Physiology Study Sheet
Chapters 1-5: Introduction to physiology, chemistry review, cells & tissues, and
energy and cellular metabolism.
Remember- you will be tested on some information not covered in lecture that should have been covered
in the pre-requisite courses. For each chapter it is recommended that you complete concept maps and
vocabulary cards and use the study aids that work for you. Studying with a partner or participating in
study groups is also helpful. PREPARE YOUR TEST STUDY MATERIALS BEFORE THE NEXT
CHAPTER IS COVERED IN CLASS.
Chapter 1: Homeostasis (Pages 1-11 only)
1. Definition of physiology and pathophysiology
2. Understand the levels of organization and how they relate to physiology
3. Review all organ systems, their general functions, and the organs that make up each system
4. Explain the difference between the Teleological and mechanistic approach. Be able to read
descriptions of an explanation and identify it as teleological or mechanistic approach.
5. Explain what is homeostasis and the various themes tied to homeostatic control.
6. Explain the scientific method. Be able to read about an experiment and decipher the components of the
scientific method. Be able to interpret graphs and data.
Chapter 2: Molecular Interactions (Pg 20-26 self review, 27-34 & 38-44 covered in
lecture, skip pg 35-38).
1. Review all the basic information you learned in chemistry such as:
1. general structure of an atom, its particles, and the function of valence electrons
2. What atoms and trace elements are commonly found in the body?
3. What are free radicals and how are they different from ions? What’s a cation or anion?
4. What is the difference between a single, double, and triple bond?
5. Compare and contrast the different types of molecular bonds: ionic, covalent, and hydrogen
6. Understand how the following relate: structural formula, chemical formula, and isomer
7. What is hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and how does it relate to polar/non-polar bonds?
2. Materials covered in lecture:
1. Explain the difference between dehydration and hydrolysis reactions and how that relates to the
formation of monomers and polymers.
2 What are the four groups of organic molecules and their polymer and monomer forms?
3 Explain the special characteristics of each group and their body function.
For carbohydrates what is the significance of: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides,
For lipids what is the significance of : saturated fat (mono- and poly-), unsaturated fat,
phospholipid, and steroids.
For proteins: amino acid, amino acid side chain, peptide bond,polypeptide, peptide, glycoprotien
and primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.
For nucleic acids: DNA vs RNA, nucleotide, nitrogen bases, ATP.
4. Explain all the special characteristics of water
5. What is pH and how does it relate to water? What makes a strong/weak acid/base?
6. Review the information given on the general characteristics of protein binding. What is a ligand? What
factors affect bind and protein interactions? What are modulators? What examples can be used for
proteins and ligands?
Chapter 3: Compartmentation: cells and tissues (pg 51-59 & 72-84 in lecture, pg 60-
71 self review)
1. Review the basic information you learned in anatomy about histology such as:
1. Describe the appearance, location, and function of all 20 cell organelles and explain cell
differentiation. Be able to labeled a cell diagram and match organelles to their function
2. Describe the overall cell organization including the difference between cytoplasm and cytosol
and the three types of membrane junctions
3. Explain how all organelles interact to assist in the overall cell function- review factory drawing.
4. Review the characteristics and functions of all four types of tissues. Explain what roles they
play for each system. How are they involved in organ structure?
2. Materials covered in lecture:
1. Be able to relate the location and importance of the following fluids:
intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, interstitial fluid, and plasma
2. Explain the various types of cavities in the body.
3. Be able to draw the cell membrane and explain the function of its components as well as the function
of the cell membrane as a whole.
4. What is the significance of apoptosis and stem cells?
5. Review the structure of the integumentary system, define its function, and relate it to homeostatis
Chapter 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism (91-93 self review, 93-100 and 113-122
lecture, Skip 101-113)
1. Review on your own the concept of energy, the laws of thermodynamics, and all other concepts
covered on pages 91-93. Any questions will be addressed during lecture- just don’t forget to ask.
2. Understand what is activation energy and how it relates to enzyme function.
3. Explain the characteristics and mechanics of enzymes, including the factors for favorable and
unfavorable environmental conditions. Compare this information to the general protein interaction
information you learned in chapter 2
4. Compare and contrast the function and structure of DNA and RNA
5. Explain the process of transcription, translation, and post translation reactions. Be able to label
diagrams, number a sequence of events, and identify the components for each process.
6. Tie the information from this chapter to the basics learned in chapter 2 about nucleotides and proteins
and in chapter 3 regarding organelles.
Chapter 5: Membrane Dynamics 129-159
There is a lot of important detail in this chapter since it covers all possible ways molecules cross
membranes. Major topics will be discussed in lecture and lab, but you are responsible for covering all
details presented in the textbook. Look at the urinary system in the IP program for animations.
1. Define the following terms; diffusion, osmosis, concentration gradient, diffusion equilibrium, solute,
solvent, facilitated diffusion, primary active transport, secondary active transport, iso-, hyper-, and hypo-
tonic, and iso-, hyper- and hypo- osmotic, endocytosis and exocytosis.
2. What is the relationship between primary and secondary active transport?
3. How do ions cross the plasma membrane?
4. Explain the difference between molecules crossing a membrane through diffusion vs mediated transport
5. Be able to interpret graphs showing changes due to diffusion/osmosis.
6. How do cells react when exposed to the following solutions: isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic
7. Apply the concepts of diffusion and osmosis to physiological function of epithelial cells in the
following locations: glands, lungs, blood vessels, intestine.