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					Blueprint for Renewing
Government Services
Using Information
Technology
Message from the President of the Treasury Board

Rapid technological change is creating opportunities to deliver services in ways that are more
accessible, responsive and affordable.

In many areas, the federal government is on the leading edge in using information technology to
improve service to its clients. In other areas, however, where we still have a way to go.

The serious fiscal challenges facing the country mean that we need to look at how we can do things
better.

The Blueprint provides an integrated approach to renewing government services using information
technology in a manner that capitalizes on our strengths and makes the best use of our investments.

I see the key to its success being tapping the expertise, commitment and imagination of all Public
Service employees.

We are making the plan widely available because it is important we all agree on the best way to
deliver government services in the future.

I invite you to send in your suggestions on renewing government services. Your comments can
make a difference.



                                          Art Eggleton
                                                             Table of Contents

Message from the President of the Treasury Board .................................................................ii
Foreword .................................................................................................................................. iii
Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................iv
A Perspective ........................................................................................................................... v
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................ vii
        Key Architectural Principles .......................................................................................................... xi
        Future Service Delivery Scenarios .............................................................................................. xiv
        Implementation Approach ............................................................................................................ xv
        Next Steps .................................................................................................................................. xvi
        The Benefit ................................................................................................................................ xvii
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 1
        Objective and Scope ......................................................................................................................1
        The Vision ......................................................................................................................................1
        Approach and Methodology ...........................................................................................................3
BUSINESS VIEW .................................................................................................................... 6
        Business of Government Services .................................................................................................6
        Guiding Business Principles ..........................................................................................................8
WORK VIEW ............................................................................................................................ 9
        Work Processes of Government Services .....................................................................................9
        Guiding Work Principles...............................................................................................................10
        Future Service Delivery Scenarios ...............................................................................................12
INFORMATION VIEW ........................................................................................................... 24
        Information Management for Automating Processes ...................................................................25
        Managing Common Information ...................................................................................................26
        Guiding Information Principles .....................................................................................................27
APPLICATION VIEW ............................................................................................................. 29
        Future Application Environment ...................................................................................................29
        Application Components ..............................................................................................................29
        Considerations for Development and Migration ...........................................................................31
        Guiding Application Principles .....................................................................................................31
TECHNOLOGY VIEW ........................................................................................................... 33
        Components of the Technology Infrastructure .............................................................................33
        Information Technology Services .................................................................................................38
        Guiding Technology Principles ....................................................................................................40
APPROACH AND ISSUES FOR IMPLEMENTATION .......................................................... 41
        Implementation Approach ............................................................................................................41
        Key Issues ...................................................................................................................................42
NEXT STEPS......................................................................................................................... 44

                                                                                                                                                             Page i
APPENDIX - Guiding Principles, Rationale and Implications ................................................ 46
      Architectural Principles ................................................................................................................46
      Business Principles ......................................................................................................................47
      Work Principles ............................................................................................................................51
      Information Principles ..................................................................................................................55
      Application Principles ...................................................................................................................60
      Technology Principles ..................................................................................................................65




                                                                                                                                                       Page ii
Foreword

Mounting fiscal pressures force all governments to provide services to clients with continuously
shrinking budgets. The "Blueprint for Renewing Government Services Using Information
Technology" proposes a vision of affordable, accessible and responsive federal government
services and an integrated approach to help achieve this vision.

The Blueprint takes a fresh, enterprise-wide look at government services using a client focus. It
recommends creating, managing, and prudently sharing information electronically among
departments and their different services in a way which protects the security and privacy of the
information. It envisages the use of a government-wide electronic information infrastructure to
simplify service delivery, reduce duplication, and improve the level and speed of service to clients
at a lower cost to the taxpayers.

The Blueprint emphasizes the critical importance of employees. Their involvement and
commitment are essential to successful business renewal. In this vein, information technology
will be applied in a manner to improve the "human face of government" as well as the efficiency
and affordability of service delivery.

The Blueprint builds on the experience gained from renewal activities already under way in
program delivery and administrative areas of the federal government. Many departmental staff
specialists and line managers have contributed to the document.

This Blueprint is being circulated in draft form in order to get a wide range of views on its
principles from both inside and outside of government. In its final form, it will establish a
framework for using information technology to support government-wide service renewal. The
vision and principles enunciated in the Blueprint will assist all departments and agencies in
implementing their own renewal initiatives.

We value your input and encourage you to provide us with your comments by May 31, 1994. To
facilitate this, you can contact the Blueprint team in one of four ways: (1) by sending an E-mail
through X.400 to C=ca; A=govmt.canada;P=gc+tbs.cts;S=chu;G=tony; (2) by calling Bernie
Gorman at (613) 957-9645 or Tony Chu at 952-3366; (3) by returning the facsimile response sheet
attached at the back of the Blueprint; or (4) by mailing your response to: Tony Chu, Office of
Information Management, Systems and Technology, Treasury Board Secretariat, 8th Floor, West
Tower, 300 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R5, Canada.

J. A. Macdonald                                    I. D. Clark
Chief Informatics Officer                          Secretary of the Treasury Board




                                                                                            Page iii
Acknowledgements

The Blueprint is a collective work by many staff specialists and line managers from departments as
well as from central and common service agencies. They all contributed to its development by
participating in workshops or by reviewing and advising on the Blueprint's development. These
individuals include Tony Chu (team leader), Treasury Board Secretariat; Ted Pender, Correctional
Service Canada; Rita Moritz, Heritage Canada; Philip Carr, Gary Depew and Claude Fairfield,
Human Resources Development Canada; Kate Dobson, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada;
Tom Racine, Industry Canada; Bob Provick, National Archives of Canada; Barry Walker,
National Defence; Richard Brigden, Bruce Catley, Alain Fortin, Jacques Gélinas,
Robert Hopwood, Anne La Salle and Joe Sauvé, Public Works and Government Services Canada;
John Read, Transport Canada; Bob Landry, Western Economic Diversification Canada;
Ed Acheson, Paul Baack, Emmanuel Buu, Catherine Caule, Joe Côté, Jim Eddy, Jim Ewanovich,
André Fauchon, Ron Fauvel, Cliff Filion, Amy Gibbs, John Keay, Bruce Lindsay, Marilla Lo,
Don Lusby, John Mayne, Michael Nelson, Jane Panet, Les Pratt, Ngan Ling Tam,
Conrad Thomas and Chip Wiest, Treasury Board Secretariat.

The Blueprint Program Advisory Committee provided direction for this publication. Consultation
with the members of this committee at critical points of the Blueprint's development ensured that
its direction was consistent with the needs of departments. The Committee includes
Michael Binder (chairperson), Industry Canada; Claude Bernier, Transport Canada; Hy Braiter,
Human Resources Development Canada; Paul Cochrane, Health Canada; Brian Ferguson,
Treasury Board Secretariat; Willie Gibbs, Correctional Service Canada; Phil McLellan and
René Guindon, Public Works and Government Services Canada; Richard Manicom, Revenue
Canada; Claire Monette, Industry Canada; Monique Plante, Human Resources Development
Canada; David Wightman, Transport Canada; and Alan Williams, Indian and Northern Affairs
Canada.

Many private-sector specialists provided advice and comments on the methodology, content and
format of the Blueprint. They include Art Caston, Jim Grant, Shirley Bishop, Jeff Carruthers,
Tony Crawford, John Davis, Ray Healey, David Rothwell, Linda Russell, Pierre Sicard,
Bob Simpson, Don Tapscott and Michael Vaughan.

In addition to the significant effort by the project team and advisors, the Blueprint would not have
been possible without the excellent service for its production. We would like to thank
Simonne Lauriault and her team of Lorraine Fournier, Luc Gendron, Lori Lapointe,
François Perreault and Lillian Saikali of the Client Support Centre; Carole Croteau and
Claire Dionne of the Government Systems Division; Nancy Hoyt and her team in
Communications and Coordination; Gilles Bisaillon and his team of Suzanne Bégin,
Suzanne Henrion, Craig Kennedy, Suzanne Le Blanc, Ginette Lefebvre, Vanessa Novini and
Anne Taillefer of Print Communication Services; David Berman; Arnaud Archimbaud,
Arlette Harvey and the team in Translation Services.



Bernie A. Gorman
Executive Director
Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology

                                                                                            Page iv
A Perspective

Why is Accessible Service at Lower Cost So Important?

In the private sector, the pressure for restructuring and renewal has come from increased
competitiveness and the unforgiving nature of high costs. Many argue that consumers have
become more demanding as they look for better service and quality at a lower price.

For governments, the pressure is for better service in the face of reduced revenues and mounting
debt. Many consumers of government services appear to have lost their tolerance for
bureaucracies. They feel they receive better service from banks, car rental companies, even
supermarkets, which have transformed business with innovative information technology. The
government increasingly appears to be out of date. Many want to know why they have to spend
their precious time finding answers to their questions, after being bounced from department to
department, when sometimes (not always) it is easier to get satisfaction from customer-hungry
private companies.

           "Why do I have to call so many places? Why do I have to wait so long?
           Why can't they solve my problem right here, right now?"

These are questions that governments must take seriously. Government must re-invent itself, as
other institutions have had to do to survive. Government must fundamentally improve the way it
administers its business and delivers its services.

What Does Information Technology-Enabled Business Renewal Mean?

In today's information age, knowledge workers, freed from organizational constraints and enabled by
modern telecommunications and computing technology, can have greater capabilities to access
information, to seek solutions and to provide services. The potential is considerable for knowledge
workers, acting in concert with one another, to do more work and to do it better. Therein lies the basic
thrust of an information-based approach to transforming business.

Key components of a business-driven renewal in the information age include:

   a clear focus on client service, so that employees can concentrate on providing value-added
    services;

   an organizational culture of continuous learning, personal development and employee
    involvement in managing change;

   empowering individuals to think and plan, access and analyse information, apply knowledge,
    make decisions and take action;

   an organizational structure that is cost-effective, flexible and non-bureaucratic, and that fosters
    open communication and consultation;

   teamwork and partnership, so that workers can take advantage of their knowledge-based
    environment instead of trying to work alone;

                                                                                                Page v
   the presence of an information technology infrastructure to provide computing resources,
    establish connectivity, distribute information and intelligence, and support business renewal;

   work processes that are automated, streamlined and interconnected, to create paperless,
    transparent, integrated business operations designed to serve clients; and

   common solutions in functions and processes that can be discovered and then shared broadly
    across organizations, to reduce duplication and improve service.




                                                                                           Page vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This document describes an integrated approach to improving the delivery of government services
while significantly reducing associated costs.

Living with shrinking budgets

The integrated approach reflects the recognition that the business of government must be
dramatically reassessed, to live within shrinking budgets.

Thus, establishing the business rationale for the government service, then determining how the
service will be delivered to the clients (the work perspective), are the first two critical steps into a
process of renewal outlined in this blueprint.

Next, the approach underscores the importance of incorporating an information perspective into
any service renewal activity, i.e. knitting related work processes together through proper
management and sharing of information.

Designing computer applications to automate work processes and to manage and share
information is the fourth step in the five-step approach.

The final step involves leveraging information technology -- the hardware, software and
communications, and their interfaces which comprise the common technology architecture -- to
deliver an efficient and effective service to clients.

Reviewing services on an enterprise-wide basis

The Blueprint focuses on renewing government services on an enterprise-wide basis and, in so
doing, uses information technology to make this possible. The "human face of government" in
service delivery must be enhanced, to the benefit of both clients and staff.

The Blueprint is designed to capture the broad improvements and full savings that will result from
an integrated approach to renewal, not just the incremental benefits reaped when change is
piecemeal. As well, an integrated approach reduces the risk of ending up with incompatible and
conflicting results.

Employees must be involved, committed and focused on improvement. This is the key to change.
Successful implementation of the Blueprint hinges on the abilities of employees and the smooth
transition of staff to the new work environment. Special consideration must be given to planning,
consultation and communication in order to carry out cultural and organizational changes and to
resolve the human resources management issues.

Pursuing an electronic infrastructure for government

The Blueprint identifies the need for a government-wide electronic information infrastructure
(namely a network of electronic highways and byways and associated information and computing
services), with connections to other public or private networks, to support renewal of service
delivery. The federal government will explore cost-effective, innovative means to meet its


                                                                                              Page vii
infrastructure needs, such as making use of available systems and forming partnerships with the
private sector and other levels of government, rather than relying on unique in-house solutions.

The overall benefits of applying this blueprint will be more efficient and effective program
delivery, reduced overall costs across government(s), and maintained or even improved customer
service in the face of fiscal restraint.

Building on program renewal experience

The approach proposed in this blueprint builds on the experience gained from program renewal
projects under way in such agencies as Revenue Canada, Health Canada, Human Resources
Development Canada and Public Works and Government Services Canada, as well as from the
Council for Administrative Renewal.

   For businesses, Revenue Canada is introducing a Single Business Registration Number which
    will provide comprehensive, one-stop services, covering initially, the corporate income tax,
    the goods and services tax, source deductions and importer accounts. This will also reduce
    duplication and improve government operations.

   For income security recipients, the Income Security Program Redesign project at Human
    Resources Development Canada promises improved turnaround for applications for Canada
    Pension or Old Age Security. Again, information will be better integrated, making it easier for
    government staff to create, maintain and query records and provide improved service. Studies
    are under way to see if the model can be extended to veterans and unemployment insurance
    applicants. These steps could also lead to a single-window service for persons wishing to deal
    with the federal government.

   For most federal departments, which together handle millions of payments and invoices each
    year, a new Electronic Procurement and Settlement system from Public Works and
    Government Services Canada will offer a common, distributed, computer-based solution,
    eliminating the need for duplicate departmental systems while replacing paper-driven
    processes.

   For federal Public Service employees, a government-wide telecommunications network
    infrastructure is being developed, which will enable them to contact colleagues anywhere in
    Canada by electronic mail. It will set the stage for electronic commerce, single access to
    government information, and electronic delivery of government services to Canadians. It will
    also trigger significant efficiency gains and reduced duplication of networking facilities.

Sharing successes across government

In publishing the Blueprint, a key objective is to actively involve service delivery managers in this
integrated approach to renewal. The approach described in the Blueprint should apply to situations
within many different departments or agencies. The Blueprint also envisions that experiences will
be shared across government(s).

The Blueprint provides a vision to guide government service renewal. It describes five different
but interrelated architectural views: government businesses, associated work processes,


                                                                                           Page viii
information, system applications and technology. The activities in these five areas must be
integrated in support of the renewal of government services. The Blueprint also illustrates future
scenarios for delivering government services. Finally, the Blueprint proposes an approach to
implementation.

