Most high school students study several types of mathematics. In college, they complete addi-
tional math courses, some of which prepare them to study even more kinds of mathematics. You may
think of math as one subject; in fact, there are many types of mathematics. This report describes seven
Arithmetic is the first branch of mathematics that you studied in elementary and middle school.
It deals with the study of numbers and the use of the four fundamental processes:
Arithmetic is everyday math. You use it daily in your personal affairs, and arithmetic is the basis
for most other branches of mathematics.
Algebra is used widely to solve problems in business, industry, and science by using symbols,
such as x and y, to represent unknown values. The power of algebra is that it enables us to create,
write, and rewrite problem-solving formulas. Without algebra, we would not have many of the items
we use on a daily basis: television, radio, telephone, microwave oven, etc.
Geometry is the branch of mathematics that deals with shapes. More specifically, geometry is
the study of relations, properties, and measurements of solids, surfaces, lines, and angles. It is most
useful in building or measuring things. Architects, astronomers, construction engineers, navigators, and
surveyors are just a few professionals who rely on geometry.
Trigonometry is mathematics that deals with triangular measurements. Plane trigonometry
computes the relationships between the sides of triangles on level surfaces called planes. Spherical tri-
gonometry studies the triangles on the surface of a sphere.
Calculus is high-level mathematics dealing with rates of change. It has many practical applica-
tions in engineering, physics, and other branches of science. Using calculus, we understand and explain
how water flows, the sun shines, the wind blows, and the planets cycle through the heavens. Differen-
tial calculus determines the rate at which an object's speed changes. Integral calculus determines the
object's speed when the rate of change is known.
Probability is the study of the likelihood of an event's occurrence. It is useful in predicting the
outcomes of future events. Probability originated from the study of games of chance. It is now used for
other purposes, including to (1) control the flow of traffic through a highway system; (2) predict the
number of accidents people of various ages will have; (3) estimate the spread of rumors; (4) predict the
outcome of elections; and (5) predict the rate of return in risky investments.
Statistics is the branch of mathematics that helps mathematicians organize and find meaning in
data. Statistics is
. . . the science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data. Governmental needs
for census data as well as information about a variety of economic activities provided much of
the early impetus for the field of statistics. Currently the need to turn the large amounts of data
available in many applied fields into useful information has stimulated both theoretical and
practical developments in statistics