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Nanoelectronics in Radio-Frequency Technology

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					 Nanoelectronics in Radio-
  Frequency Technology
       Peter Russer and Nikolaus Fichtner


  學生:吳柏宗
授課老師:陳文山



                                            1
                   Introduction

Since many nanoelectronic devices exhibit their most interesting
properties at radio frequencies from the microwave up into the optical
frequency range, nanoelectronics is an enormous challenge for the
microwave engineering community.
It requires a growing volume of theoretical, modeling and metrology
foundations, with the aim to help to bridge the gap between the
nanoscience and a new generation of extremely integrated devices,
circuits and systems.




                                                                         2
         Figure 1. Moore’s Law and more illustrating the main development
         trends of miniaturization required for various applications in electronics.
         (Courtesy ITRS. Used with permission.)
                                                                                          3
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
                                  Graphene



Figure 2. Structure of a graphene layer.




                                              Figure 4. SEM photograph of a 2 mm 3 12
                                              mm graphene FET. The source-drain spacing
 Figure 3. Schematic of a dual-gate           is 3 mm and the gate length is 2 mm.
 graphene field-effect transistor with
 a 350 nm gate length and a cutoff
 frequency of fT = 50 GHz.                                                                4
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
                        Carbon Nanotubes




Figure 5. Measured common-source
I-V characteristics of the 2μm × 12μ
                                                 Figure 7. Two-dimensional-graphene sheet
m graphene FET .
                                                 to be rolled up to form a carbon nanotube.
                                                 (a) Represents the circumference line of an
                                                 armchair carbon nanotube and (b) of a
                                                 zigzag carbon nanotube.

Figure 6. Structure of a carbon nanotube.                 C  n  a1  m  a2               5
  參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
        Carbon Nanotube Capacitors for
               Energy Storage




                                                   Figure 9. Equivalent circuit model of a
 Figure 8. CNT a distance h over a                 CNT over a metallic ground plane.
 metallic ground plane.




                                                                                          6
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
         Carbon Nanotube Transistors
       for Radio Frequency Applications




Figure 10. RF transistor using a parallel
aligned array of single-walled CNTs.             Figure 11. Single-walled CNT transistors and
                                                 circuits fabricated on a thin sheet of plastic.


                                                                                           7
 參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
                                Spintronics




 Figure 12. Arrangement of the carbon
 nanotube radio. A CNT is mounted
 vertically on an electrode and vibrates
 due to an external RF field. A second
 electrode collects the electrons emitted
 from the CNT tip.
                                                Figure 13. A spin-based field-effect transistor.
                                                                                           8
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
               Single-Electron Devices




                  Figure 14. (a) Schematic structure of a single-electron
                  box. (b) Equivalent circuit of a single-electron box .

                                                                                          9
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
                      Memristor Devices




                                                            Figure 15. Memristor switch.




                                                                                           10
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
        Light Transport in Nanowires




Figure 16. Surface plasmon along a metal-
dielectric interface.
                                       Figure 17. Plasmonic light transport in a silver nanowire.
                                       (a) Injection with focused laser beam at λ = 785 nm.
                                       (b) Microscope picture of the 18.6 μm long nanowire.
                                       (c) SEM picture of the nanowire end.               11
 參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
                  The Josephson Effect



   Figure 18. Schematic representation
   of a Josephson junction.




                                                 Figure 19. Josephson junctions: (a) tunnel
                                                 junction and (b) narrow bridge.
                                                                                          12
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
               Figure 20. Frequency conversion with Josephson junctions.




                                                                                          13
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
                Quantum Computing with
                  Josephson Junctions




                            Figure 21. Josephson charge-Qubit .                           14
參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
            Quantum Cellular Automata




Figure 22. (a) Quantum cellular automata (QCA)
                                                       Figure 23. Processing steps used to
unit cell showing the two possible polarizations.
                                                       fabricate organic thinfilm transistors.
(b) QCA universal majority gate and the
corresponding truth-table.
                                                                                             15
   參考資料:Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2010.936077﹐May 2010﹐IEEE Microwave magazine
                          Conclusion
In this article we have attempted to give an overview of the impact of
nanoelectronics on RF technology.
Today the development of nanoelectronics is highly market driven since the push
for progress requires tremendous investments. The continuous technological
progress in CMOS technology, following Moore’s law and the extensions more
and more than certainly offers large room for progress, however, saturation
already appears on the horizon.
Long-term research and development in direction of novel materials, novel
technologies, and novel device concepts is of great importance to maintain the
competitiveness of electronics industry. Novel devices based on novel materials
and novel technologies will be required to go beyond Moore. Even circuit and
system paradigms will change.
The next 20 years of development of nanoelectronics will be extremely
challenging and will be decisive for the fate of the global players in the field.
Although the reflow of investment can be expected only over a long period of
time a strong engagement in research and development will be mandatory.

  在目前科技任何產品都在創新,尋找新的材料、新的方法,把技術用                                                    16
  在可撓曲基板上,基板重量也能減輕了。

				
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