The vision, the architectural principles, and the service delivery scenarios are founded on the
importance of having a client focus, sharing resources, developing standards, facilitating access to
critical information and, above all, recognizing people as key to business renewal.

                                            The Vision

            Government Services That Are Affordable, Accessible, and Responsive

   Direct Service to Clients. Delivering and providing easy access to services through
    electronic means. It envisions bringing services to the clients and providing them with
    "single-window" access for multiple services (as opposed to developing services with the
    convenience of the service provider in mind).

   Transparent and Seamless Service. Streamlining and integrating processes across
    functional and organizational lines to provide transparent, seamless services to clients (as
    opposed to continuing with stovepipe processes that cannot interact with one another).

   Value-added Service. Rationalizing operations and empowering knowledge workers to
    provide value-added services directly to the clients (as opposed to pursuing control-oriented
    solutions, well-removed from the client interface).

   Continuous Learning. Enhancing the knowledge, skills and active participation of
    employees to ensure they can meet the changing needs of clients and provide quality services
    in a fair and cost-effective way.

   Standardized, Interconnected Tools. Developing a standard suite of interconnected system
    tools, readily available to management and staff, to support decision-making and service
    delivery (rather than having a proliferation of different, incompatible and, often, proprietary
    computer applications).

   Shared Solutions. Routinely sharing solutions and resources for common functions and
    processes and using departmental clusters to share common systems and services, reducing
    development, maintenance, and/or operating costs (as opposed to each agency or department
    developing its own unique solutions, at greater overall expense).

   Shared Information. Developing and implementing a standards-based electronic
    information infrastructure consisting of common information, applications, technology
    platforms and networks to make it possible to share information and computing resources, as
    well as to rationalize operations enterprise-wide (as opposed to developing isolated islands of
    information).




                                                                                            Page ix
   Paperless Environment. Redesigning as well as automating routine processes in order to
    reduce paper and the need for human intervention (as opposed to manual processing or merely
    automating existing processes).

Achievement of this vision of renewal requires five sets of key architectural principles.

                                 The Five Architectural Views




                                                                                            Page x
Key Architectural Principles

                                           People are key

Fundamental to all the principles below is the recognition of the importance of people
management, shared values, and a responsive and flexible work environment. The value of
investing time and resources in enhancing employees' knowledge, skills and abilities and of
involving people in changes must also be recognized as essential to cultural change, renewal and
improvement.

1. Business. Government services will need to be transformed to focus on serving clients, on
   sharing solutions for common functions, on seeking innovative business partnerships, on
   exploiting information technology and on facilitating accountability.

2. Work. Service delivery will need to be automated, seamless and available through a single
   window, convenient with options, free from such constraints as functional or organizational
   barriers, red tape, time and location, and measured against standards for continuous
   improvement.

3. Information. As a valuable national resource, government information will need to be
   accessible, secure, captured once and validated close to source, properly maintained to ensure
   privacy and integrity, and electronically distributed to authorized users.

4. Applications. Computer applications will need to interact freely with one another, have a
   consistent look and feel, and be modular, re-usable and broadly shared across government.

5. Technology. Information technology will need to be open, flexible, practical, and secure to
   provide the capability for supporting distributed and accessible computing environments.

Table 1 displays the five sets of key architectural principles in greater detail.



                                               Table 1

1. Business Principles to

transform government services.

   Client Service Focus - client needs will drive the design of government services.

   People Management - employees' involvement, development, and commitment are critical to
    successful business renewal.

   Common Shareable Solutions - common requirements will be addressed by common,
    shareable solutions.




                                                                                         Page xi
   Partnership - strategic alliances will be pursued with other governments and the private
    sector.

   Accountability - accountability, performance standards, and evaluation capabilities will be
    incorporated into the design and delivery of government services.

   Enabling Technology - information technology will be used to its full advantage for
    redesigning the delivery of government services.

2. Work Principles for the redesign of government service delivery processes.

   Single Window/Seamless Service - government services will be delivered to common clients
    through a single window.

   Streamlining - the process between the client and delivery of government service will be
    minimized.

   Choices - where practical and cost justifiable, clients will have options as to how government
    services are delivered.

   Consistency - the same types of work activities involved for different government services
    will be done the same way.

   Location and Time Independence - clients will have access to government services at any
    time and from many places, where practical and cost justifiable.

   Continuous Improvement of Service - services will be improved on an ongoing basis, with
    measurements embedded in the service processes.

3. Information Principles for managing government information.

   Managing Government Information - government information, in all forms (e.g., print,
    voice, electronic, or image), is a strategic resource and will be effectively managed throughout
    its lifecycle.

   Data Administration - all government information will be subject to data administration to
    ensure common definitions, integrity, and consistency of use.

   Sharing and Re-using Information - information will be captured once, as close to source as
    possible, then shared and re-used by authorized users.

   Exchanging Information - once captured and where practical, government information will
    be stored and exchanged electronically to avoid manual transcription and re-entering.

   Protecting Information - the security, integrity, and privacy of government information will
    be ensured through various electronic and manual security measures.




                                                                                           Page xii
   Retaining Information - government information will be retained only for valid reasons, such
    as business needs, policy or legislative requirements, and historical and archival needs.

   Stewardship - specific organizational units will be accountable for certain classes of
    information to ensure integrity, quality, relevance, and authorized usage.

4. Application Principles for managing computer systems.

   Sharing Systems - computer systems for common processes or functions will be shared
    broadly across the government to reduce maintenance and development costs.

   Modularity - computer systems will be designed using modular components to facilitate
    sharing, development and design changes.

   Rapid Application Development - joint development teams will be used for short term
    projects to yield a working prototype, to be refined and improved via successive iterations
    through to implementation.

   Re-usability - computer systems will be designed to use common, shareable components.

   Distribution - computer systems and tools will be designed for replication and distribution on
    the government electronic network.

   Standard Inter-application Interfaces - standard interfaces between system modules will be
    used to facilitate information sharing and transfer of transactions.

   Consistency - computer systems and tools will be designed to provide a consistent look and
    feel to users.

5. Technology Principles for managing information technology in the government.

   Modularity - technology components that can accommodate expansion, upgrading and
    substitution easily with minimal disruption to services will be used.

   Inter-operability/Connectivity/Portability - technology components will be able to work
    with one another using modern connectivity tools and standard components and interfaces.

   Distribution - processing, storage, and communications technologies may be distributed to
    multiple levels in the architecture, where appropriate, to support dispersed business operations.

   Workstation Orientation - intelligent multi-functional workstations supporting
    industry-standard interfaces will be preferred.

   Network Orientation - all workstations will be attached to the government electronic
    network, with appropriately secure communications linkages to all authorized servers and
    users.




                                                                                           Page xiii
   Infrastructure Management - the architectural design will provide for the management and
    security of the information technology infrastructure.

Future Service Delivery Scenarios

Linking Canadians to responsive government services

In the Work View section, six models are offered of ways services can be provided to clients in the
near future through applying technology. Note that these models, listed below, are illustrative
only. They are designed to provide readers with a more practical view of possible ways of service
delivery.

   Auto-Service. A client's own computer system generates a service request and the supplier's
    system provides a response, with minimal human intervention.

   Self-Service (electronic). Individual Canadians, businesses or Public Service employees use
    desktop computer workstations to access information and to generate transactions, orders and
    payments, resulting in reduced paperwork and fewer approval processes.

   Self-Service (walk-in). Internal and external clients seek information, goods and services by
    visiting common walk-in centres, where Public Service employees use computerized services
    to respond efficiently and effectively.

   Service with On-site Support. An intermediary group or agency provides multiple services,
    sometimes for numerous clients, maximizing the benefits of information technology and
    minimizing duplication and paperwork.

   Specialist/Expert Service Centre. By using computer connectivity technology, internal and
    external clients access "experts" in government directly and quickly, reducing the need to
    duplicate similar services and improving responsiveness to requests.

   Supplier Interface (extended enterprise). Suppliers and internal consumers are connected
    directly to the government's order and payment systems, becoming an extension of these
    systems.

Changing the way services are delivered

Implementation of the vision and the principles will change the way services are renewed and
ultimately delivered to internal and external clients. Benefits and changes for program managers
will flow from this implementation.

This document sets out an approach to implementation and concludes with the proposed next
steps.




                                                                                         Page xiv
Implementation Approach

The Blueprint is a dynamic, integrated framework for implementing government service renewal
over the next five years. It builds on initiatives already under way. The following six elements are
critical to its implementation.

   Community Leadership. Ministers and deputy ministers, with the strong and effective
    support of the Chief Informatics Officer, must champion the service renewal in government,
    recognizing that significant benefits will accrue to departments and their clients. Treasury
    Board policy centres will provide supporting functional expertise. The Office of Information
    Management, Systems and Technology will coordinate implementation and provide support in
    business re-engineering and information technology architectural design.

   Commitment to the Vision. Leaders, having espoused the Blueprint's vision, will
    communicate and explain it to government employees and will seek their effective
    commitment. This commitment, which will also be sought from potential partners, must be
    sustained over time, since it constitutes an essential ingredient of change management.

   People Management. Strategies and plans must be directed towards involving and
    committing people; fostering open communication; involving employees in conceptual design
    and implementation and facilitating their shift to the new culture and structures; assessing
    composition and competencies of the work force; and resolving the human resources issues
    associated with the transition and change.

   Partnerships. The implementation of the Blueprint will require an effective and sustained
    partnership among staff within departments. In recognition of the increased interdependencies
    reflected in the Blueprint, partnerships will also extend to other departments, other levels of
    government and the private sector. Partnerships must be pursued and promoted aggressively
    to leverage common requirements, to take advantage of specific skills, to spread risks, and to
    share experience, innovation and investment.

   Forging Ahead for Results. The Blueprint represents an architectural framework that will be
    implemented and, where necessary, adjusted over time. To accomplish this, a set of service
    renewal projects will identify change management and technology requirements, develop
    migration plans, provide incentive through success and begin a government-wide rollout. A
    government-wide electronic information infrastructure project will support these service
    renewal projects as they spread across government.

   Departmental Implementation. Departments will use the Blueprint in planning and
    implementing their own internal renewal activities. They will reflect their planned approach to
    implementation in such planning instruments as annual operational plans and information
    management plans, starting in fiscal year 1994-95.



Overall, the Blueprint does not start at square one, but builds on existing renewal activities and
policies (for example, Enhancing Services Through the Innovative Use of Information and


                                                                                           Page xv
Technology: Strategic Direction for the 90s, issued by Treasury Board). The transformation
envisaged in the Blueprint will be achieved through continuous improvements. There will be
ongoing measuring and monitoring of government service delivery.

Next Steps




   Communicate. The draft Blueprint will be communicated to interested parties inside and
    outside the federal government in order to refine the document, and to obtain feedback, buy-in
    and departmental participation in pilots. Distributing this document has started the process,
    which will continue for the next several months.

   Endorse the Principles. The Treasury Board Ministers will be asked to adopt the principles
    set out in the Blueprint as a policy for renewing government services for internal and external
    clients. The Blueprint will serve as a basis for reviewing, adopting and promoting an
    integrated, enterprise-wide approach to the delivery of government services, following the
    consultations.

   Review the Requirements. There will be consultation with groups such as the Blueprint
    Program Advisory Committee, the Advisory Committee on Information Management, the
    Government Systems Committee, the Council for Administrative Renewal, the Treasury
    Board Senior Advisory Committee Information Management Subcommittee, and the Treasury
    Board Senior Advisory Committee, on the requirement for resources, skill sets, methodologies
    and governance processes. This will take place at the same time as the communication
    activities.

   Launch Service Renewal Projects. The Office of Information Management, Systems and
    Technology will work with departments and policy centres to select the first wave of renewal
    projects. The federal government will actively seek out partners in the private sector and other
    levels of government. Project champions from the community will then organize and plan
    project implementation; the Office of Information Management, Systems and Technology will
    support them, as required. This will take place beginning the second half of 1994.



                                                                                          Page xvi
   Launch a Government-wide Electronic Information Infrastructure Project. There will
    be an examination of the issues relating to developing a government-wide electronic
    information infrastructure, designed in part to meet the connectivity needs of the first wave of
    service renewal projects and future efforts. This review will be undertaken in close
    collaboration with Public Works and Government Services Canada, Industry Canada and other
    interested parties, parallel to the service renewal projects.

The Benefit

The Blueprint approach is based on the assumption that an information-technology-enabled
renewal of government processes and services will generate benefits for all involved, in addition to
the often-discussed savings in resources.

Transforming the way Canadians deal with government

   For the public, service renewal will reduce time spent in obtaining access to government
    information and services. In many cases, it will improve these services. Properly used,
    computing and telecommunications technologies should transform the way many Canadians
    deal with the government, just as it has dramatically changed the way the public now deals
    with financial institutions.

   For suppliers to government, the service renewal activities offer a number of benefits: the
    opportunity to provide services in partnership with government; the prospect of reduced costs
    through speedier ordering and payments; and the possibility of taking products developed and
    skills learned while dealing with the government and applying them in the global marketplace.

Increasing job satisfaction

   For employees directly involved in delivering services, there will be less need to re-enter
    critical data from associated systems, reducing wasted effort and improving the reliability of
    the output. Service renewal will automate mundane activities and reduce central controls or
    build them into systems supporting service renewal, resulting in job enrichment and increased
    job satisfaction.

   For those who manage programs and support functions, successful renewal through an
    integrated use of information technology will result in resolving service delivery issues faster
    and thereby allow more time to deal with clients' needs.




                                                                                          Page xvii
INTRODUCTION

Objective and Scope

This blueprint describes an integrated, enterprise-wide approach to renewing government services
through applying information technology (information, computing and telecommunications). The
objective is to transform government processes to better support program delivery to the public at
a much reduced cost.

Assisting managers to provide high-quality service

The Blueprint also proposes to take important steps in planning and deploying an enabling
government-wide IT infrastructure (government-wide electronic highways) to support the
re-engineering of program delivery, administrative renewal and overall government restructuring.

The Blueprint will assist managers and staff to provide high-quality, efficient services to their
clients, while at the same time coping with severe fiscal restraint.

The Blueprint will serve to reinforce the importance of managing human resources and resolving
people issues. The Blueprint's focus on clients and enterprise-wide perspective will give front-line
staff the information, tools and support to satisfy clients; in so doing, the Blueprint offers the
prospect of a more human face for government services, to the benefit of both staff and the public.

