GETTING READY by mzxsBtMf

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                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

Getting Ready For Model United Nations              3

Overview of the UnNSystem                           6

Role Playing                                        9

Delegate Code of Conduct                            10

Country Profile                                     11

Position Paper Guidelines                           17

Sample Position Paper                               18

Developing a Policy                                 19

Giving a Speech                                     21

Writing a Resolution                                23

Sample Resolutions                                  24

MUN Glossary                                        25

Precedence of Motions                               29




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                                     GETTING READY
                                FOR MODEL UNITED NATIONS

                Why do Model United Nations? If this is your first time, you may even be a little
nervous about attending and perhaps even about speaking in front of a group about international
politics. There are some important and persuasive reasons why this is a great activity.
         You will learn a great deal about the world outside the United States
         You will become a much better public speaker
         You will meet new people from all over Cleveland
         You will learn to be a skillful user of parliamentary procedure
         And, most of all, you will probably have fun!

Do you dream of changing the world? At Model UN, you will realistically see how this is done
and how the world tries to solve its toughest problems. A few months before the actual
conference date, your school will be assigned the country (s) that you will represent. Next, the
students frm your school will be broken down into separate committees, each having different
topics. All of the topics are problems the actual UN is currently discussing, and they range from
recent outbreaks of civil war to problems that continue to plague the UN such as global warming
or AIDS. In the time leading up to the conference, you must be prepared to research, learn
parliamentary procedure and brush up on your public speaking and negotiating techniques. The
better you prepare, the more you will enjoy the conference.

The purposes of the United Nations were in l945, as they remain today:
         to maintain international peace and security
         to develop diplomatic relations among nations
         to promote social progress and better standards of life
         to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
         to achieve international co-operation
Essential to the United Nations is the idea of collective security. Collective security means that
all members especially the great powers, accept joint responsibility for preserving peace. A
threat to anyone is seen as a threat to all. This idea is the keystone of the United Nations.

Being a representative to the real United Nations means being a diplomat, and being a diplomat
means hard work and compromise, keeping the interests of the globe uppermost in your mind,
not just the interests of your country. Being a diplomat means being able to see a situation or a
program not only through your own eyes but those of the country you represent and those
countries you are hoping to work with. This means thinking hard about the issues you will be
discussing and finding out as much as you can about them.

What are the best ways to prepare for the conference?
       Keep up with what is going on in the world around you. Good sources for
           information are newspapers like the New York Times, magazines like the economists,
           and radio stations like National Public Radio (90.3 in Cleveland.)



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          Research your country. As you complete the Country Profile (which is included in
           this section of the manual and on line) think hard about your country and the ways it
           is different from the United States.
          You might write to the embassy or to the UN Mission of your country to get further
           information. You can get the embassy phone number by dialing 1-202-555-1212,
           which will put you in touch with Washington DC’s information, and the mission
           number by dialing 1-212-555-1212 which will put you in touch with NYC’s
           information. Once you have the operator on the line, simply ask for the phone
           number of the embassy or mission that you want.
          Find out about the United Nations, its history and its powers. You should know what
           the United Nations has the authority and potential to accomplish. Check Wikipedia;
           check an encyclopedia. Your Model United Nations sponsor has access to a wide
           variety of materials about the United Nations, both print and media.
          Topic research can seem a bit overwhelming when it’s first approached. Know this –
           It is often virtually impossible to find materials describing your country’s position on
           your committee’s topic. You need to know as much as you can about the topic and
           then you can formulate what seems like a reasonable position for your country. At
           this point you can write the position paper, instructions for which and models are
           found in the following pages. You will need to have two position papers for your
           committee; make sure the heading is correct and that you meet the deadlines. Give
           them to your Model UN advisor, but be sure to keep a copy for yourself!
          Once you have gathered all your research, you need to have some way of organizing
           what you have discovered. First, you should place all your documents in a folder or
           notebook to have handy in case a fact or two manages to slip your mind. Make an
           outline of the key points of the problem, abbreviations and important facts on a piece
           of paper for quick reference. Before you walk into your MUN committee room, you
           should have a clear idea of not only your country’s position on the topic but possible
           solutions your country would support.
          You will need to understand parliamentary procedure. Though it seems intimidating
           at first, being part of a committee mean that you will catch on to it very quickly. Ask
           you advisor to show the video of an actual committee session. You will also find
           information in this manual about parliamentary procedure – but truly, seeing how it
           works is better and simpler than just reading about it.

