable and annual abatement costs presented in table 5.1.

The national expert can also modify the default unabated emission factor proposed by EGTEI to
represent the reference situation of gasoline distribution in service stations in a range of ± 10%
(however justification has to be given).

Table 4.2: Unabated emission factor
                 Default emission factor
                                                           Country emission factor
                          [kt/PJ]
                          0.0655                    To be provided by national expert

5. Default emission factors and cost data defined with the EGTEI
   methodology
Table 5.1 presents an overview of all data provided by the EGTEI methodology for service stations:
default emission factors with abatement efficiencies, investments, variable and fixed operating costs
as well as the cost efficiency (unit cost per tonne of NMVOC abated) and specific costs related to the
fuel consumed.

Table 5.1: Emission factors (EF), abatement efficiencies, investments and operating costs (OC), unit
costs for each combination
                                                                              Unit cost
                NMVOC        Abatement                     Variable   Fixed
RIC PMC                                    Investment                            [k€/t    Unit cost
                   EF         efficiency                       OC       OC
SMC                                             [€]                            NMVOC       [k€/PJ]
                 [kt/PJ           [%]                       [€ / y]    [€/y]
                                                                               abated]
01 00 00        0.06550           0.0            0              0        0         0          0
01 00 01        0.03773          42.4          4400           -260      110      0.654       18.2
01 00 02        0.01755          73.2         25800           -450      530      3.150      151.0
02 00 00        0.06550           0.0            0                       0         0          0
02 00 01        0.03773          42.4          9600           -960      240      0.209       5.8
02 00 02        0.01755          73.2         55800          -1660     1290      1.703       81.7
03 00 00        0.06550           0.0            0                       0         0          0
03 00 01        0.03773          42.4         12000          -1400      300      0.117       3.2
03 00 02        0.01755          73.2         80200          -2420     1980      1.695       81.3

Costs from reference [11] for stage I and from DEFRA [12] for stage II installed during unscheduled
retrofit have been retained for this study. For stage II costs, comments from service station owners
done to the DEFRA’s paper [12] have been considered. Consequently, largest costs presented by
DEFRA have been considered (costs during unscheduled retrofit) to take into account the lack of
revenue of service station owners during ground work.




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As shown in table 5.1, costs of stage I and of the combination stage I + stage II differ greatly according
to installation size. The unit cost expressed per tonne of NMVOC abated increases significantly from
the largest installation to the smallest one.
Unit costs related to gasoline dispensed increase also significantly from the largest installation to the
smallest one.
These results highlight the usefulness to define the most representative distribution of service station
sizes.

6. Relevance of EGTEI information for integrated assessment modelling (IAM)
In the previous RAINS version [16], the sector D-GASST already considered distribution of gasoline in
service stations. However in the new version [17], the EGTEI proposal has been taken into account
mainly for adjusting efficiencies and costs of stage I, of stage II and of the combination stages I and II.
For estimating reference emissions a more sophisticated method which incorporates the influence of
temperature and REID vapour pressure has been developed and used in RAINS. This method may
provide differences in emissions of non equipped installations.
Reduction measure definitions and their efficiencies are based on EGTEI proposals, however RAINS
also considers the possibility to equip station only with stage II (3 reduction measures are considered
in RAINS: stage I, stage II and their combination).

Data provided in EGTEI approach (efficiency and costs) have been implemented in the new RAINS
version [17] for the modelling work carried out in the scope of the CAFÉ programme and the revision
of the Gothenburg protocol.

For this activity now, data provided by national experts through ECODAT can then be directly used by
                               IIASA for introduction in the RAINS model.


7. Perspective for the future

The stage II efficiency is still associated with uncertainties which depend on the state of maintenance
of the systems. It should be necessary to review efficiencies considered regularly to update them and
perhaps also define an additional reduction technique “stage II with high efficiency” if necessary.