Individual departments have already begun to re-engineer a number of their program delivery
processes. This blueprint will support their efforts and provide guideposts for future activities.

Initiatives under the Council for Administrative Renewal (CAR) have demonstrated the potential
for savings and improvements in administrative services. The Blueprint will give direction to
these initiatives, identify further opportunities and help them realize their full potential.

The Blueprint will be used to inform stakeholders, both in the private and public sectors, of this
major business renewal and IT infrastructure initiative and to increase their awareness of the
opportunities for participation and partnership.

Blueprint is an evolving document

Finally, it is important to note that the Blueprint was created using group workshops involving
many participants from across the affected areas of government. Subgroups addressed the
specifics of each "architectural view" described in the Blueprint. They also produced a set of
corresponding architectural principles to guide their thinking and to give direction to the more
detailed planning that will be required to implement this blueprint. For this and other reasons, the
Blueprint should be viewed as a dynamic document, reflecting collective views and portending
further changes as the process of service renewal within the government evolves.

The Vision

The Blueprint provides a vision for the renewal of government services.



                                                                                             Page 1
Simply put, the vision is:

               Government services that are affordable, accessible, and responsive.

The renewal is founded on the importance of having a client focus, sharing resources, developing
standards, and facilitating access to critical information and services.

The vision must be achieved if government is to

    - deal successfully with fiscal constraint;

    - adapt to and exploit the accelerating revolution in information technology and the
      convergence of information, computing and telecommunications;

    - rekindle the sense of true public service in employees of the federal government, both on the
      front lines and in the required supporting roles for delivering services to the public; and

    - reverse the public's deep-seated frustration with government services.

The central underpinnings of the vision are listed below.

Bringing services to clients

    Direct Service to Clients. Delivering and providing easy access to services through
     electronic means. It envisions bringing services to the clients and providing them with
     "single-window" access for multiple services (as opposed to developing services with the
     convenience of the service provider in mind).

    Transparent and Seamless Service. Streamlining and integrating processes across
     functional and organizational lines to provide transparent, seamless services to clients (as
     opposed to continuing with stovepipe processes that cannot interact with one another).

    Value-added Service. Rationalizing operations and empowering knowledge workers
     to provide value-added services directly to the clients (as opposed to pursuing control-oriented
     solutions, well-removed from the client interface).

Enhancing the skills of employees

    Continuous Learning. Enhancing the knowledge, skills and active participation of
     employees to ensure they can meet the changing needs of clients and provide quality services
     in a fair and cost-effective way.

    Standardized, Interconnected Tools. Developing a standard suite of interconnected system
     tools, readily available to management and staff, to support decision-making and service
     delivery (rather than having a proliferation of different, incompatible and, often, proprietary
     computer applications).




                                                                                             Page 2
   Shared Solutions. Routinely sharing solutions and resources for common functions and
    processes and using departmental clusters to share common systems and services, reducing
    development, maintenance, and/or operating costs (as opposed to each agency or department
    developing its own unique solutions, at greater overall expense).

   Shared Information. Developing and implementing a standards-based electronic
    information infrastructure (consisting of common information, applications, technology
    platforms and networks) to make it possible to share information and computing resources, as
    well as to rationalize operations enterprise-wide (as opposed to developing isolated islands of
    information).

Reducing paper

   Paperless Environment. Redesigning as well as automating routine processes in order to
    reduce paper and the need for human intervention (as opposed to manual processing or merely
    automating existing processes).

Approach and Methodology

The Blueprint uses as its analogy the concept of an integrated architectural planning approach,
consisting of five interrelated architectural views. Each represents a different aspect of the way
government services must be re-engineered. This model is driven first by business needs and uses
the enabling capabilities of information technology. Underlying the overall model, with its five
views, is the need to put a human, service-oriented face on the services delivered by government;
this requires special attention to human resource issues in all five views. These five views, which
are described in the chapters that follow, are shown in Figure 1 on the following page.

Business View. The Business View establishes the strategic business context for the necessary
changes and improvements to government services. This document takes an enterprise-wide view
of government business and redefines it as seamlessly serving clients. This differs from the
traditional multi-functional orientation of government administration and program delivery. The
design of service delivery must recognize the situations where services are interdependent and
common. As well, the Blueprint expects that solutions and delivery mechanisms will be shared
and a more integrated suite of services to the public will be created. This approach will require a
government-wide electronic information infrastructure.

Work View. The Work View describes how the re-engineered government services will be
delivered to clients. The Blueprint identifies the importance of moving away from the stovepipe
approach that is particularly common across government. As work processes are adapted, so too
must staff skills be modified -- to improve service by integrating delivery and providing choices,
thereby ensuring client satisfaction. The Blueprint also describes a number of scenarios in which
different approaches to service delivery can lead to reduced costs and improved services. These
range from complete automation, where all work activity has been replaced by computer
applications (e.g., using electronic data interchange), to client self-service (e.g., clients obtain
service directly through a desktop workstation), to various ways of assisting service providers to
better support their client interactions (e.g., permitting clients to use telephones or modems to
directly access "experts" who are fully connected and supported by IT).


                                                                                            Page 3
Renewing government through information sharing

Information View. The Information View reflects the critical role that information must play in
renewing the business of government. The Blueprint identifies shared information as a critical
common resource, with information delivered to clients in a fully automated and electronic


                                                                                        Page 4
manner. Examples of common information resources are summarized in the Information View.
The Blueprint emphasizes the importance of automated collection and dissemination of
information from administrative and business processes, in order to make it possible to automate
and integrate such services on a broader scale. The Information View identifies the types of
information involved in process automation and the ways in which information must be collected,
managed and distributed. Under this approach, information will need to be accessible, secure,
captured once and validated close to source, properly maintained to ensure privacy and integrity,
and electronically distributed to authorized users.

Application View. The Application View links the work processes and information requirements
together. The goal is to have as much of the information as possible maintained in
computer-accessible form. Applications create, update, access, and delete these automated
information bases. These applications support the work processes by providing automated
procedures and managing information storage and retrieval in support of service delivery. The
Blueprint makes key distinctions between applications that assist the user in performing the work
processes (workflow managers) and applications that manage the resulting updates to information
files (transaction managers). Under the Blueprint, applications will need to cooperate freely with
one another, have a consistent look and feel, and be modular, re-usable and broadly shared across
the government.

Creating a more accessible computing environment

Technology View. The Technology View addresses the required platforms and network services
to meet the needs of various types of users at identified work locations, thereby closing the circle
on the five views. Having many types of IT applications means that different technologies have to
cooperate in both operational and developmental situations. The architecture for the technology
must also deal with various information bases used by applications, and ensure that the
information can flow where it is needed. The challenge of integrating different technologies and
information resources requires an infrastructure based on a mixture of standard components and
modern interconnectivity tools. In this way, information technology will be open, capable of
supporting distributed (as well as centralized and mainframe) computing systems, and create a
more accessible computing environment.




                                                                                            Page 5
BUSINESS VIEW

The Business View establishes the strategic business context for the necessary changes and
improvements to government services. It represents the first critical step in the Blueprint's
approach to renewing government services, i.e. asking the questions "what business are we in ?"
and "how do we conduct business?".

Taking the enterprise-wide view

The Blueprint expects these questions to be asked from an enterprise-wide perspective, rather than
from the traditional departmental, program or functional viewpoint. Taking this broader view is
especially important in maximizing opportunities for restructuring government services. It is also
important in making it easier to share processes, information and technologies used in delivering
these services across the federal government and, indeed, different levels of government.

The Blueprint reflects the need to re-engineer radically in the face of fiscal pressures and rising
public demand for improved services. The re-engineering will involve focusing on clients' needs,
working in partnership with other groups inside and outside the federal government, improving the
efficiency of service delivery by using information technology judiciously, and reducing
duplication.

In asking the question "what business are we in?", it is critical to seek the answer from the client's
perspective rather than from the organization's perspective. This will require a re-examination of
the skills required by staff to reinforce a client focus in the delivery of services.

Business of Government Services

Program Services. The government exists to serve the public. Government services include
programs in various areas such as agriculture, citizenship and culture, education and training,
employment and labour, the environment, foreign affairs, health and safety, immigration,
international trade, industrial development, national defence, natural resources, parks and
recreation, public infrastructure, public information, regulated utilities, security and protection,
social assistance, and taxation.

Recognizing the interdependence of programs

Some program activities share common clients with one another in the federal government as well
as across different levels of government. In addition, there is an increasing awareness of the
interdependency of programs within and between governments. For example, recent discussions
about redesigning the delivery of unemployment insurance recognize the need to integrate labour
training and retraining. Similarly, provincial governments recognize the growing interdependence
between unemployment insurance and provincial welfare programs.

Administrative Services. Administrative services support the delivery of government programs.
Basically, administrative services provide four types of essential resources for program delivery:
human, financial, physical (materiel or assets), and information. These resource services
commonly exist in all federal departments and, in fact, in all governments and organizations.



                                                                                              Page 6
Administrative services are closely related in that they need to be considered together (including
making trade-off decisions) in order to provide an optimal resource base for program delivery.

Seeking relief from bureaucratic processes

A key to renewing government service is discerning and taking advantage of the commonalities
and interdependencies of program and administrative services. Management and delivery
structure can then be rationalized within and across governments. In the final analysis, this
rationalization must focus on serving the ultimate clients (i.e. the public) who are seeking relief
from bureaucratic processes and who are demanding services from their government rather than
from a multitude of departments.

Common Electronic Information Infrastructure. In today's information era, electronic
information infrastructure services are of critical importance to the delivery of government
services. In effect, these infrastructure services have stretched information as a resource beyond
its traditional role. The common need for these services necessitates a backbone infrastructure
across the government. Elements of the electronic information infrastructure are listed in Table 2.



                                              Table 2
                    Elements of the Electronic Information Infrastructure
Networks to interconnect internal and external clients, suppliers and users with the applications,
services and information they require and share.

Servers to provide processing, storage and information services across the network. A range of
operating environments will be supported. Computing resources will be widely distributed for
different applications and operating areas.

Communication facilities to make it possible to transfer information reliably and interactively. A
range of standard multi-media connectivity solutions supporting the government's enterprise
network will be available.

Workstations to access network-based services and information where and when needed. A
range of user devices, interface standards, personal and workgroup computing tools will be
supported.

Services components:

   Network services to support distributing and sharing information as well as the processing
   capabilities for connected platforms.

   Infrastructure management services to plan and design the integrated IT infrastructure of
   the government.

Standards management services to plan, develop, promote and monitor standards required to
implement the IT infrastructure of the government.


                                                                                            Page 7
Guiding Business Principles

The Blueprint proposes a series of guiding business principles that should be used to shape the
renewal of government services. The principles are presented in greater detail in the Appendix.

   Client Service Focus - Client needs will drive the design and delivery of government services.
    This will require a clear recognition that government programs must be responsive to the
    public's needs and that administrative services must support program delivery. Service
    standards, consultations transparency and flexibility will be necessary.

Involving employees is essential

   People Management - Employees, their involvement, development and commitment, will be
    critical to successful business renewal. A new management philosophy of commitment to
    employees and their development within a continuous learning culture will be necessary.
    There will be ongoing dialogue to discuss job structures and content, training, development
    and other essential issues in managing change. The resolution of human resources
    management issues is paramount to a smooth transition and the ultimate success of
    government services.

   Common Shareable Solutions - Common requirements will be addressed by common,
    shareable solutions. This will require a government-wide focus and funding, to identify
    shareable solutions and roll them out to interested departments. Participating departments will
    benefit through lower costs of acquisition and maintenance.

Pursuing partnerships

   Partnership - Strategic alliances will be pursued with other governments and the private
    sector. This will allow risks to be shared with the private sector and with other levels of
    government and lead to lower costs because of increased purchasing power. It will also
    promote innovation. Governments will benefit through lower costs and new solutions to
    common problems. The private sector will benefit from having access to a potentially larger
    market within the federal government. This access could be a springboard to other markets,
    such as other levels of government and export markets.

   Accountability - Accountability performance standards and evaluation capabilities will be
    incorporated into the design and delivery of government services. This will require a new
    approach to defining accountability between the service provider and the client. Benefits will
    include a clearer definition of service levels and program performance and costs lower than
    those associated with existing delivery processes.

Using technology to have common process design

   Enabling Technology - Information technology will be used to its full advantage for
    redesigning the delivery of government services. This should lead to reduced labour costs and
    improved (faster) service. It will require increased training for staff and new investments in
    computer technology. Other benefits will include new IT opportunities for the private sector.



                                                                                           Page 8
WORK VIEW

The Work View represents an important second step in the Blueprint's approach to renewal,
following a fresh, enterprise-wide look at the business. It proposes moving away from a stovepipe
approach and instead refocusing on both the delivery of services and the organization of associated
work activities on an enterprise-wide basis. Clients must be able to receive total service rather than
piecemeal services from various component organizational units. As well, modern information
technology will be used to facilitate better communications, organization of work and service
delivery.

Pursuing total service

The Work View provides a brief outline of the nature of government program and administrative
activities, including their interrelationships and the similarities of the work processes involved. It
proposes that the delivery of government services be consolidated; streamlined; consistent in
outlook and procedures; designed to provide clients with options; independent of time and
location; and measured and monitored for continuous improvement. The Work View also
provides illustrations of more efficient and effective ways to deliver government services using
modern information technology.

Maintaining a human touch

The Work View will produce significant changes in the work environment for staff. For example,
services that are independent of time and location may require employees to work split shifts, so
that staff are available to deal with client needs from the start of business on the East coast to the
end of business on the West coast. Adopting more integrated and consistent processes should
increase the prospects for job mobility for staff. It will be essential to maintain the human touch
when redesigning work processes to deal with clients.

Work Processes of Government Services

Linkages across Services. Many government program and administrative activities are closely
linked. They have an impact on one another. For example, address changes reported by clients in
one government program affect all other programs to which the clients also subscribe. Inspection
findings of one government program may be important for the development and implementation of
other programs. Program activities often require administrative support services. Within the
administrative domain, for example, staffing action usually requires committing salary budgets
and procuring office equipment and tools.

Coordinating work activities horizontally across programs, administrative functions, and
departments will make government operations more efficient and service delivery to the public
more effective.

