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					   Solar Water Heating Therm – inology!


                                                                                                              USH2O Annual Meeting
                                                                                                              2011

                                                                                                              Tim Merrigan

                                                                                                              National Renewable
                                                                                                              Energy Laboratory

                                                                                                              October 17, 2011




NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC
SWH Therm – inology!
Outline

 • Solar Water Heating Systems
    – Ways to describe SWH systems
         •   Active and passive
         •   Direct and indirect
         •   Open and closed
         •   “Open loop” and “closed loop” – NOT!

 • SWH Standards, Codes, Guidelines, and Certificants
    –   International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
    –   International Association of Plumbing & Mechanical Officials (IAPMO)
    –   Solar Rating & Certification Corporation (SRCC)
    –   North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP)
Solar Water Heating Systems
Basic System Types




                 Passive
                           Active
Solar Water Heating Systems
Basic System Types

 •   Passive
     –       Thermosiphon
         •       Direct (uses potable water)
         •       Indirect (uses a heat exchanger)
     –       Integral Collector Storage
         •       Direct
         •       Indirect


 •   Active (forced circulation)
     –       Direct
     –       Indirect
             •    Pressurized glycol
             •    Drainback (uses distilled water)
Solar Water Heating Systems
System Types

     Indirect




                        Direct




           Colorado              Hawaii
Solar Water Heating Systems
Common Mainland U.S. Active System Types



      Indirect Drainback
      Forced Circulation




                               Indirect Pressurized Glycol
                                   Forced Circulation
   Solar Water Heating Systems
   Closed System Examples
  Indirect Drainback Forced Circulation          Direct Forced Circulation




Indirect Pressurized Glycol Forced Circulation    Direct Integral Collector Storage
Solar Water Heating Systems
Closed Indirect Drainback System



                                   Indirect Drainback
                                   Forced Circulation
                                   (with an external heat
                                   exchanger and a
                                   pressurized solar
                                   storage tank)
Solar Water Heating Systems
Open Indirect Drainback System

                                 Indirect Drainback
                                 Forced Circulation
                                 (with unpressurized solar
                                 storage tank)
Open Direct Drainback System
Solar Pool Heating System
Solar Air Heating Systems
Open Circulation System
                          Solar Air Space Heating
Open Solar Heating Systems
Transpired Collectors




 NREL Research Support Facility
         Golden, CO

      NREL Waste Handling Facility
Open Solar Heating Systems
Air-based PV/Thermal System
 Solar Water and Space Heating Systems
 Open System Examples
Indirect Drainback Forced Circulation        Transpired Collector




Direct Drainback Solar Pool Heating System
                                              Air-based PV/Thermal System
Solar Thermal Standards,
Codes, and Certification
Listings
Solar Thermal Standards
Solar Thermal Certification Organizations


  • Solar Thermal Standards (Consensus)
      – American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning
        Engineers (ASHRAE)
      – American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International)
      – Australian Standards and New Zealand Standards (AS/NZS)
      – European Committee for Standardization (CEN)
      – International Standards Organization (ISO)


  • Solar Thermal Certification Organizations (Proprietary Listing)
      – International Association of Plumbing & Mechanical Officials
        (IAPMO)
      – North American Board of Certified Energy Professionals (NABCEP)
      – Solar Rating & Certification Corporation (SRCC)
Solar Thermal Standards
Consensus Standards (selected)


 • ASHRAE 93-2010, Methods of testing to determine the thermal
   performance of solar collectors
 • ASHRAE 96-2008, Methods of testing to determine the thermal
   performance of unglazed solar collectors
 • EN 12975-2:2006, Thermal solar systems and components -
   Solar collectors - Part 2: Test methods
 • ISO 9806-1:1994, Test methods for solar collectors – Part 1:
   Thermal performance of glazed liquid heating collectors
   including pressure drop
 • SRCC 100-2010, Test methods and minimum standards for
   certifying solar collectors
 • SRCC 150-2010, Test methods and minimum standards for
   certifying innovative solar collectors
Solar Thermal Certification
Proprietary Listing

Solar Rating & Certification Corporation (SRCC)
   – Certification of solar collectors (SRCC Operating Guideline 100)
   – Over 800 solar collector models have been approved for SRCC
     OG-100 certification listing
      • Glazed flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors
      • Unglazed polymer collectors
      • Concentrating collectors

   – Certification of complete solar systems (SRCC Operating
     Guideline 300)
   – Over 1900 solar water heating system models have been
     approved for SRCC OG-300 certification listing
      • Forced circulation systems
      • Thermosiphon systems
      • Integral collector-storage systems
Solar Thermal Certification
Proprietary Listing

 International Association of Plumbing & Mechanical
   Officials Research & Testing (IAPMO R&T)
    – Products listed in compliance with the Uniform Codes:
       • Uniform Solar Energy Code (USEC),
       • Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC),
       • Uniform Mechanical Code (UMC),
    – 10 solar collector manufacturers have received USEC listings
    – 2 manufacturers of storage tanks with heat exchangers have
      USEC and UPC listings
    – 8 solar water heating systems have received various listings:
      USEC, UPC, Energy Star, and Classified
    – Products can also be listed in compliance with an IAPMO
      Product Standard
Solar Thermal Installer Certification
Proprietary Listing

 North American Board of Certified Energy Professionals
   (NABCEP)
    – Solar Heating Installer Certification
    – Solar Heating Entry Level Certification
    – Solar PV Installer, Solar PV Entry Level, PV Technical Sales
      Professional Certification
    – Small Wind Installer Certification
    – Installer qualification standards
       • Knowledge, skills, safety
    – Written examination
 • NABCEP installer certification required in some
   incentive programs
SWH Therm – inology!
Summary

 • Be wary when you hear the term “open loop” – often
   it is used to describe direct systems that are actually
   closed!
 • The term “open” in all plumbing and hydronic
   systems means “open to the atmosphere.”
 • The term “closed loop” is typically used correctly;
   however, almost all direct and indirect SWH systems
   are closed, i.e., not open to the atmosphere.
 • Consensus “standards” are different from both
   proprietary “codes” and “operating guidelines”
 • Certification organizations have proprietary listings
   that are useful to manufacturers, building officials,
   utilities, and consumers.
SWH Therm – inology!
Words do matter!


                   Thank You!

				
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