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U.S. Hist Ch 20 terms


									U.S. History Intense Terms Ch. 20 The Postwar         Name
Years at Home (1945-1960)                             _________________________
During the years following World War II the
U.S. embarked on one of its greatest periods of
___________.                                        1 economic expansion
During the postwar years, the Gross National
Product of the United States more than
________.                                           2 doubled
GNP                                                 3 Gross National Product
The total amount of goods and services
produced by a national economy.                     4 GNP
From 1945 to 1960 the per capita income
nearly ______________.                              5 doubled
The average income per person.                      6 per capita income
A giant corporation that invests in a wide range
of businesses that produce different kinds of
goods and services.                                 7 conglomerate
A corporation made up of three or more
unrelated businesses.                               8 conglomerate
Gives a group or individual the right to market
a company's goods or services.                      9 franchise

A business that contracts to offer certain goods
and services from a larger parent company.         10 franchise
Many unique stores, with ties to the local
community, were replaced as a result of the
__________                                         11 franchise system
Two business systems or strategies that
contributed to a major expansion of business in
the 1950s.                                         12 conglomerates and franchises
In 1955, the average American family watched
television _________.                              13 four to five hours a day
In the early days of television many programs
were broadcast __________.                         14 live

Advertisements on this new medium helped
spur economic growth in the post war years.        15 Television
A 1950s technological innovation furthered by
research during World War II.                      16 the computer
Computer use became much more widespread
in the 1950s mainly because they became
_____.                                             17 smaller and faster
Term introduced by Grace Hopper, when she
removed a moth that had become caught in a
relay switch that caused a large computer to
shut down.                                         18 debugging
Ridding a computer of program errors.              19 debugging
A tiny circuit that improved the transmission of
electronic signals.                                20 transistor
A tiny circuit device that amplifies, controls,
and generates electrical signals.                  21 transistor
One of its major impacts was to reduce the size
of electronic appliances.                          22 transistor
Doctor who developed the vaccine against
polio. (first successful field test 1954)          23 Jonas Salk
Penicillin and others were developed before
World War II, but during the 1950s, doctors
discovered more of these drugs including ones
that were effective against penicillin-resistant
bacteria.                                          24 antibiotics
Business expansion after World War II resulted
in a shift in the work force from
____________.                                      25 blue-collar to white collar jobs
By 1956 more Americans held _________ than
__________ jobs.                                   26 white-collar blue-collar
Some people believed that white-collar workers
were less connected with products and services
their companies provided and were more likely
to ___________.                                    27 conform in their behavior

The high birth rate that started during World
War II and continued after the war was over.       28 baby boom
It began in the mid 1940s, during World War II
and peaked in 1957.                                29 baby boom
One result of the baby boom was families
moving from the _____________.                     30 cities to the suburbs
It was passed by Congress in 1944 to give
World War II veterans benefits like college
tuition and low-interest mortgage loans.           31 GI Bill of Rights
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944.             32 GI Bill of Rights (or GI Bill)
Law that provided fuel for the postwar
economic boom and the modern middle class
lifestyle that developed in during the 1950s.      33 GI Bill of Rights
Developer who mass-produced new
communities in the suburbs.                        34 William J. Levitt
William J. Levitt contributed to the growth of
suburbs by _____________________.                  35 mass-producing houses
Name William Levitt gave to his new
communities.                                       36 Levittown's
Following their customers many stores moved
from the cities to _______.                        37 shopping centers in the suburbs
Because many people moved beyond the reach
of the public transportation systems they
became more dependent upon _____.                  38 cars
From 1948 to 1958, passenger car sales
increased by more than __________.                 39                                  50%
The increase in the number of cars created a
need for better roads and resulted in the 1956
_______.                                             40 Interstate Highway Act

Provided $25 billion to build an interstate
highway system more than 40,000 miles long.          41 Interstate Highway Act
Inspired the development of many new
businesses, including: gas stations, repair
shops, parts stores, drive in movies and
restaurants.                                         42 the car culture
One long-lasting effect of the major highway-
building projects of the 1950s was less reliance
on the _________________.                            43 public transportation system
Eager to cash in on the increasing number of
cars on the roads gasoline companies began
offering ___________.                                44 credit cards

They became a popular means of purchasing
things because of their ease and convenience.        45 credit cards
Just like installment plans in the 1920s, credit
cards introduced in the 1950s encouraged
consumers to purchase beyond their
____________.                                        46 means
After the years of depression and war, many
Americans were searching for ____.                   47 security
In the 1950s Americans placed the greatest
value in ________.                                   48 comfort and security
Name given to the youth of the 1950s.                49 "silent generation"

In the 1950s they seemed to have little interest
in the problems and crisis in the larger world.      50 "silent generation"
Members of the "Silent Generation" chose to
pursue ________________.                             51 entertainment and fun
The popularity of Billy Graham in the 1950s
reflected a new interest in ___________.             52 religion
The renewed interest in religion in the 1950s
was partially a response to the Cold War's
struggle against ___________.                        53 "godless communism"
In 1954 what words were added to the Pledge
of Allegiance?                                       54 "under God"
In 1955 Congress required what phrase to
appear on all American currency?                     55 "In God We Trust"
Americans in the post-World War II years were
keenly aware of the roles that they were
expected to play as _____________.                   56 men and women
Making important decisions, supporting their
families financially, and going to school were all
parts of _______________.                            57 men's roles during the 1950s
During the 1950s most American women were
expected to be ____________.                        58 full-time homemakers
Were expected to manage the household by
American society in the 1950s.                      59 women
Pediatrician who wrote a highly influential book
on child care.                                      60 Benjamin Spock