In his John L. Manion lecture on "Partners in the Management of Government: Changing Roles of
Government and the Public Services ", Mr. Marcel Massé observed:




                                                                                              Page 9
       there are now virtually no departments where problems are self-contained or where
       solutions do not involve more than one traditional sector of government activity. As a
       result, there is a greater need to find new and more horizontal ways of studying problems
       and finding solutions. Departments are essentially vertical structures, conceived in the
       simpler times when fields of activity, such as agriculture or forestry or transport, could be
       considered as reasonably separate domains. . . . Horizontal coordination is now essential
       and requires new mechanisms.

Taking account of linkages

In the administrative area, a good illustration of the need for coordination is resource planning.
With mounting fiscal pressures and the introduction of operating budgets, federal government
managers at all levels need to look at the resource picture in its totality and make trade-off
decisions for program delivery. Unfortunately, many program and administrative services
continue to operate in a linear, sequential fashion, without taking into account the need for
horizontal coordination as well as vertical delayering. High costs and lengthy delays of services
are the results.

Routine and Repetitive Processes. Many common, routine processes are done manually and
repeated within and across program and administrative areas. As a result, many government
employees are unnecessarily buried under paper processing, having little contact with clients or
appreciation of their needs. Automating these processes and re-using the information generated
across programs and administrative functions will not only improve efficiency but will also free up
staff for value-added work. This will reduce overall costs and improve services to the public.
Figure 2 displays a process model for service delivery. As one can see, most of the processes listed
are routine, common, and repetitive in nature.

Guiding Work Principles

In order to sketch out the Blueprint under the Work View, a series of work principles are proposed
for shaping the renewal of government service delivery. Adopting these principles will help
eliminate the stovepipes and improve service to customers.

   Single Window/Seamless Service - Government services will be delivered to common clients
    through a single window and be free of functional and organizational barriers. This requires
    redesigning the way services are now provided, including a refocus on customer service and
    client satisfaction. To succeed, it will require a greater flow of information to and from
    associated service groups. Benefits will include improved service to customers and improved
    staff morale.

Reorienting from task to services

   Streamlining - The process between the client and delivery of the government service will be
    minimized. This will require re-aligning staff functions, from task-oriented to
    service-oriented, and significant re-investments in staff training and new customer-oriented
    service delivery activities. Benefits will include good client service levels and lower costs, due
    to eliminating non-essental intermediary activities.



                                                                                             Page 10
Page 11
   Choices - Where practical and cost justifiable, clients will have options as to how government
    services are delivered. This will likely require new investments and regular reviews of clients'
    needs. Benefits will include new opportunities for innovation on the part of staff, lower costs
    for service delivery, and improved choice for clients.

   Consistency - Where the same types of work activities are involved for different government
    services, they will be done the same way. This would require redefining existing activities,
    policies and procedures and it could take time to implement. Benefits will include lower
    operating costs, lower training and retraining expenses, and the potential for less disruption
    and increased staff mobility.

   Location and Time Independence - Clients will have access to government services at any
    time from many locations, wherever such access is cost justified and warranted. This will
    make it possible to expand new automated services (24 hours a day, 7 days per week, if
    appropriate). New investments in technology will be necessary, however. It might also alter
    work patterns. Benefits will include improved customer service, lower costs for services that
    can be located outside of expensive urban areas, and the opportunity for increased employment
    opportunities in areas that can be economically connected through telecommunication links.

   Continuous Improvement of Service - Services will be improved on an ongoing basis, with
    measurements embedded in the service processes. This will require new ways of measuring
    progress, customer needs and client satisfaction. Benefits include the opportunity for ongoing
    improvements and elimination of unnecessary processes.

Future Service Delivery Scenarios

To help readers understand the implications of changes resulting from the Work View perspective,
the Blueprint includes six scenarios of how information technology could be applied in different
ways in a client-focused business renewal process. It should be noted that, in almost all cases,
there are already examples within government of activities or experiments within each of the six
categories. For this reason, they are presented as near-future examples, recognizing that other
variations will likely emerge over time. How far each service can go in following these scenarios
will have to be determined through actual implementations, with proper consideration of such
factors as nature of the service, desire of the clients, staff implications and the operating
environment.

The objective is to automate, streamline and network most work processes, using the appropriate
IT infrastructure. This will result in paperless transactions that are seamless to clients. These
scenarios, therefore, provide the direction for renewing the delivery of government services.

Six scenarios are presented, as follows:

       (1)     Auto-Service

       (2)     Self-Service (electronic)

       (3)     Self-Service (walk-in)



                                                                                           Page 12
       (4)    Service with On-site Support

       (5)    Specialist/Expert Service Centre

       (6)    Supplier Interfaces (extended enterprise)



1.     Auto-Service. A client's own computer system generates a service request and the
       supplier's system provides a response, with minimal human intervention.




Example: At 4:00 a.m. every morning, a desktop computer in a large federal office building in
Montreal automatically places a call to a computer across the city. The purpose: to collect news
that will be in the morning's newspapers across the country and that will touch on areas of
importance to the department's minister and senior executives. By 6:30 a.m., the information is
available on the department's Executive Information System, by opening an electronic window.
Meanwhile, down the hall, another computer is preparing to place an electronic data interchange
(EDI) order to restock the department's central office supplies. The order includes all the
information needed to complete the transaction, including payment on confirmation of receipt the
next day.

In both cases, arrangements have been made ahead of time so that minimal human intervention is
required for routine transactions; these can be filled quickly.




                                                                                       Page 13
Other examples of services that could be delivered in this scenario:

       -   payroll and deductions (such as direct deposit of pay), and

       -   accounts payable (such as recurring payments for rent and telephone).

Benefits include lower costs and increased speed of delivery and payment to both the service
provider and recipient, along with reduced record-keeping and manual data entry. This could
translate into less repetitive work for staff and a greater need for value-added, knowledge workers.

(2)    Self-Service (electronic). Canadian citizens, businesses and Public Service employees
       use workstations to access information and to generate transactions, orders and payments,
       resulting in reduced (or eliminated) paperwork and fewer approvals.




Example A: Instead of having to go to an employment centre in another part of town, a client
visits an electronic kiosk at a nearby shopping centre. Using a "smart card" issued by the
government, he peruses jobs that seem to match his computerized skill profile. A touch on an icon
on the kiosk screen produces a print-out of local jobs that seem promising. Another touch on the
screen provides a just-released schedule of new training courses at a local high school. He decides
to apply for one course on the spot and, again using his individualized smart card, obtains almost
instant approval from the government and from the high school. It's just like using a bank
machine, he thinks, as he signs off.

Example B: An officer requires some specialized supplies for upcoming field work. She logs
onto a purchasing system from her desktop computer and browses an on-screen, electronic
catalogue. As soon as she selects the supplier and places her order electronically, the departmental
accounting system also completes the internal paperwork (after checking the officer's budget to
make sure she has both the funds and the authority to place the order). The order is transmitted



                                                                                           Page 14
directly to the supplier via EDI. It's as easy as ordering books by telephone or fax, she thinks, and
the goods will be delivered just as quickly and painlessly.

Other examples of services that could be delivered in this scenario:

       -   placement agency services for hiring temporary workers,

       -   travel and accommodation services, and

       -   government database searches.

Benefits include convenience to the user, lower costs and increased speed of delivery and payment
to both the service provider and recipient, and the ability to collect data on purchases
electronically. For employees, it will be easier to access information across government, allowing
them to deliver enhanced service to clients. As a result, there will be less frustration and wasted
effort.




                                                                                            Page 15
(3)    Self-Service (walk-in). Internal and external clients seek information, goods and services
       by visiting common walk-in centres, where government workers use computerized
       services to respond efficiently and effectively.




Example: A businesswoman takes the elevator down to the main floor in her office building in
Saskatoon. Instead of going for a quick lunch, she decides to stop in the local government business
service centre next door. Her partner has been wondering whether it would be worthwhile to try to
develop some foreign sales for their recently patented polymer building panels. But neither one
knows where to start. "Perhaps they'll know in here," she thinks.

Inside, she's directed towards a researcher who, after consulting a database of contacts, calls the
building material specialist at the National Research Council in Ottawa. The business centre



                                                                                           Page 16
researcher suggests that it might take a little time to get all the information and perhaps he could
fax it to her when it's ready.

Two hours later, a three-page fax arrives. The first page lists four upcoming trade shows featuring
new external building materials; one is highlighted, with a note in the margin from the building
specialist in Ottawa suggesting that this has proven to be the most successful show for
manufacturers of similar products in the past. The second page is a print-out from a Canadian
commercial database and lists a two-day-old United Nations (UN) Request for Proposal for
innovative, light-weight, all-weather building material for experimental housing for central Africa;
contact names, telephone and E-mail numbers are provided. The third page lists three Canadian
prefabricated building companies which have all established records selling abroad. A marginal
note from a trade official in Tokyo confirms that the embassy will keep the new supplier in mind in
upcoming discussions on joint Canada-Japan cooperation on new uses of polymer building
materials for the Japanese housing market.

Other examples of services that could be delivered in this scenario:

        - Old Age Security, Guaranteed Income Supplement, Unemployment Insurance,
          Veterans Allowances benefits administration,

        - training and skills development, and

        - library services.

Benefits include enhanced convenience to the user, lower operating costs for service delivery and
improved levels of service delivery (faster, more accessible service). For staff, there will be
greater job satisfaction, since information and tools will be available to respond quickly and
efficiently to client needs. It will also be easier to work with colleagues electronically, via "virtual
networks", reducing the need for endless face-to-face meetings.




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(4)        Service with On-site Support. An intermediary group or agency provides multiple
           services, sometimes for several clients, maximizing the benefits of information technology
           and minimizing duplication and paperwork.




Example: A prominent Canadian is on the telephone with a government minister, agreeing to
chair a special task force. The work has to be completed in four months. He is promised a small
staff, a modest budget and "all the support you need".

Twenty minutes later, after a couple of quick calls to contacts in the federal government, he dials
the telephone number of the head of "Accommodations Canada" *, a special operating agency


   *
       For illustrative purposes only.




                                                                                            Page 18
responsible for providing office accommodations and support services for small agencies, judicial
inquiries and, yes, special task forces.

Three days later, while the Chairman interviews candidates for executive director and research
director, the phones are being installed in his new suite of temporary offices five blocks from the
minister's department. A technician is making the final connections to a small network of
computers, the automatic voice messaging system is already storing messages, and the office
manager is signing the delivery receipt for the Chairman's five boxes of critical reference books.

For the next four months, the Chairman will only have to authorize one monthly bill for the
complete suite of offices, technology and support staff. The same billing system and technical
support facilities are also shared with several dozen other small agencies, meaning lower costs
than the traditional "one-off" approach.

Other examples of services that can be delivered in this scenario:

       - staff and organizational planning,

       - retirement and job assignment counseling,

       - financial planning,

       - government lands and facilities maintenance,

       - site security services,

       - office maintenance and services, and

       - publishing and communication services.

Benefits include greater convenience to the user, shared costs and improved pricing, and less
administration and paperwork. For staff, it will mean less hassle in getting a new operation up and
running.




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(5)    Specialist/Expert Service Centre. Through the use of computer technology, internal and
       external clients can access "experts" in government directly and quickly, reducing the need
       to duplicate similar services and improving the rate and success of client response.




Example: It's 5:00 p.m., Tokyo time, and the trade officer clicks the mouse on her computer to
transmit the meeting report on a just-completed international conference on new building
materials. Seconds later, in the very early hours of the morning, the report arrives at six computers
back in Ottawa, awaiting action from a "virtual group" of experts who meet as required by
computer. By noon that day, the building materials expert at the National Research Council has
electronically routed a summary of the report to a list of six Canadian companies which the expert
group decided could benefit from three marketing opportunities unearthed at the conference by the
trade officer. A businesswoman and her partner in Saskatoon receive the report by fax and have a
request for more information on their fax back to Tokyo by end of day in Saskatoon. Six months
later, the Saskatoon company is closing a deal with companies in Vancouver, Calgary and Tokyo
to participate in a bid to provide a UN aid agency with portable all-weather shelters in refugee
camps in a war-torn part of the world. Back in Ottawa, the expert group of building material
specialists is commenting on a consultant's report prepared for the World Bank. A summary is
scheduled to be faxed to nine Canadian companies which might benefit, including one in
Saskatoon. The trade officer in Tokyo will also get a copy overnight by E-mail.

Another example of a service that could be delivered in this scenario:

       - a cross-country consultative process where professional association executives
         participate with departments using computer conferencing.



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Benefits include convenience to the user, and lower travel costs for experts and other employees.
There will also be increased opportunity for carrying out activities that add value and for
generating revenue.




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(6)    Supplier Interface (extended enterprise). Suppliers and internal consumers are
       connected directly to the government's order and payment systems, becoming an extension
       of these systems.




Example: In the offices of six different suppliers, sales managers are watching the clock and their
computer screens. In 10 minutes, and for the following hour, the federal government will be
holding an electronic auction-style competition for the right to provide a year's supply of optical
disks, magnetic tape and computer disks. It's an experiment, a bit like electronic trading on the
stock market, but it beats shipping a five-pound document by courier every month to the
government's bidding centre in Hull. One of the advantages is that, because the products are to be
delivered to federal and provincial agencies in 16 separate geographic locations, there's a good
chance that all of the suppliers will get some business, depending on how they bid on
transportation costs for each of the regional "buys". And, of course, because the bids are made in



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electronic form, payment is made directly to the supplier's bank account as each shipment is
received.

Another example of a service that could be delivered in this scenario:

       - an electronic news service, in which the information provider delivers news to client
         departments on a daily basis through direct links. In exchange, the supplier regularly
         downloads relevant, authorized government information from databanks.

Benefits include convenience to the user, lower handling costs and increased speed of delivery and
payment to both the service provider and recipient. For staff, it will translate into more demand for
knowledge workers, to handle and interpret the electronic information coming into and leaving
government.




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INFORMATION VIEW

The Information View represents the third step in the approach to government service renewal and
underscores the importance of redesigning processes and systems to gather, access and share
common information.

The two main objectives of this view are to

  -    eliminate the need to collect the same or similar information more than once within a
      department or within government; and

  -    provide government programs with access to information collected by other programs,
      especially where this would improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government service
      delivery.

In order to achieve the above objectives, it will be necessary to give due regard to privacy and
security issues, including assuring that information collected by law for only one purpose will not
inadvertently be used for other purposes.

As with other views in the Blueprint, the Information View benefits considerably from taking an
enterprise-wide perspective. Information gathered for a program or service that is being
re-engineered may, upon examination with a broader view in mind, be extremely valuable to
programs or services in another part of government or at another level of government.