Making up your mind to participate fully in the deliberations and activities of the committee is
the mark of a successful delegate. Here are some ways you can increase your level of
participation:
         Motion for one of the topics to be discussed first on the agenda and speak in favor of
            that motion.
         Getting your name on the speakers’ list for formal speeches should be a priority. As
            soon as you or your partner have made a speech, you should get your name on the
            speakers’ list again immediately!
         Ask questions of each speaker. Askinga question after a speaker has yielded their
            time to questions is easy. If you have a hard time speaking in front of a committee at
            first, it’s an easy way to break the ice. If an ally of yours is speaking, and you feel
            that he didn’t make something clear, you can ask a question to clarify what he as


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           trying to say. If you feel one of your opponents glossed over something you felt the
           other countries should realize, you should ask a question. Oh, and if you just plain
           don’t understand what the speaker was trying to say, ASK! If you don’t understand
           something we guarantee there is someone else who doesn’t also.
          Comments are another good place to express your ideas.
          Caucusing is very important. Try to take an active role in recruiting support,
           expressing your ideas, and formulating working papers and resolutions

What should you wear?? The all important question. At CCWAMUN, you should look
comfortable but professional. That means slacks, shirt, and even a tie if possible for the boys,
and suits, dresses, or slacks and sweaters for the girls. Girls should be especially conscious of
avoiding anything too much like party clothing or anything which is short or revealing. Both
boys and girls want to project a serious and professional appearance.

Each Model United Nations is a lot of work, so you want to make sure you get the most out of
the conference. Being an aggressive delegate can be fun. People always want your attention if
you are a mover and a shaker; you get lots of great notes, and just think of the friends you’ll
make. So, go to the conference with a good attitude and a lot of energy!




 Material adapted and taken from A Student’s Guide to a Model United Nations by Neesham C.
                    Kranz and Wynne Rumpeltin, Hathaway Brown School.




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                              OVERVIEW OF THE UN SYSTEM
The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first
used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, when representatives of 26 nations
pledged their governments to continue fighting together during World War II against the Axis
Powers.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. For example, the
International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union,
and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874, and both are now United Nations
specialized agencies.

In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for
settling crises peacefully, preventing wars, and codifying rules of warfare. It adopted the
Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent
Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902.

LEAGUE OF NATIONS

The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in
similar circumstances during World War I and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles
"to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security." The International Labour
Organization was also created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League.
The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.

UNITED NATIONS

In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on
International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on
the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United
Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944. The
Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was
not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.
Today, the U.N. membership has grown to include 191 nations.


UNITED NATION’S DAY: OCTOBER 24

The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been



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ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a
majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.

http://www.un.org/aboutun/history.htm

UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

The UN Charter specifically calls on the United Nations to undertake the progressive codification
and development of international law. The over 500 conventions, treaties and standards resulting
from this work have provided a framework for promoting international peace and security and
economic and social development. States that ratify these conventions are legally bound by them.

PURPOSES OF THE UN

The UN has four main purposes as set forth in the Charter: to

1) Maintain international peace and security;
2) Develop friendly relations among nations, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and
self-determinations

3) Work together to achieve international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural, and
humanitarian problems, and to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms;

4) Be a forum for discussion, helping nations achieve these goals

STRUCTURE OF THE UN

The UN is comprised of six main groups:

1) General Assembly
2) Security Council
3) Economic and Social Council
4) Trusteeship Council
5) International Court of Justice
6) Secretariat

UN BUDGET

The organization’s budget for the 2006-2007 biennium is $3.79 billion (resolution 60/247 A). The
main source of funds is from contributions of Member States, which are assessed on a scale
approved by the General Assembly.

The fundamental criterion on which the scale of assessments is based is the capacity of countries to
pay. This is determined by considering their relative shares of total gross national product, adjusted
to take into account a number of factors, including their per capita incomes. In addition, countries
are assessed -- in accordance with a modified version of the basic scale -- for the costs of


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peacekeeping operations, which stood at around $2 billion in 2000.

UN FAMILY OF ORGANIZATIONS

The United Nations family of organizations is made up of the Secretariat, the UN Programmes and
Funds -- such as the UN Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and the UN Development Programme (UNDP)
-- and the Specialized Agencies. The programmes, funds and agencies have their own governing
bodies and budgets, and set their own standards and guidelines. Together, they provide technical
assistance and other forms of practical help in virtually all areas of economic and social endeavour.