8. Bibliography
[1]     European parliament and council directive 94/63/EC of 20 December 1994 on the control of
        NMVOC emissions resulting from the storage of gasoline and its distribution from terminals to
        service stations – OJ L 365 – 31/12/94 – 0024-0033
[2]     Rapport d’inventaire national au format UNECE/NFR et NEC
        Rapport d’étude du CITEPA - Décembre 2003
[3]     French experts from the gasoline distribution sector – contribution of July 1998 for study [11]
[4]     EGTEI background document.
        http://www.citepa.org/forums/egtei/service station-version2_200405.pdf
[5]     GOODSELL P.; TOUBOULIC J-Y; QUEDEVILLE A. (CONCAWE); DELACROIX F.
        (ADEME); ALLEMAND N. (CITEPA); CALAMINUS B.; KERDONCUFF P. (IFARE);
        EGTEI meetings on refineries and gasoline service stations of April 13, June 6 and July 9,
        2003
[6]     IFARE Task force on NMVOC abatement techniques and costs
        UNECE 99
[7]     UNECE
        Emissions inventory guide book. 1999 and successive update
[8]     M. LEGALLAND – UFIP – communication to CITEPA for the finalisation of study “OPTINEC”
        OUDART B. ; ALLEMAND N. ;
        Préparation à la mise en oeuvre de la directive communautaire sur les plafonds d’émissions
        nationaux et la ratification du protocole de Goteborg du 01/12/99 sur la lutte contre la pollution
        atmosphérique transfrontalière à longue distance.
        CITEPA - Juillet 2002
        http://www.citepa.org/actualites/projecteur.htm
[9]     Umweltbundesamt
        BImSchV21

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       www.umweltbundesamt.de
[10]   EGTEI methodology
[11]   RENTZ O. ; BOUSCAREN R. ; ALLEMAND N. ; AVCI N. ;HOLTMANN T. ; LAFORSH M. ;
       NUNGE S. ; ZUNDEL T.: Elaboration of cost functions for the reduction of volatile organic
       compounds in France
       Report January 1999 - IFARE-CITEPA for ADEME
[12]   DEFRA
       Stage II – gasoline vapour recovery – consultation paper 2002
[13]   Bruno MIRAVAL - Minefi Communication du 06/08/03 au CITEPA Equipements des stations-
       service
[14]   Ghislaine VERRHIEST MEDD Compte rendu de la réunion du 9 avril 2003 avec la DGEMP
[15]   Ministry of Ecology and sustainable development
       Décret n°2001-349 of 18/04/01 relative to the reduction of NMVOC emissions from refuelling
       of gasoline vehicles in service stations
       Arrêté du 17/05/01 relative to the reduction of VOC emissions from refuelling of gasoline
       vehicles in service stations with a throughput larger than 3000 m3 per year – JO 04/07/01
       Arrêté du 17/05/01 relative to the reduction of VOC emissions from refuelling of gasoline
       vehicles in service stations with a throughput from 500 to 3000 m3 per year – JO 05/07/01
[16]   KLIMONT; M. AMANN; J. COFALA. Estimating costs for Controlling Emissions of Volatile
       Organic Compounds (NMVOC) from Stationary Sources in Europe. Interim Report IR-00-51.
       IIASA. August 1. 2000. http://www.iiasa.ac.at/~rains/NMVOC_review/NMVOC_ir-00-51.pdf
[17]   Review of data used in RAINS-VOC model
       http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web-apps/tap/RainsWeb/
[18]   Daniel Delalande. Paramètres valeurs France – 31/12/03 -




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        Example of data collection and use of EGTEI data – Case of France


A.    Country specific data collection and CLE scenario developed
Country and sector specific economic parameters

Data presented in the following tables have been provided to IIASA by the French national expert at
the end of the bilateral consultation in March 2004. The average gasoline cost considered in France
for 2003 was 0.03281 €/l excluding taxes [18]. Table A.1 presents costs expressed in the unit required
by ECODAT (French gasoline cost is not very different from the default value considered).

Table A.1: French specific data
           Parameters                         French costs
Gasoline costs                        9.876 M€/PJ (or 434.6 €/t)

Activity level
Trends of the gasoline volume distributed in service stations from 2000 to 2020 come from the
scenario developed for study cited in [8] and take into account scenario MV of traffic increase of the
French ministry of Equipment and Transport. A unique scenario of gasoline distribution is presented.