Sharing information is essential

The common collection, analysis and sharing of information within and between government
programs and services will be essential in delivering government services to clients in a more
unified way. For example, the Revenue Canada project to create a single system for corporate
taxes, including customs, income tax and GST, is founded on the ability to share taxpayer
information between programs and systems. Creating a single registration number and
consolidated account for a corporate taxpayer requires having access to and sharing information.

The Blueprint vision of increased connectivity within government, with other governments, with
private industry and with members of the public reflects the view that collecting, analysing, using,
managing, transferring and disseminating information will soon become an even more essential
role of government departments and agencies.

To play its proper role in the improved delivery of government services, information must either
be collected originally in or translated into a digital format. The information must be shared and
re-used rather than re-collected in different forms by various programs and services. Special steps
must be taken to ensure the integrity and quality of the information and the consistency of its use.
Government will also have to ensure that special precautions are taken to respect individual
privacy, security and information access laws that have been enacted by governments to protect its
citizenry against unwarranted information intrusion.

Some of the information collected by government will have additional value when shared with
other levels of government and with the public. For example, aggregated and segmented


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economic information will be of special interest and value to the business sector. There may be
new opportunities for partnerships. Private-sector information enterprises, for instance, could
disseminate government information and provide government with the external information it
needs to manage and renew the Public Service, while public-sector institutions, such as public
libraries, could expand their roles as repositories of government information. Demographic and
statistical information will become more readily used in business, education, research and other
everyday activities.

Benefitting from an integrated approach to information

The integrated approach to information set out in this blueprint provides a variety of benefits:
improved decision-making by program managers and policy-making by government as a whole, at
both strategic and operational levels; enhanced client service, especially where government
processes collect usable information about clients and their wants and needs; and easier and
speedier service delivery to all regions of the country, especially rural and more remote areas. In
addition, information is a vital instrument of government accountability.

The existence of timely and reliable information in electronic form permits the creation and
operation of "virtual" groups of experts or decision-makers. These groups can make faster and
more accurate decisions on, for example, the entitlement of individual Canadians to social
benefits. It is also an essential ingredient for new forms of remote training and education. Staff
will gain greater interaction with colleagues and easier access to mission-critical information.
They will also be required to upgrade knowledge-worker skills through continuous training.

Treating government information as a national resource

Under the Information View, there are two types of information: that required for internal
processes and, therefore, for automating processes; and that which has value as a common
resource, for third parties. Some would argue that both categories of information residing within
government represent a public good. Government information, in this way, should be treated as a
national resource, vital to the country's social, cultural and economic development.

Another area of growing importance is external information brought into government for
decision-making. It may be electronic news used to keep abreast of government announcements
and relevant political and business developments, or statistical or financial information required
for the analysis of business trends and conditions. Or it may be reports, via electronic mail, of
international trade opportunities from government posts abroad.

Information Management for Automating Processes

Information is collected for use across government to carry out its business. This information can
be managed so that business processes related to delivering common support services over a
networked environment can be automated. Examples follow.

   Client Information - profiles of the requesting individual or group, and their entitlements
    under the service offerings




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       Service Information - descriptions of the service offerings available, the associated rules and
        guidelines, and the appropriate means of supply

       Client Service Order Information - descriptions of the requested services from the clients
        and the related status

       Resource Information - descriptions of the available resources to deliver the requested
        service and their scheduled commitments

       Supplier Information - descriptions of the available suppliers of the requested service or
        materiel and the associated contracts and agreements

       Administrative Information - charts of accounts, financial transactions, financial assets and
        liabilities, and employee agreements

Managing Common Information

There is also a need to provide various types of government information of common use across the
government. These can readily be put into a computer-accessible form and made available via the
government enterprise network. These include:

    -     directories of people, places, services and information;

    -     references and databanks on federal legislation, policies, procedures and guidelines;

    -     schedules of government events and periodicals (e.g., budget and planning cycle dates,
         collective bargaining, bid closures);

    -     catalogues of supplies, services and suppliers;

    -     on-line libraries of government reference information and financial reports;

    -     training and course curricula, schedules and provider lists;

    -     Canadian geographical, demographic and statistical information; and

    -     news media reports.

Common information, once captured, can be shared among multiple users. After information that
satisfies many requirements is identified, services can be developed and shared for planning,
acquiring, maintaining and disposing of it. Common information is an integral part of the renewal
efforts for re-engineering work processes and developing and sharing application systems.

The public and special interest groups also have a direct interest in many of these information
resources. Providing improved access to this information by using the government enterprise
network will benefit many client groups.




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As with technology, there is a need to increase the use of standards for collecting and exchanging
data in order to minimize costs, maximize efficiency, and encourage the free flow of information.

The valid concerns regarding copyright, privacy and security are fully recognized in the
Information View of this blueprint.

Guiding Information Principles

Simplifying the search for government information

   Managing Government Information - Government information, in all forms (e.g., print,
    voice, electronic, or image), is a strategic resource and will be effectively managed throughout
    its lifecycle. Metadata (information about work processes, information, applications and
    technology) is an information resource and must be managed according to the same principles
    as information itself. Management of electronic and hard-copy information will need to be
    integrated. Coordinating and integrating the management of electronic and hard-copy
    information and voice and data networks will be important. It will be necessary to implement
    mechanisms to easily and accurately find government information. Benefits include improved
    availability and quality of information for processing and decision-making, resulting in
    improved service.

   Data Administration - All government information will be subject to data administration to
    ensure common definitions, integrity and consistency of use. This will require having
    standards at all levels and maintaining a data dictionary and repository. Benefits include
    reduced costs to obtain and manage information.

Capturing information once

   Sharing and Re-using Information - Information will be captured once, as close to the
    source as possible, then shared and re-used by authorized users. This will require investments
    in new telecommunications links, common standards, and special precautions to protect
    privacy and security. Benefits include significant cost savings associated with eliminating
    duplicate data entry and the need to verify data.

   Exchanging Information - Once captured, government information should be stored and
    exchanged electronically to avoid transcribing and re-entering it manually. This will require
    further study on who is responsible for maintaining the data. Exchange standards will have to
    be developed and implemented. Benefits include higher data integrity and reduced costs of
    collection and dissemination.

   Protecting Information - The security, integrity and privacy of government information will
    be ensured by integrating information technology security measures with physical, personnel
    screening and other security measures. This will require security and privacy measures to be
    designed into all new information technology systems through an integrated set of safeguards
    which ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information and its related
    processes. Benefits include improved privacy, the protection of information from loss, and
    increased public confidence in how the government handles information.


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   Retaining Information - Government information will be retained only while there exists a
    business need, a legislative or policy requirement, or when it has historical or archival
    importance. Benefits include reduced costs in maintaining information records and a full
    archival base for future generations of Canadians.

   Stewardship - Specific organizational units will be accountable for managing designated
    classes of government information to ensure its integrity, quality and relevance and to restrict
    its accessibility to authorized users. Benefits include improved ease of access to government
    information, improved productivity and a lower overall cost.




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APPLICATION VIEW

The Application View (the fourth step in the approach to government service renewal) links the
work process and information models together. The goal is to have as much of the information as
possible maintained in computer-accessible form. Applications create, update, access and delete
these automated information bases. These applications support the work processes by providing
automated procedures and managing information storage and retrieval in support of service
delivery. The Blueprint makes key distinctions between applications that assist the user in
performing the work processes (workflow managers) and applications that manage the resulting
updates to information files (transaction managers).

Future Application Environment

   The Blueprint is proposing to continue to move away from traditional approaches to an
    application architecture: from centralized and integrated to modular and shareable.

Moving away from large integrated applications

In the past, most applications were designed as highly integrated, on-line transaction processing
systems for a given functional area of the business. They included, usually in a centralized
location, all of the associated business transactions for that function, all of the related information
files or databases, the required data capture screens, and inquiry and reporting capabilities. They
became large, complex, expensive and difficult to maintain. The Blueprint proposes separating
these functions into different application components.

In the Blueprint application environment, there will be suites of systems (consisting of modular,
"Lego-like" interconnectable pieces), each dealing with specific functionalities.

Providing staff with desktop intelligence

This future application environment will provide staff with the "intelligence" at their desktop
computers to handle the information and the transactions associated with their day-to-day
activities. While the skills required will be higher in many cases, challenge and job satisfaction
should also be much enhanced.

The different types of applications are described below.

Application Components

   Workflow Managers. These are used to guide users through the computer-based processes of
    requesting, planning, executing and delivering services. At each step, the workflow managers
    capture the required information, present and explain the options available, apply the
    associated rules, track the progress of the request and link to the appropriate service transaction
    manager when the preparation is complete. Workflow managers should have the same look
    and feel, independent of the type of service being used.




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   Service Transaction Managers. These are transaction processing engines that create and
    update the information that supports process automation. Each service transaction manager
    will be dedicated to handling a specific type of transaction. Each can generate further events to
    trigger other transaction managers. Functions of service transaction managers include:

       - managing client information - maintaining information on clients such as
         identification, location and entitlements (this application information is shareable
         across multiple services);

       - managing services - maintaining information on the nature of the services available,
         the associated rules and guidelines, and planning management information on
         forecasted and actual usage;

       - managing orders - maintaining information on the nature, status and performance of a
         specific client's service requests; and

       - managing delivery - maintaining the plans for and status of the methods of executing
         the client's service order.

Using middle-ware as a bridge

Service transaction managers will evolve gradually to become generic and discrete, dedicated to a
very specific common type of transaction. By using middleware, older, mainframe-based
applications can continue to be used. They can be treated as quasi-service transaction managers by
suppressing reporting and other functionalities. Their transaction processing capability can be
adapted to accept data capture from readily available workflow automation mechanisms such as
intelligent electronic forms.

   Supporting Productivity Tools. In the target architecture, a number of personal and
    workgroup productivity tools will be available to the users on a network through a standard
    interface on intelligent workstations. These include:

       -    document creation tools - a standardized set of functions for composing documents,
           supporting the full range of mixed media requirements (such as text, tables, diagrams,
           images and voice annotation, as needed);

       -    electronic mail and bulletin boards - technologies for distributing messages and
           documents to clients across the common resource services network;

       -    decision support tools - a range of selected analysis and modeling tools to support
           individual and work group decision-making. These will include standard spreadsheets
           with graphic display capabilities, as well as more advanced simulation and modeling
           tools for special applications; and

       -    interactive conferencing tools - functions for bringing various parties together
           interactively and, especially, for linking with support service experts over the common
           services network. In their simplest form, these are enhanced telephony audio



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          conferences, but technology breakthroughs now make video and shared-screen
          conferencing at the desktop a distinct possibility for high-demand areas.

   Client and Supplier Applications. To some extent, these are also part of the application
    environment. Certain program area applications (mostly resource related) can be directly
    linked to the support services, through such techniques as electronic data interchange (EDI) or
    sharing databases.

    Supplier applications can also be directly linked with support services through such techniques
    as EDI, bulletin boards or sharing databases. Typically, the common support services would
    interface with supplier information applications and order processing, order status
    management and settlement processes.

Considerations for Development and Migration

Developing re-usable modules

   As discussed, many work processes and sub-processes for government services have a high
    degree of commonality -- a circumstance well suited for modular design, sharing and re-using.
    Large departments may customize applications around core common workflow and
    transaction managers for added functionalities. A repository of re-usable modules should be
    developed for broad distribution.

   Modular systems design will be used to develop the next generation of applications, leading
    ultimately to the Blueprint environment made up of workflow managers, service transaction
    managers, productivity tools, and interfacing with client and supplier applications using EDI.

Guiding Application Principles

   Sharing Systems - Computer systems for common processes or functions will be shared
    broadly across the government. This will require developing funding mechanisms for
    co-operating efforts and addressing change management issues. It will also be necessary to
    plan the development and migration of shared systems. Benefits include reduced systems
    development and maintenance costs since departments will no longer manage systems
    independently.

   Modularity - Applications will be designed using modular components for basic and optional
    functions. This will require an organization responsible for driving and managing the common
    modules. Benefits include increased ease of reconfiguration, which will reduce costs and
    improve service. The approach should also shorten development time for new and
    reconfigured systems.

   Rapid Application Development - To minimize risks in application development, use joint
    development teams on short term (i.e. 4-6 months) projects which focus on yielding a working
    prototype, which may then be refined and improved via successive iterations through to
    implementation. This will require a revised system development lifecycle methodology using




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    Rapid Application Development tools. Users will have to assume more accountability for
    application development and will work as partners with information technology professionals.

   Re-usability - Applications will be designed to use common, shareable components. This will
    require a methodology and organization to identify, acquire and manage common modules.
    Benefits include reduced development time for new applications and lower costs for
    maintenance, implementation and staff training.

   Distribution - Applications and tools will be structured so they can be replicated and
    distributed on the government enterprise network. Using the network to maintain and
    distribute software should lower costs and reduce duplication of effort. Licensing agreements
    and partnership issues will have to be addressed.

   Standard Inter-application Interfaces - Standard interfaces between application modules
    will be used to accommodate information sharing and transfer of transactions. This will
    require managing application interfaces. Benefits include improved interconnectivity and
    applications being shared more easily, resulting in lower costs.

   Consistency - Applications will be designed to use industry-standard user interfaces,
    providing a consistent look and feel to the users of multiple applications and tools. This will
    require decisions and standards on user interfaces, e.g., Graphical User Interface (GUI).
    Benefits include lower costs for training and support and, over time, reduced costs for
    developing applications.




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TECHNOLOGY VIEW

Enhancing the human elements

The Technology View, the final step of the approach, addresses the architectural (networks,
servers, communications and workstations) and service (networking, infrastructure and standards
management) components of the Blueprint. This technology architecture must deliver the
common IT infrastructure services required to support the Business, Work, Information and
Application views. The goal of this architecture is to allow for flexibility in placing user-
accessible services at different places on a government enterprise client/server network. Finally,
the technology architecture must enhance the "human face of government", not depersonalize the
delivery of government services to the public. It must enable staff to serve clients better by giving
them access to the information and tools they require.

Components of the Technology Infrastructure

This section describes the four components of the technology architecture of this blueprint:

   networks that connect internal and external clients, suppliers and users with the applications,
    services and information they require and share;

   servers that provide processing services, storage and information services;

   communication facilities for sharing information interactively and transferring it reliably; and

   workstations to access services and information where and when needed.