Pediatrician and child care advisor who believed
women should stay at home with their children.      61 Benjamin Spock
Critics of Dr. Spock's child care advice believed
it was too __________.                              62 permissive
In spite of the traditional roles that were
expected many of THEM had enjoyed working
outside the home during WWII and were
reluctant to give up their good jobs.               63 women
More of them held paying jobs in the 1950s
than ever before.                                   64 women

The number of married women working outside
of the home rose from _____________.                65 24% in 1950 to 31% in 1960
Author of The Feminine Mystique.                    66 Betty Friedan
Woman's rights advocate who believed that the
culture wrongfully forced women into staying at
home and caring for children.                       67 Betty Friedan
Films like "Rebel Without a Cause" and books
like "The Catcher in the Rye," reflected the
alienation of many of America's youth in the
1950s and their desire to resist the pressure to
______.                                             68 conform
Popular music combining elements of rhythm
and blues, gospel music, and country and
western music, and known for its strong beat
and urgent lyrics.                                  69 rock 'n' roll
Gave young people in the 1950s a music style
that they could call their own.                     70 Rock 'n' roll
Disc jockey who first used the term rock 'n' roll
to describe the new style of music emerging in
the 1950s.                                          71 Alan Freed
Literary movement of the 1950s that rejected
uniform middle-class culture and sought to
overturn the sexual and social conservatism of
the period.                                         72 beat movement
Counter-cultural group of the 1950s that
promoted spontaneity over conformity.               73 beatniks
Counter-cultural group of the 1950s that
rebelled against conformity and traditional
social patterns.                                    74 beatniks
Considered the spiritual leader of the Beat
Generation.                                         75 Jack Kerouac
Author of "On the Road."                           76 Jack Kerouac
Another name for the Beat Generation.              77 beatniks

The resurgence of religion and the rise of rock-
and-roll were examples of _____________.           78 disparate trends in the 1950s
The social and economic transition to
peacetime after war.                               79 reconversion
When the government lifted price controls after
the war, prices rose _____________.                80 faster than wages

One of the greatest challenges that President
Truman faced in reconverting to a peacetime
economy was keeping _______________.               81 inflation in check
Although Truman agreed that workers deserved
higher wages, he thought their demands were
______________.                                    82 inflationary
When a railroad strike disrupted the economy
in 1946, President Truman attempted to                draft the striking workers into
_____.                                             83 the army
This law was passed by Congress in 1947 to
restrict labor strikes that threatened the
national interest.                                 84 Taft-Hartley Act
The Taft-Hartley Act was a piece of anti
_____________________.                             85 labor legislation
The Taft-Hartley Act was passed over Truman's
____.                                              86 veto
Truman's plan which extended Roosevelt's New
Deal goals.                                        87 The Fair Deal
A higher minimum wage, national health
insurance, and housing assistance were all
parts of Truman's ________.                        88 Fair Deal goals
In the 1946 mid-term elections Republicans
won majorities in both ___________.                89 houses of congress
Area where Truman found opposition
throughout his presidency.                         90 civil rights
Truman attempted to make progress in civil
rights but was consistently blocked by
__________.                                        91 congress
Progress in the area of civil rights was made
difficult because of the coalition between
Republicans and _______.                           92 Southern Democrats

He banned discrimination in the hiring of
federal employees and ordered the armed
forces to end segregation and discrimination.      93 Harry Truman

It did not appear that Harry Truman had much
chance to win reelection in 1948 because he
had lost support in his ____________.              94 own party
Southern segregationists split off from the
Democratic party in 1948 forming the States'
Rights or __________.                               95 Dixiecrat Party
Dixiecrat Party nominee for the presidency in
1948.                                               96 Strom Thurmond

Truman also lost the support of the liberal wing
of the Democratic party which supported Henry
Wallace on the ticket of the ______.                97 Progressive Party
Truman's Republican opponent in 1948.               98 Thomas Dewey
Even though Truman won the election of 1948
and the Democrats won control of congress
Truman had only occasional successes
implementing his _____.                             99 Fair Deal goals
Adopted in 1951, it limited the President to two
terms in office.                                   100 Twenty-second Amendment
Democratic Candidate for President in 1952 &
1956.                                              101 Adlai Stevenson
President who was the former commander-in-
chief of the Allied forces.                        102 Dwight Eisenhower
Eisenhower's vice presidential running mate.       103 Richard Nixon
His formula for victory in the Presidential
election of 1952 focused on: Korea,
communism, and corruption.                         104 Dwight Eisenhower
President Eisenhower's conservative approach
to government.                                     105 Modern Republicanism
"dynamic conservatism"                             106 Modern Republicanism
Cutting spending, reducing taxes, and
balancing the budget.                              107 Modern Republicanism
Eisenhower said he intended to be
"conservative when it comes to money, and
liberal when it comes to ___________."             108 human beings
Eisenhower endorsed a military strategy of
relying on nuclear weapons, rather than more
costly ______________.                             109 conventional armies
Eisenhower and his administration supported
_____.                                             110 big business
Because he favored big business President
Eisenhower's domestic policy reflected his
Republican predecessors _____________.             111 Coolidge & Hoover
The 1957 event that caused Congress to
increase spending on teaching science and
mathematics.                                       112 launching of Sputnik
Was an act designed to improve science and
mathematics in schools.                            113 National Defense Education Act
In response to Sputnik the U.S. government
created an independent agency for space
exploration ____.                                  114 NASA
           National Aeronautics and Space
NASA   115 Administration

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