Manifest Destiny and The
Monroe Doctrine (the period of
national expansion 1800-1854)
• In 1803 the US purchased the Louisiana
Territory from France for $15 million.
• Thomas Jefferson was President and sent
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to
explore the new territory.
• In 1819 the US acquired Florida from
Spain in the Treaty of Adams Onis.
• The Monroe Doctrine issued in 1823
warned European Powers about future
colonies in the Americas. The U.S. and
Great Britain fought the War of 1812 from
1812 to 1814.The British
burned Washington DC.
• Andrew Jackson had defeated the British
backed Creek Indians and led Americans
forces at The Battle of New Orleans in 1814
which was a huge American victory. Neither
side knew the Treaty of Ghent had already
• In 1828 Andrew Jackson became
President. He forced all remaining
Creeks moved west to the
By the 1840s American believed in their
Manifest Destiny or future of extending US
boarders from Atlantic to Pacific coasts.
• Americans began to move into Texas
which was Mexican Territory. In 1835
fighting broke out and in 1836 the
Mexican Army moved north into Texas
and killed about 250 Americans at
• This army and it’s leader, General Santa
Anna who was captured, were later
defeated at the Battle of San Jacinta.
Texas became independent and was
annexed in 1840. War with Mexico broke
out again from 1846-48. The US gained
Texas (the remaining part), California,
Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada,
• General Zachery Taylor, who would later
become President, led American forces south
from Texas into Mexico while Gen. Winfeild Scott
landed at Vera Cruz, Mexico City quickly feel and
• The Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo 1848 gave
the US California and most of the western states.
5 years later the US bought southern Arizona
and New Mexico with The Gadsden Purchase.
STATES RIGHTS and The
Extension of Slavery
• As new territories entered the union southerners did not want the
balance of power in Congress (The House and The Senate). They
sought to extend slavery westward while the free states sought to
stop it’s spread. From 1820 to 1850 new states were brought in
together 1 slave/ 1 free. The Missouri Compromise (1820) made this
• The Compromise of 1850 allowed Utah and New Mexico
to enter the union without restriction on slavery,
California was admitted as a free state.
• In 1854 The Kansas Nebraska Act struck down The
Missouri Compromise creating 2 new territories north of
the Missouri Compromise line that would determine by
popular sovereignty whether to be slave or free.
• War broke out in Kansas in 1854 which elected
both a pro-slavery and anti-slavery governor and
state legislature. Citizens fought one another for
and against slavery.
• The southern states saw slavery threatened and
began to argue for States Rights, saying the union
was formed by the states and that each state had
the right to leave the union or nullify federal laws.
Within 5 years The Civil War would begin.
NATIONALISM-is a belief that a people’s
greatest loyalty should be to a nation of
people who share a common culture,
language, religion, ethnic or historical
Nationalism can, at the same time, take the
form of pride in your country.
• Nationalism can be a force for unifying
people but it can also have the opposite
effect and cause disunity.
• As democratic ideals spread, nationalist
feelings became the basis for modern
states replacing loyalty to monarchies.
• Nationalist movements lead to the
formation of new nations during the mid
and late 1800s.These new states built
large armies and navies in order to
compete for world empire eventually
leading to World War I.