   Networks

The Blueprint recognizes the heterogeneous nature of computing platforms and networks in
government. A multi-layered network, from local-area through to global networks, is part of the
architecture.

Pursuing alliances to share costs and benefits

Networks are themselves shareable and can serve multiple layers of government or other partners.
In order to maximize benefits to the Canadian public, the government will actively pursue
alliances with industry and other governments to share the cost and the benefits of all networks,
whether they are within a shared office complex or metro area or are global.

A brief description of each type of network follows. Subsequent parts in this section provide more
details on architectural elements, including networks.

Local-Area Network (LAN). These networks will link workstations and servers of program
service delivery locations that are in close proximity to one another, such as in a common office
complex or building. Authorized users of workstations connected to a LAN will be able to use all
services and to share resources on the LAN.



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Metropolitan-Area Network (MAN). In metropolitan areas where several government service
delivery locations need to interact extensively with one another, such as the National Capital
Region, a high-speed MAN will interconnect the area's government LANs.

Wide-Area Network (WAN). This type of network will support high-end services such as
desktop, video-conferencing and the exchanging of large volumes of data. It will interconnect
various MANs and LANs in wider geographical areas such as regions. Though these may be
distinct physical networks, they will be transparent to users as part of the government enterprise
network.

Linking local networks

Government Enterprise Network (GEN). This global network will link the government's
various LANs, MANs and WANs, so that users see them as a single network. Some special
workstations like public infocentre kiosks may be connected directly to this network.

Public Networks. Public networks, such as telephone company networks, may be used to provide
access to employees working at home, the general public, suppliers, and staff whose offices cannot
economically be connected to the government enterprise network. Since users will not be aware of
the fact that a public network is involved in the connection once it is connected to the GEN, public
networks will be, in effect, an integral (albeit external) component of the architecture.

   Servers

Network File Servers. Network file servers can vary significantly from one application to
another. In a small to medium-sized environment, powerful personal computers with added
storage and processing capacity will typically be adequate for servicing most day-to-day user
needs. In larger installations, several high-end micro-computers may be required to act as file
servers for the several workgroups involved.

These servers will usually provide common processing (and information storage) to users and may
be accessible from remote locations. Applications typically running on these stations include
electronic mail, project management, scheduling, and sharing local resources. These servers will
support the workflow managers as identified in the Blueprint. Applications can be shared by LAN
users and workload management can be implemented to balance work and optimize the use of
resources.

Metropolitan- and Wide-Area Network Servers. These processors provide distributed
computing at the metropolitan and regional levels. They typically support a number of work sites.
Applications are replicated in multiple servers, using information that pertains to a geographical
area of operation. Some of the service transaction managers may use these distributed servers
where applications can effectively use distributed transaction management processors.

Mail Servers. Mail servers act as a post office for storing and distributing messages, documents,
and files en route to recipients or applications. The scale (low, mid-range, high-end) of the server
that will be used to service these requests varies with message volumes, traffic and types. In
general, high-end micro-computing resources, storage capacity and connectivity to the LANs,



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groupware, inter-application messaging processes (e.g., mail-aware applications) and various
E-mail gateways are the major considerations in drawing up the specifications.

Special Purpose Servers. Print, telecommunications and other special-purpose servers dedicated
to managing the requests for specific components of the IT architecture will be used wherever they
provide improved service delivery. These servers will generally be of the typical micro-computer
class since their functions, as a rule, do not require high-end technologies. They may, however,
manage requests for very sophisticated resources.

Information Servers. This class of server provides various information services to users or to
applications through the common services network. The services provided include:

   data warehouses - storing and retrieving shared information resources (structured, relational
    data);

   databases - storing and retrieving application information (databases and data warehouses are
    often referred to as database servers);

   document libraries - storing and retrieving documents (text and image-based, from computer
    sources or scanned documents);

   software libraries - storing and distributing re-usable software objects (repository services)
    for constructing and disseminating applications across the network;

   courseware libraries - storing and distributing computer-based training.

Application Servers. The Blueprint has identified four types of application servers based on the
types of applications (identified in the application architecture), their associated usage and
transaction rates. These are:

   the personal computer - These are desktop or mobile workstations that, in addition to
    providing the front-end user interface for applications elsewhere on the network, can run many
    applications. These include typical composition or modeling tools such as word-processing,
    presentation graphics and spreadsheets. It can also support individualized workflow
    managers. These may be used when only one workstation is required in a program client area,
    when workflow is highly customized to individual users, or to support mobile users.

   the high-end workstation - The second level of processing uses higher-end micro-computers
    to provide shared work group services on local-area networks (LANs), metropolitan-area
    networks (MANs) and, in some cases, on wide-area networks (WANs).

   the mid-range processor - Traditionally called "the minis", this level of processing is rapidly
    merging with the high-end workstation. A distinction is made here to highlight some of the
    typical application services that are targeted at the higher-end micros and minis. These include
    the MAN, and regional and departmental WANs, described previously.




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    the traditional mainframe processor - There will continue to be requirements to use
     mainframe processors for large, data-processing-intensive applications that may not be easily
     downsized or for which the costs and benefits do not justify migration to other platforms. They
     may also act as large data repositories and network service providers. These ongoing roles
     must be recognized on a case-by-case basis and consequently lead to the heterogeneous aspects
     of the Blueprint over the foreseeable future.

Departmental Servers. Departmental servers provide centralized processing resources for
transaction management applications that are best organized around a single consolidated
database. Note that there will be many of these "centralized" processors supporting the Blueprint
transaction managers, as well as program area applications. They can be placed in different
locations on the network, allowing the distribution of government programs and "head office"
functions.

External Servers. External suppliers of shared computing or information resources should be
considered for delivering certain types of applications or IT services. These servers could service
applications such as electronic mail, bulletin boards and EDI to provide an external reach for
suppliers and the general public. These servers also help maintain security by isolating external
client accesses from the full range of departmental user accesses.

Planning for change

Conversion Considerations. The incremental fade-out of applications from central (mainframe)
processors to high-end workstation processors (distributed MAN, WAN and departmental servers)
will need to be addressed in terms of a case-by-case costs and benefits analysis. The following
elements should be considered:

    - converting applications and maintaining application programs;

    - converting data (distribution and other impacts on data);

    - networking needs (leveraging existing and new installations); and

    - operation and administration (impact on personnel, training, startup).

    Communication facilities

Various communication facilities are required to support the Blueprint's technical directions. High
bandwidth linkages are required in several scenarios involving multi-media and high-traffic
information flowing from site to site on the enterprise network. In other cases, public
communication networks, such as those of telephone utilities, will be adequate. The following
elements need to be incorporated into the communication facilities component of the technology
infrastructure:

    - connectivity to and from other governmental networks (e.g., those belonging to provinces or
      international trading partners) that share common information or service common needs;




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    - common and secure mechanisms and interfaces (e.g., GUI) to be used by the public when
      accessing and using government services;

    - touch-tone phone access to interactive voice response (IVR) applications;

    - support for television-based workstations interfacing over interactive broadcast facilities;

    - global network directory services unifying users and services across the government
      enterprise network;

    - support for connections, on-line access, and transfer of files and messages to public global
      networks;

    - support for electronic data interchange (EDI) and other electronic commerce
      communications requirements; and

    - support for teleconferencing and telework services (voice, video, shared screen, advanced
      telephony).

    Workstations

This section describes five classes of users and the related functionalities required by their
workstations.

Converging on connectivity and openness

Program Area Client. In general, government employees are increasingly using applications
directly. Because of the extensive installed base of workstations, it is not practical to restrict the
workstation and user interface to only one type. Practical considerations will prevail, but efforts
should be made to reduce the number of environments to a manageable level and migrate to newer
technologies that converge on connectivity and openness. Workflow managers may have to be
customized to accommodate some workstation environments that may also impose limitations on
certain tools or applications.

Many program personnel will spend more time "in the field", and have closer contact with clients.
Staff will increasingly telecommute, creating a need for portable, mobile, and home office
workstations.

Public Client. External client access must be included in the common IT infrastructure to support
the delivery of program services. These workstations may vary widely and include home or office
computers, mid-range and central processors, interactive television-based workstations that
interface over interactive broadcast facilities, and touch-tone phones that interface through
interactive voice response (IVR).

Support Service Personnel. Empowered groups of support service personnel will be able to
address routine needs in all support areas. They will be highly integrated with program area clients
and work closely with them, either physically or through the network. Their workstations should
support multi-media capabilities, including interactive video and desktop video conferencing.


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Support service personnel will handle routine transactions using workflow managers. All
non-routine requests will be turned over to support service experts or resolved with their help.
Training and support will use multi-media-based courseware and inquiry.

Support Service Experts. These specialists handle non-routine or special service requests. In
general, their workstation requirements should be the same as for support service personnel. They
will have special authorities to use applications and information to address unique requirements or
fix problems. The support service experts will be accessible from any other networked
workstation.

Suppliers. Government suppliers are a final class of workstation users in the Blueprint. It is only
practical to specify interface standards (e.g., EDI) for supplier workstations, taking into account
the diversity of environments in the business community. However, there will be several types of
transactions, such as E-mail, bulletin board access and down loading, inquiries, and supplier data
updates that will use interactive workstations. The use of touch-tone phones and IVR is expected
here as well.

Information Technology Services

This section focuses on the three major services that will be incorporated into the technical
infrastructure: networking; managing the infrastructure itself; and managing standards. Each is
described briefly below.

    Network Services

Distributing and sharing

         In an information technology context, network services are designed to support
distributing and sharing information, as well as processing capabilities for connected platforms.
These services link government sites, clients, suppliers and other external sites in order to
communicate, distribute or share data, or to access services. All elements under "communication
facilities" must be supported by the network infrastructure.

    Infrastructure Management Services

The technology infrastructure has to be managed and coordinated as a common service. This
includes:

    - acquiring, managing and maintaining common systems such as workflow managers on a
      shared basis;

    - planning and implementing new or extended services or features;

    - coordinating security, integrity, privacy, audit and accounting requirements related to
      accessing, using and updating services, applications and information;

    - issuing user access rights and related codes or devices;



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    - establishing and managing network service levels, including performance and reliability; and

    - coordinating network operations including repair, maintenance and implementation activities
      for related equipment, software and communications services.

       Technology Architecture Standards

Flexibility, interoperability and portability of applications can be achieved using a well-balanced
set of modern connectivity tools (e.g., middleware, work automation tools) and standards. In this
blueprint, it is expected that both will be used. When the word standards is used in the following
sections, it must be considered in terms of the range of solutions available from this dual approach.

User and Application-Oriented Standards. This category includes standards that support the
interface between the user and the application. These standards require the collaboration of five
key types of experts:

    - business process engineers (to identify better ways of doing business);

    - application distribution engineers (to ensure portability and conceal application location from
      users, programmers and system designers);

    - user interface designers (to ensure a homogeneous interface and conceal interface
      requirements from programmers and designers through an API for the interface);

    - data distribution engineers (to combine data and database administration to conceal the
      location of data across the client-server environment); and

    - systems designers (to integrate work from the other four types of experts into a system that
      appears seamless to users).

Three types of standards are included in this category:

    -     user interface standards (for a common look and feel and consistency of commands, options
         and messages across applications);

    -     information standards (for consistent data structures in transactions and in application
         program interfaces); and

    -     user-oriented media standards (for common standards for user-oriented media such as smart
         cards).

Delivery Platform Standards. The delivery platform covers a wide range of services. It includes
standards for hardware, software and telecommunications network facilities. Standards in this
category will be transparent to the users and remain independent from the underlying technologies.
Where it is cost-effective and practical, the required platform migrations should consider the Open
Systems Environment (OSE) approach. The Office of Information Management, Systems and
Technology (IMST) will continue to manage the government standardization program.




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Enterprise Environment Standards. This category includes generic standards insofar as their
characteristics apply to the federal government in general. It includes aspects such as security,
ergonomics, documentation, IT management and quality.

Guiding Technology Principles

   Modularity - The architecture will use technology components that can accommodate
    expansion, upgrading and substitution easily with minimal disruption to services. Benefits
    include reduced development costs due to the "building block" approach. An organization will
    be required to manage the components.

   Inter-operability/Connectivity/Portability - Information technology components will
    interactively work together through modern connectivity tools and standard components and
    interfaces. This will favour vendor-neutral standards and avoid unique federal government
    standards. Benefits include improved competition in the marketplace and lower costs to the
    government.

Local-area networks are key elements

   Distribution - Processing, storage and communications technologies may be distributed to
    multiple levels in the architecture, where appropriate, to support dispersed business
    operations. Local- and wide-area networks are, therefore, key elements of the strategy.
    Benefits include increased flexibility in locating applications, services and information.

   Workstation Orientation - Intelligent multi-function workstations supporting
    industry-standard user interfaces are the preferred means of delivering end-user functionality.
    Benefits include reduced training costs and a lower-cost platform. There may be initial
    acquisition costs to equip users and there will be ongoing support needs.

   Network Orientation - All workstations will be attached (wired or wireless) to the
    government enterprise network, with appropriately secure communications linkages to all
    authorized servers and users. This will require an investment in common infrastructure,
    especially as demand for connectivity increases from other governments and from the private
    sector. Benefits include reduced duplication, especially where networks become more
    standardized.

   Infrastructure Management - The architecture will provide for the management and security
    of the technology infrastructure. Security will be provided through an integrated set of
    safeguards designed to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information and
    its related processes. This will require, for example, taking steps to protect the network from
    disasters, sabotage and failures. It will ensure effective planning and management of system
    operations.




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APPROACH AND ISSUES FOR IMPLEMENTATION

Implementation Approach

The Blueprint is a dynamic, integrated framework for implementing government service renewal
over the next five years. It builds on initiatives already under way. The following six elements are
critical to its implementation.

   Community Leadership. Ministers and deputy ministers, with the strong and effective
    support of the Chief Informatics Officer (CIO), must champion the service renewal in
    government, recognizing that significant benefits will accrue to departments and their clients.
    Treasury Board policy centres will provide supporting functional expertise. The Office of
    Information Management, Systems and Technology (IMST) will coordinate implementation
    and provide support in business re-engineering and IT architectural design.

   Commitment to the Vision. Leaders, having espoused the Blueprint's vision, will
    communicate and explain it to all government employees and will seek their effective
    commitment. This commitment, which will also be sought from potential partners, must be
    sustained over time, since it constitutes an essential ingredient of change management.