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                                            ROLE PLAYING

 CCWAMUN is a simulation of the United Nations. By its very nature, the quality and tone of
debate will be dramatically different from the real United Nations. In the UN, representatives and
their consular staffs spend months in preparation through caucusing behind closed doors and
interacting with other states before an issue is brought to a vote. A UN Representative or Head of
State will almost always make a prepared speech that will not be news to the other
representatives present.

At CCWAMUN delegates will only have two days to assume the role of their countries’
representatives and to simulate the actions of the United Nations. This short time raises issues
with which each delegation will have to contend. For example, delegates will seldom have the
opportunity to make a pre-written speech on an issue; instead, they will often be forced to react
verbally to situations as they arise. They may find themselves in a position where a reasonable
reinterpretation of their country's position in light of new facts is necessary. A delegate should
not simply read his or her country's established record on the issues presented. The delegate
should be prepared to compromise with the circumstances of the world as simulated at the
conference. Please note; this concept in no way gives delegates license to act out of character as
their countries' representatives. Representatives should generally research and follow the policies
of their countries, modifying them as new circumstances dictate. Successful role-playing
involves walking a careful line on policy. Avoid the extremes of either reading a country's past
statements verbatim or creating ad hoc policy with no previous basis either in previous policy or
at the conference.

Contents to be found at http://www.pitt.edu/~modelun/PittMunManual.pdf




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                               DELEGATE CODE OF CONDUCT
In order to participate in the MUN, every student must sign the Code of Conduct in which you
agree to:

       • Observe the distributed schedule of events
       • Remain in the conference center at all times, unless granted permission to leave by your
       faculty advisor
       • Attend assigned session and remain in the session until recess or adjournment
       • Wear delegation badges at all times
       • Refrain from using racial, sexual, and ethnic abuse in all verbal or written
       communications
       • Refrain from using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs
       • Not bring any weapon to the MUN sessions
       • Comply with the Cleveland Council on World Affairs staff enforcing this code

In order to be a successful delegate, you must:

       • Learn about the United Nations system and the structure and the purpose of the
       committee you are on
       • Represent your country’s interests and strive to achieve its goals, even if these conflict
       with your own personal beliefs
       • Interpret your country’s foreign policy and apply it to your Committee’s agenda; do not
       “parrot” its policies
       • Prioritize objectives
       • Be prepared to assert your position by referencing your research, facts, and past UN
       action
       • Understand the basics of parliamentary procedure
       • Treat all delegates with equal respect and be willing to compromise
       • Show respect for the committee chair and his or her rulings
       • Exhibit proper decorum at all times
       • Negotiate with other delegates to create alliances and to build support for your
       resolutions
       • Always stay in character!




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                                       COUNTRY PROFILE


For any statistics, please include the year that the statistic was from.

Name of School

Name of Delegates



Committee

Country Represented

                                 GENERAL COUNTRY DATA

Size (sq mi or sq km)

Border Nations



Capital

Other Major Cities



Ports



Major Waterways



Describe your country’s climate briefly.




Government Type



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Country Leaders and Titles




Official Language

Other Languages



What religions are practiced in this country? Please include percentages, and if there is an

official religion.




Political Allies/ Blocks

What are some current conflicts for your country? Ongoing conflicts?




                                       BASIC HISTORY

Was your country ever a colonial possession of another nation? If so whom, when and for how

long?



When did your country gain its independence? How?




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Has your country ever controlled colonies? If so, where, when and for how long?




How is the relationship with the former colonies?




                                         UN RELATIONS

Date Admitted to UN:

UN Dues Payment Status

Has this Nation Signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

Has the UN ever had to intervene in any Conflict Involving this Nation? If so what Conflict(s)?



                                     LIVING STANDARDS

Remember to include the year that your data is from. Try to be as current as possible.

Per Capita Income

Literacy Rate

What is the definition of literacy in your country?




Birth Rate

Death Rate




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Infant Mortality Rate

Unemployment rate



                                        POLITICAL RIGHTS

Do all citizens who are of age in your country participate in the political process? (vote, hold

office, etc)? Briefly explain in not.




Are basic freedoms, such as speech, press, religion and petition, protected in this nation? Briefly

describe.




Does your country regularly hold elections?

Is More than One Party Tolerated?

What are the Political Parties?




                                            ECONOMY

Remember to include the year that your statistics are from.