Distribution of the activity level (TJ/year) carried out on each reference installation in 2000, 2005,
2010, 2015, 2020 is derived, assuming the same distribution according to station size from 2000 to
2020. The distribution in 2000 has been derived from data provided by references [13] and [14]. The
trends in gasoline distribution and shares of the activity are presented in table A2.

Table A.2: Activity levels on Reference Installations (TJ / year)
            RIC                   2000            2005            2010           2015            2020
            01                    163,7           152,6           141,4          131,8          122,26
            02                    194,0           180,8           167,6          156,3          144,90
            03                    248,6           231,7           214,8          200,2          185,65
           Total                  606,4           565,1           523,9          488,3          452,80

Unabated emissions factor

The French emission factor used is equal to the default emission factor provided by EGTEI.

Table A.3: Unabated emission factor
      Default unabated emission factor                       French unabated emission factor
                   [kt/PJ]                                               [kt/PJ]
                   0.0655                                                0.0655


Current legislation control (CLE)
In the current legislation control scenario (CLE), application rates of the different abatement
techniques depend on regulation implemented and on dates of compliance required by this regulation
but also internal development not driven by regulation.
The application rates for the NOC scenario are presented in table A.3.

In the CLE scenario the following hypothesis are taken into account:
•      In 2000, stage I equips the largest installations represented by RIC O2 and RIC O3 due to the
       application of the EC directive [1] in France [15]. The smallest installations are not equipped yet.
•      According to the French regulations, the following hypothesis of application rates of reduction in
       the future can be made:
•      In 2005, the equipment of service stations with stage I is almost complete. Only 15 % of the fuel
       dispensed on the smallest installations is dispensed on non equipped installations.
•      In 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020 stage II equips the largest installations greater than 3000 m3/year
       according to the French regulation [15].

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•    In 2010, 2015 and 2020, it is assumed that some small installations are equipped with stage II
     (SMC 02). For medium installations it is assumed also that some installations are slowly
     equipped with stage II (new installations have to be equipped with stage II).
No new regulation is expected to favour the implementation of stage II.

The application rates for the current legislation scenario are presented in table A.4.

Table A.4: Application rates and applicability factors for each combination of reduction measures in
scenario CLE
  RIC PMC    Application Application              Application        Application         Application
                                         Appl.                 Appl.              Appl.                 Appl.
             rate in 2000 rate in 2005            rate in 2010       rate in 2015        rate in 2020
    SMC                                    [%]                  [%]                [%]                   [%]
                  [%]           [%]                    [%]                [%]                 [%]
  01 00 00        100            15        100          0        0         0         0         0         0
  01 00 01          0            85        100          90      100        90      100         90       100
  01 00 02          0            0         100          10      100        10      100         10       100
Total RIC 01      100           100          -        100         -       100        -       100         -
  02 00 00          0            0         100          0        0         0         0         0         0
  02 00 01        100           100        100          90      100        80      100         70       100
  02 00 02          0            0         100          10      100        20      100         30       100
Total RIC 02      100           100          -        100         -       100        -       100         -
  03 00 00          0            0         100          0        0         0         0         0         0
  03 00 01        100            0         100          0       100        0       100         0        100
  03 00 02          0           100        100        100       100       100      100       100        100
Total RIC 03      100           100          -        100         -       100        -       100         -


B.    Trends in emissions and total costs of the CLE scenario
Data shown in the table below are directly provided by ECODAT and based on input parameters
defined in chapter A.
Table B.1 presents NMVOC emissions from 2000 to 2020 and total annual costs of emission reduction
for the CLE scenario.

Table B.1: trends in emissions and total annual costs of emission reductions in the CLE scenario
                            2000             2005            2010           2015           2020
NMVOC emissions          t NMVOC          t NMVOC         t NMVOC        t NMVOC        t NMVOC
CLE scenario                27425           17282           16573          13488          12214
Total annual costs         k€/year         k€/year         k€/year        k€/year        k€/year
CLE scenario                1928            22224           32349          23686          23062




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