Involving and committing people

   People Management. Strategies and plans must be directed towards involving and
    committing people; fostering open communication; involving employees in conceptual design
    and implementation and facilitating their shift to the new culture and structures; assessing
    composition and competencies of the work force; and resolving the human resources issues
    associated with the transition and change.

   Partnerships. The implementation of the Blueprint will require an effective and sustained
    partnership among staff within departments. In recognition of the increased interdependencies
    reflected in the Blueprint, partnerships will also extend to other departments, other levels of
    government and the private sector. Partnerships must be pursued and promoted aggressively
    to leverage common requirements, to take advantage of specific skills, to spread risks, and to
    share experience, innovation and investment.

Identifying change management requirements

   Forging Ahead for Results. The Blueprint represents an architectural framework that will be
    implemented and, where necessary, adjusted over time. To accomplish this, a set of service
    renewal projects will identify change management and technology requirements, develop
    migration plans, provide incentive through success, and begin a government-wide rollout. A
    government-wide electronic infrastructure project will support these service renewal projects
    as they spread across government.

   Departmental Implementation. Departments will use the Blueprint in planning and
    implementing their own internal renewal activities. They will reflect their planned approach to



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    implementation in such planning instruments as annual operational plans and information
    management plans, starting in fiscal year 1994-95.

Overall, the Blueprint does not start at square one, but builds on existing renewal activities and
policies (for example, Enhancing Services Through the Innovative Use of Information and
Technology: Strategic Direction for the 90s, issued by Treasury Board). The transformation
envisaged in the Blueprint will be achieved through continuous improvements. There will be
ongoing measuring and monitoring of government service delivery.

Key Issues

   ommunications. Business transformation can only be successful if all participants (e.g.,
    ministers, Public Service employees, clients, the IT industry) involved in bringing about the
    IT-enabled future are consulted throughout the process of design, development, and
    implementation.

Promoting participation and commitment

On going internal communication is the first step towards ensuring a smooth transition of
employees to an open and responsive environment. A well-managed communication strategy will
heighten awareness, address anxieties, and promote the participation and commitment of
management and employees to the change process. Effective internal communication is of value
to client satisfaction and to the improvement of services.

Consulting with Canadian industry is important to help it use the experience gained from
government business for competitive advantage in global markets.

   People Management. Successful implementation of the Blueprint vision of service renewal
    will hinge on the human dimension. It is critical that the people issues associated with
    implementing a new management philosophy and an organizational culture of continuous
    learning and service improvement be addressed from the onset.

Moving the existing workforce to the new culture and structures, assessing the composition and
competencies of the workforce, renewed training and development, open communication and
consultation, empowerment of employees and greater accountability are but some of the
challenges of transition that must be addressed.

New competencies and enhanced skills (e.g., network management, project management,
architecture and design, client service focus, team-building, etc.) are required for an
information-based operation focusing on client service. Empowered employees will need to
operate in a more open non-traditional organizational environment to provide value-added
services.

There must also be conscious recognition that change as a positive force must be introduced with
sensitivity to the needs of people within the organization as well as those of clients.

   Information, Technology and Operations. The key players must discuss and resolve issues
    about the privacy and security of information, standards for information and technology


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    management, pricing and funding mechanisms for using the infrastructure, and developing and
    implementing common, shareable solutions.

   Partnership with Other Governments and Industry. Common requirements and interest
    dictate that governments work together to seek shareable, cost-effective solutions in the
    delivery of programs to the general public.

The industry has the expertise and resources to provide modern equipment and services to support
the renewal of government operations. It also needs government business to leverage investment
and enhance competitiveness.




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NEXT STEPS




   Communicate. The draft Blueprint will be communicated to interested parties inside and
    outside the federal government in order to refine the document, and to obtain feedback, buy-in
    and departmental participation in pilots. Distributing this document has started the process,
    which will continue for the next several months.

   Endorse the Principles. The Treasury Board Ministers will be asked to adopt the principles
    set out in the Blueprint as a policy for renewing government services for internal and external
    clients. The Blueprint will serve as a basis for reviewing, adopting and promoting an
    integrated, enterprise-wide approach to the delivery of government services, following the
    consultations.

   Review the Requirements. There will be consultation with groups such as the Blueprint
    Program Advisory Committee, the Advisory Committee on Information Management, the
    Government Systems Committee, the Council for Administrative Renewal, the Treasury
    Board Senior Advisory Committee Information Management Subcommittee, and the Treasury
    Board Senior Advisory Committee, on the requirement for resources, skill sets,
    methodologies, and governance processes. This will take place at the same time as the
    communication activities.

   Launch Service Renewal Projects. IMST will work with departments and policy centres to
    select the first wave of renewal projects. The federal government will actively seek out
    partners in the private sector and other levels of government. Project champions from the
    community will then organize and plan project implementation; IMST will support them, as
    required. This will take place beginning the second half of 1994.

   Launch a Government-wide Electronic Information Infrastructure Project. There will
    be an examination of the issues relating to developing a government-wide electronic


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   information infrastructure, designed in part to meet the connectivity needs of the first wave of
   service renewal projects and future efforts. This review will be undertaken in close
   collaboration with Public Works and Government Services Canada, Industry Canada and other
   interested parties, parallel to the service renewal projects.

Already, some departments are using this blueprint in planning and implementing their own
internal renewal activities. The Blueprint proposes that departments collaborate through sharing
experiences (both failures and successes), development costs and efforts, and solutions.




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APPENDIX - Guiding Principles, Rationale and Implications

Architectural Principles

Architectural principles are simple, direct statements of preferred architectural direction or
practice. They help establish a context for architectural design decisions and a common language
for business and technology managers in making technology-related decisions. They address how
the organization proposes to conduct its activities, and how it intends to use information
technology to support its business. Like zoning laws, principles change relatively infrequently.

Each principle states a fundamental belief of the organization that is understandable to both
technical and non-technical staff. Each principle is shown with supporting rationale that relate the
principle to the business drivers (i.e. improved service and reduced costs). Additionally, the
specific implications of each principle, or impacts resulting from its adoption, are identified. The
implications can be used as the foundation for developing specific action plans.

Some implications are common to most principles and have not been identified explicitly. These
are the:

   need to review, modify or design rules and procedures governing the management, operation,
    and use of services;

   need to consider the applicability across levels of government;

   roles and responsibilities of the clients and service providers;

   initial and ongoing investment in technology;

   resources and skill sets required (e.g., specialist requirements); and

   importance of managing people, sharing values, creating a responsive and flexible work
    environment, and investing time and resources in enhancing employees' knowledge, skills and
    abilities.

Details on who should address the implications and when will be defined through the consultation
process, as outlined in the Approach and Issues for Implementation chapter.

There are five categories of architectural principles that correspond to the five architectural views.

   Business principles govern the overall architecture.

   Work principles guide how information technology should support the work organization.

   Information principles guide how information resources will be used and managed.

   Application principles guide how applications will be constructed, implemented and
    managed.



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   Technology principles guide how the technology components will be selected, acquired,
    assembled and managed.
Business Principles

Client Service Focus

Client needs will drive the design and delivery of government services.

Rationale

   Quality of service (as judged by clients) is a key measure of government and is the most
    visible.

   It reflects the intention to improve client service.

Implications

   Requires publicly available service standards, linked to costs of providing services.

   Need to closely align client expectations with the capacity to provide these services.

   Need to communicate service standards and manage services accordingly.

   Need to consult clients on a continuous basis.

   Clients increasingly expect technology to be used to deliver services.

   Services must be accessible in the official languages of Canada.
People Management

Employees, their involvement, development and commitment, will be critical to successful
business renewal.

Rationale

   Securing employee participation and commitment and resolving people management issues
    are key to successfully transforming business. Employees, with their knowledge, are
    well-positioned to know what the client requires and are vital for implementing re-engineered
    processes and improving service delivery.

   Employee participation during business renewal provides the opportunity for employees to
    link their competencies, development and career aspirations with the direction of the
    organization.

Implications




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   Need active employee consultation, involvement and participation on the team throughout the
    renewal process, i.e. from design to implementation.

   Need open, honest and timely communication with all employees and consultation with their
    bargaining agents.

   Need a rigorous and thorough analysis of the human resources implications, strategies and
    costs as a prerequisite to project approval. Human resources specialists must be fully involved
    in all projects from the initial phase to help identify the full range of human resources issues
    arising from the re-engineering and to contribute actively to their resolution.

   Departmental management must provide an atmosphere of continuous learning and
    development in a flexible and responsive work environment.

   Resolving the full range of human resources management issues will take time and money.

Common Shareable Solutions

Common requirements will be addressed by common, shareable solutions.

Rationale

   Avoids re-inventing the wheel, thus reducing costs.

   Provides an opportunity for cost reductions in retraining and duplication of work.

   Supports mobility of staff and, thus, using them more effectively.

Implications

   Requires standards to facilitate sharing in many areas.

   Requires modular government services.

   Need a government-wide mechanism to identify common requirements and to promote
    innovation and common, shareable solutions.

   Implementation will take time.

Partnership

Strategic alliances will be pursued with other governments and the private sector.




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Rationale

       Yields more cost-effective solutions by using other parties who have specific skills that the
        government does not or who have common requirements.

       Leverages broader opportunities for common, shareable solutions by:

    -     using a third-party investment capacity and

    -     forming innovative relationships.

Implications

       Need a policy framework that is supportive while protecting basic governmental contracting
        principles (openness, transparency, accessibility, equity).

       Need a mechanism for finding partnership opportunities and for identifying and selecting
        partners.

       Need to establish roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities of partners, including standards
        of service.

       Need to manage ongoing relationships with our strategic partners.

       Need to provide appropriate safeguards for privacy, security and access.

       Official language requirements must be taken into account when evaluating and implementing
        partnership opportunities.

Accountability

Accountability performance standards and evaluation capabilities will be incorporated into
the design and delivery of government services.

Rationale

       Reduces the direct labour costs and the overhead associated with a separate control system.

       Provides the foundation for improving service.

Implications

       Need to clearly define a notion of accountability that is suitable for the service provider and the
        user.

       Need to report actual performance against established service standards.

       Requires a mechanism to ensure that the appropriate metrics are gathered.



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Enabling Technology

Information technology will be used to its full advantage for redesigning the delivery of
government services.

Rationale

   Reduces direct labour costs for manually intensive tasks and the associated overhead costs for
    management, support and facilities.

   Improves service (quicker response, reduced errors, collection of better management
    information and accessibility of information).

   Improves service by enabling employees to move to more value-added, knowledge-based
    functions.

Implications

   Need an ongoing capability to identify, evaluate, promote and exploit the opportunities of
    enabling technology across government.

   Need to encourage innovation and early, direct involvement of affected Public Service
    employees in designing and implementing re-engineered business processes.

   Need standards.

   Need a (re)skilling program to ensure employees can make the best use of enabling
    technologies.




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Work Principles

Single Window/Seamless Service

Government services will be delivered to common clients through a single window and be
free of functional and organizational barriers.

Rationale

   Improves service since clients would no longer have to deal with several different
    administrative functions, programs, and departments in order to complete a transaction.

Implications

   Requires a concentrated focus on customer service.

   Requires commitment of the entire organization to the concept because of the potential impact
    on existing organizational structures.

   Requires active management of relationships with other single-window services, providers and
    external parties.

   Requires rules and procedures for service delivery and standards for level of service to guide
    the operations of the single-window concept.

   Necessitates establishing new cooperative networks and communication flows.

   Requires longer term adjustment to organizational structures to obtain maximum benefits from
    single-window client service delivery.

   Does not prevent specialized service where warranted.

Streamlining

The process between the client and delivery of the government service will be minimized.

Rationale

   Reduces costs for both the client and service provider by eliminating intermediate processes
    that do not add value once the technology is in place.

   Improves service to the client by focusing on tasks that contribute to meeting the client's needs.

Implications

   Need to align personnel with client requirements rather than to process tasks.

   Need to consider accountability issues when streamlining the service.



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   Need to re-invest time or financial dollar savings from streamlined processes into desirable
    new activities.

   Has an impact on existing jobs and responsibilities, which must be redefined in the light of the
    new processes.

   Services must have a consistent look and feel for direct access and self-service.

Choices

Where practical and cost justifiable, clients will have options as to how government services
are delivered.

Rationale

   Improves service by allowing the client to choose a system best suited to his or her need from a
    range of affordable service delivery options.

Implications

   Need a feedback mechanism to understand changes in client preferences and requirements.

   Need to assess the costs and benefits of new and existing service delivery options.

   Need performance measures to compare the quality of service delivery options.

   Requires an investment in network technology which supports multiple end-user delivery
    alternatives.

Consistency

Where the same types of work activities are involved for different government services, they
will be done the same way.

Rationale

   Reduces costs by

    -   eliminating administrative or program processes that contribute no added value;

    -    reducing process design, implementation, maintenance and training for different work
        activities; and

    -   promoting common applications, which will allow Public Service employees to move
        more easily across the government.

Implications

   Requires common terminology, definitions and transactions.


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   Need policies and procedures for the transformed processes, particularly for staff
    redeployment in common functional areas.

   Will be easier to transform services with a consistent look and feel into "seamless" processes.

   Processes and activities that do not add value will be eliminated.

   Implementation will take time due to difficulty in obtaining consensus across multiple
    departments involved in common delivery functions.

Location and Time Independence

Clients will have access to government services at any time from many locations, wherever
such access is cost justified and warranted.

Rationale

   Provides a basis for reducing such costs as real property, accommodation and transportation by
    focusing on low-cost geographical locations and IT-enabled network applications.

   Improves service since the client accesses services when it is convenient.

Implications

   Need to provide authorized individuals with tools and access privileges to communicate
    through the network.

   Need well-defined service standards to make service independent of location and time.

   Need to address the requirements of clients with special needs.

   Requires investment in the telecommunication/computer network and its linkages.

   Automated services must be provided in both official languages.

Continuous Improvement of Service

Services will be improved on an ongoing basis, with measurements embedded in the service
processes.

Rationale

   Defined service levels are essential to enabling line managers to respond to continuous
    reductions in operating budgets by making appropriate investments in technology and in
    pre-determined service levels.

   Improved service is not just a one-time occurrence, but occurs continuously.




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Implications

   Need to review the relationship of the organization with external groups whenever the
    organization is re-engineered.

   Requires a performance measurement framework that takes into account service levels and
    available resources.

   Need to redesign the management framework to focus on client service.

   Managers and employees must increasingly participate as team members.

   Certain processes and activities may be eliminated.




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Information Principles

Managing Government Information

Government information, in all forms (e.g., print, voice, electronic, or image), is a strategic
resource and will be effectively managed throughout its lifecycle.

Rationale

   Improves service by

    -    enhancing the availability and quality of information for processing transactions and
        decision-making; and

    -   providing clients and service providers with the information they need, in a variety of
        media and forms.

Implications
   Need to effectively manage both government information and its "metadata" (information
    about information, including the work processes associated with information, information
    itself, and the supporting applications and technology).
   Need to establish the accountabilities and service standards for managing information and
    metadata.
   Need to be able to classify and define data and metadata.
   Need directory services to provide clients with a secure, simple, and accurate way of finding
    government information and need repository services to store metadata.
   Need policy guidance on production, pricing and publication of government information,
    including Crown copyrights.
   Need to integrate the management of electronic and hard-copy information and of voice and
    data networks.
   Need legislation and policies to facilitate appropriate public access to government information
    through a diversity of sources (i.e. libraries, private sector information industry and networks).
   Need applications and technology infrastructures capable of storing, transporting and
    processing information in multiple forms and media.

Data Administration

All government information will be subject to data administration to ensure common
definitions, integrity and consistency of use.




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Rationale

   Enhances service through improved quality and consistency of information and improves
    overall effectiveness of management information systems.

   Reduces costs by making it easier and more efficient to manage information.

   Supports capturing data only once, and sharing solutions and timely, accurate data for common
    process requirements.

Implications

   Need a data dictionary and a repository.

   Need to maintain a comprehensive catalogue of standard data definitions.

   Need a mechanism to access the standard information definitions and communicate them to
    system developers.

   Requires common data standards across all levels in the information architecture of
    government service delivery.

Sharing and Re-using Information

Information will be captured once, as close to the source as possible, then shared and re-used
by authorized users.

Rationale

   Reduces costs by

    -   eliminating duplicate data capture and reducing errors resulting from transcription and
        re-entry;

    -   improving the consistency of information so it can be shared and re-used, eliminating
        duplicate data capture and storage; and

    -   improving the quality of information through increased standardization. This
        improvement decreases the need to reconcile inconsistent information and reduces the
        risks of poor decisions based on erroneous information.

   Improves service by reducing the burden on clients of having to provide information that has
    already been captured.

Implications

   Need an applications and technology infrastructure to support electronic transmission of
    information from point of capture to point of use.



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   Need a technology infrastructure and tools to enable users to locate and access all of the
    information they require for their work.

   Need government-wide standards for describing and defining common and specific
    information.

   Need to define the requirements of users to access information.

   Need to protect the privacy and security of information in accordance with the relevant
    legislation and best management practices.

   Common and specific information must conform to government-wide models and standards.

   Must ensure that information is accessible and that quality of information is maintained.

Exchanging Information

Once captured, government information should be stored and exchanged electronically to
avoid transcribing and re-entering it manually.

Rationale

   Produces savings from reduced paper usage and paper storage, improved productivity, reduced
    error rates in entering data and less need for reconciliation.

   Improves service because the necessary information will be readily available with more
    assured integrity.

Implications

   Need to provide the appropriate security and confidentiality of information so that only
    authorized users who have a need to know can access data.

   Need data interchange standards and a common network to access data.

   Need a policy addressing who is responsible for maintaining the data.

   Electronic information exchange may affect the organization of work.

Protecting Information

The security, integrity and privacy of government information will be ensured by
integrating information technology security measures with physical, personnel screening
and other security measures.

Rationale

   Reduces costs by protecting information from loss, damage, unauthorized access or alteration
    and lowers the expense of recovering information.


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Implications

   Need to incorporate an integrated approach to ensuring the confidentiality, integrity and
    availability of information and related processes when designing information systems and
    technology.

   Need security and backup mechanisms.

   Need low cost security solutions for LAN-based systems.

Retaining Information

Government information will be retained only while there exists a business need, a
legislative or policy requirement, or when it has historical or archival importance.

Rationale

   Reduces costs by eliminating the storage and management of information that is no longer
    required.

   Improves service by ensuring that required information is available when needed, that obsolete
    information is disposed of and that information of enduring value is preserved.

Implications

   Must consider retention and disposition as part of the lifecycle of information management.

   Must incorporate the requirements for retention and disposal when designing information
    systems and technology.

   Must provide services for archival storage and disposal of information.

Stewardship

Specific organizational units will be accountable for managing designated classes of
government information to ensure its integrity, quality and relevance and restrict its
accessibility to authorized users.

Rationale

   Improves service by

    -   equipping managers and staff with reliable, accessible information; and

    -   giving clients appropriate access to information and enabling service providers to deliver
        responsive services.

   Reduces cost. By improving productivity, it gives the empowered employee the information
    necessary to perform duties.


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Implications

   Must define the role of custodian and to develop appropriate accountability frameworks.

   Need performance standards to measure the effectiveness of the custodian's role.

   Need to define the standards for information exchange (e.g., magnetic, EDI).

   Need to define the information that will be made accessible to various service providers.

   Requires a policy addressing who owns the data.

   Need directory services to facilitate access to the necessary data.

   Access must be provided regardless of the physical location or the form of the information.

   Need to manage access to information in conformance with Treasury Board policies.




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Application Principles

Sharing Systems

Computer systems for common processes or functions will be shared broadly across the
government.

Rationale

   Reduces systems development and maintenance costs since departments would no longer
    manage systems independently.

   Improves service through better "product" management and improved capability for sharing
    information.

Implications

   Need to establish a user-focused management framework with clearly defined accountabilities
    for shared systems.

   Need to address change management considerations.

   Need funding mechanisms for cooperative efforts.

   Need to plan and co-ordinate the development and migration of shared applications.

   Need to consider factors such as the departments' operating needs and investments in existing
    systems.

   Implementation will take time.

Modularity

Applications will be designed using modular components for basic and optional functions.

Rationale

   Reduces costs by

    -   promoting sharing and common solutions;

    -   making each application cheaper and quicker to develop and maintain; and

    -   facilitating new ways of doing business through easy reconfiguration of system
        components.




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Implications

   Need to determine the criteria to identify application modules.

   Need to promote awareness of the basic modules.

   Need to promote system design approaches that ensure modularity and separation of
    application functions.

   Requires an organization and mechanism to drive and manage the use of modular application
    components.

   Must be able to recognize both common and unique requirements of clients.

   Pre-packaged applications will be preferred over custom development wherever they are
    available and cost-effective.

   The functional separation should be invisible to the user.

Rapid Application Development

To minimize risks in application development, use joint development teams on short term
(i.e. 4-6 months) projects which focus on yielding a working prototype, which may then be
refined and improved via successive iterations through to implementation.

Rationale

   Reduces costs by forcing out unnecessary and costly functionality and design changes, thereby
    avoiding time delays and cost overruns.

   Reduces cost of failure by providing decision points at each successive prototype stage.

   Improves service by having clients and information technology professionals work closely
    together as a team in developing applications and by providing clients with systems which can
    meet their essential needs over a short period of time.

Implications

   Users will assume more accountability for application development.

   Need Rapid Application Development tools to provide fast prototyping across multiple
    platforms.

   Need a revised system development lifecycle methodology which will support this iterative
    approach.

   Need change in approach in departments which would encourage client and information
    technology partnerships within tight and demanding timeframes.



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   IT professionals will need to develop expertise required to manage rapid application
    development projects.

Re-usability

Applications will be designed to use common, shareable components.

Rationale

   Reduces costs by

    -   facilitating re-usability, which promotes the efficient use of resources and minimizes
        redundancy; and

    -   shortening the time required to develop and maintain applications.

Implications

   Need a methodology and an accountable organization to identify, acquire and manage
    common modules.

   Need to identify who is responsible for maintaining modules.

   Need a repository for common modules and documentation.

   Need to identify common requirements that can be met via common, shared components,
    recognizing that there are some unique client requirements that cannot be met this way.

   Using common modules will significantly affect the existing IT development process.

Distribution

Applications and tools will be structured so they can be replicated and distributed on the
government enterprise network.

Rationale

   Reduces costs by providing applications that are easily distributed and maintained using the
    network.

   Improves service by providing clients with the appropriate applications when they need them.

Implications

   Need to define the architectural levels and the application environments they support.

   Need to consider all associated costs and management issues of distribution.

   Need to consider the various criteria to determine the placement of applications.


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   Need to classify, organize, distribute and manage applications based on their scope of use.

   Need to provide access to applications regardless of where they are located physically.

   Need to address issues about licensing, partnerships and sharing agreements for applications.

   It may be desirable to distribute applications physically to improve accessibility.

   Applications may reside on different platforms and process in an individual or cooperative
    fashion.

   More controls, such as procedures for backup and recovery, may be required due to the more
    highly dispersed environment.

Standard Inter-application Interfaces

Standard interfaces between application modules will be used to accommodate information
sharing and transfer of transactions.

Rationale

   Reduces costs and improves service by

    -   promoting sharing and re-usability;

    -   promoting connectivity and integration; and

    -   maintaining modularity.

Implications

   Need application programming interface (API) standards.

   Requires a process for establishing, adopting and managing application interface standards.

   Requires infrastructure-level data management for inter-application messages.

   Where appropriate, applications will interconnect across administrative functions and
    government.

Consistency

Applications will be designed to use industry-standard user interfaces, providing a
consistent look and feel to the users of multiple applications and tools.



Rationale



                                                                                          Page 63
   Reduces costs by

    -   supporting ease of use, thus improving efficiency;

    -   reducing (re)training required to use new or expanded applications; and

    -   eliminating a significant amount of coding and testing for development and maintenance.

Implications

   Requires decisions regarding the appropriate user interfaces.

   Need to evaluate industry user interface products.

   Need to define types of users and workstations.

   Supports mobility of staff and, thus, using employees more effectively.

   Implementation will take time because of the inherent difficulty of obtaining agreements on
    common application and appearance.

   Need to separate management of the user interface from the application.

   User interfaces should have options to accommodate unique or special user requirements.




                                                                                        Page 64
Technology Principles

Modularity

The architecture will use technology components that can accommodate expansion,
upgrading and substitution easily with minimal disruption to services.

Rationale

   Reduces development costs by specifying and using components that permit a "building block"
    approach to the technical architecture.

   Supports improved service and operational flexibility by accommodating continuous changes
    in business, organization and technology.

   Supports efficient use of technology by tuning platforms to meet local requirements and by
    allowing components to be re-used.

Implications

   Need to specify and develop standard components for application and technical environments
    and hardware platform types.

   Need a mechanism to manage and maintain the components.

   Requires a careful migration strategy with new investments.

   Vendors must develop families of specialized functionality that can be used on the various
    processing components of the government (i.e. that are scalable).

   Architecture must be able to take advantage of external developments.

   Technologies that support scalability will be preferred over more limited choices.

Inter-operability/Connectivity/Portability

Information technology components will interactively work together through modern
connectivity tools and standard components and interfaces.

Rationale

   Improves service by enabling any authorized workstation and user to access all applications,
    services and data on the government enterprise network.

   Provides cost-effective solutions for the government through increased competition in the
    marketplace.




                                                                                         Page 65
Implications

   Requires standards for the processing, network and development environments.

   Need to develop specifications based on adopted standards and common connectivity and
    interface tools. Solutions unique to the Government of Canada should be avoided in favour of
    open, vendor-neutral ones.

   An increased emphasis on security, network bandwidth and telecommunications cost controls
    is implied.

   Must be a means to interface legacy systems to new environments until the former are replaced
    or upgraded to meet open requirements.

Distribution

Processing, storage and communications technologies may be distributed to multiple levels
in the architecture, where appropriate, to support dispersed business operations.

Rationale

   Improves service by recognizing varying needs for accessing and sharing applications,
    services and information in different departments, levels of operation, and management and
    operating locations.

   Provides flexibility for placing applications, services and information at different levels and
    different operating locations to optimize performance, availability, cost, management and
    other factors.

Implications

   Must address how to provide support services for managing distributed environments.

   Requires a means for determining and evaluating distribution options.

   Enterprise networking is vital to the operation of the distributed architecture.

   Multiple-level distribution introduces operational and management complexity.

Workstation Orientation

Intelligent multi-function workstations supporting industry-standard user interfaces are the
preferred means of delivering end-user functionality.

Rationale

   Improves service by providing maximum flexibility at the interface with the user.




                                                                                            Page 66
   Provides a low-cost processing platform that can be dedicated to local user functions
    (e.g., word-processing, spreadsheets) or portions of shared applications, off-loading networks
    and host (server).

   Reduces training costs by providing an easy and consistent look and feel for users of the
    workstation.

Implications

   Need procedures and readily available ongoing low-cost support for users.

   May result in initial costs to appropriately equip users with hardware.

   Business needs should drive the selection of the workstation subject to requirements for
    interoperability, connectivity and portability.

Network Orientation

All workstations will be attached (wired or wireless) to the government enterprise network,
with appropriately secure communications linkages to all authorized servers and users.

Rationale

   Improves service by providing users with access to information and tools required to deliver
    services.

   Reduces costs by reducing the duplication of effort for planning, implementing and operating
    service facilities such as electronic mail, file transfer, development services, and directory and
    network management.

Implications

   Need to manage network security risks.

   Requires adopting appropriate communications and inter-networking standards.

   Some application and technology environments may require direct mainframe connection, but
    these should be avoided or minimized.

   New relationships with other governments and the private sector will require more two-way
    access.

   The government enterprise network must be managed as a corporate resource.

   Increased requirements for expanded bandwidths and telecommunications cost controls.




                                                                                             Page 67
Infrastructure Management

The architecture will provide for the management and security of the technology
infrastructure.

Rationale

   Reduces costs and improves service by making it easier to effectively plan and manage
    business and system operations. The architecture will provide timely and accurate information
    pertaining to work loads, usage patterns and performance.

   Reduces costs by reducing the cost of manual (and potentially inconsistent) collection of usage
    and performance information.

   Supports continuous improvement and change.

Implications

   Need to define who will manage the infrastructure.

   Need to identify the basic requirement to ensure the integrity and security of applications,
    services and data.

   Need an integrated set of safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of
    information.

   Need to identify the multiple levels of security that the architecture will support.

   Need to define and monitor management responsibilities for security.

   Need to identify the resource and management tools required to monitor and manage the
    infrastructure.

   Need infrastructure service standards and a performance measurement framework that also
    address non-technical criteria.

   Need to develop a mechanism to account for usage and costs.

   Need for recovery management across the network.

   Requires a framework for auditability and accountability.




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