GDP and Growth Rate




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Major Trade Partners



What are your country’s major exports and how important is it to their economy?




What are your country’s major imports and how does it impact the economy? (Ex. Trade

deficits)




Does your country receive overseas development aid? If so how much?




What are the major agricultural products in your country?




What are the major industries in your nation?




What natural resources are available in your country? Are they utilized?




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What energy sources are available in your country?




                                           MILITARY

Military Expenditures (%GDP spent on defense)

Does your nation possess nuclear arms capabilities?

Is this nation threatened by neighboring countries?   Do these Border Nations have Nuclear

Weapons? Briefly explain.




List what you believe to be the 5 biggest domestic policy concerns for your nation.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

List what you believe to be the 5 biggest international concerns for your country.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.




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                                 POSITION PAPER GUIDELINES
A position paper is information outlining each delegation's policies on the topics being discussed
in their specific committee. The position paper helps the delegates organize their ideas and share
their foreign policy with the rest of the committee. Position papers are typically one page in
length for each topic, and contain a brief introduction and a comprehensive breakdown on a
country's position.

Each delegation in each committee (regardless of the number of delegates: 1 or 2) will prepare a
country profile and two position papers –one for each committee topic.

What the paper should include:

The position paper should include a brief introduction and a comprehensive breakdown of the
country's position on the topics that are being discussed within the committee. An excellent
position paper must include:

        A clear statement of policy on each topic;
        The country's background on the topic;
          o Political and/or foreign policy
          o Action taken by the specific government in relation to the topic
          o Conventions, and resolutions that the country has approved
          o Quotes taken from speeches made by heads of government
        The type of resolution the country hopes to accomplish.

Use the outline below as a suggestion for how to write the position paper, but not as a roadmap:

   1. Country Policy
         a. Summarize political and/or foreign policy concerning the topic
         b. Mention past actions the nation has taken to address the topic
         c. Include short excerpts of speeches by heads of government and ministers

   2. Solutions
         a. Propose solutions for the future
         b. Explain information/language the nation requires for any resolution to pass
         c. Conclude with a brief policy statement about the topic




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                                       SAMPLE POSITION PAPER
Submitted by: Cameroon                                   School: Anyschool H.S.
Committee:     United Nations Children’s Fund            Delegates: John Williams and Katie Smith
Topic B:       HIV Education

Around the world, AIDS is shattering young people’s opportunities for healthy adult lives.
Nevertheless, it is young people who offer the greatest hope for changing the course of the
epidemic. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified by virtually every nation of the
world, recognizes: “The right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of
health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health” (Article 24). It is
this globally acknowledged right, which UNICEF strives to protect in the consideration of
expanding HIV education. Cameroon, as a developing nation, recognizes many problems
concerning children. One of these problems, shared by the community of developing nations, is
the lack of adequate health education for children; specifically, that children do not have access
to the information and education necessary to combat HIV infection. The extension of this
information is integral to improving the welfare of developing nations, and imperative to helping
the status of children around the world.

The Cameroon Republic realizes the dilemma at regarding HIV education. The majority of
adolescent girls and boys do not have access to the information and services they need, and many
lack the skills required to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. Young people have a right to be
given all the information they need about HIV. They have a right to assistance to develop the
skills and attitudes that will help them deal with situations that may expose them to the virus.
Cameroon places a major emphasis on broader education as an effective safeguard against
infection. By keeping children in school and teaching them life skills, they are protected and
empowered. Younger girls remain particularly vulnerable to infection, and as such, Cameroon
has focused its educational aims on that group. Ambassador to the U.N. Martin Belinga-
Eboutou, noted in a Security Council meeting on Africa’s future that “the efforts of the
international community to implement various analyses and recommendations had not always
equaled the requirements of the situation in Africa. Slowness and timidity had been a source of
great frustration for Africans.” Cameroon believes, that the solutions recommended by UNICEF
must be the ones that work for Africa.

At every step of the process, young people need to be involved. Interactive methods, including
peer education, where adolescents talk to each other about relationships, safer sex, peer pressure
and their expectations should be considered. Although the Cameroon Republic supports all these
actions, the primary problem for our nation is the lack of health infrastructure and necessary
funding. It is in the best interests of the developed nations, private health corporations, non-
governmental organizations, and other members of the international community, to reach out to
those nations in need. Our battle for a healthy child population is the world’s battle. It is the
Cameroon Republic’s expressed hope that through effective education, useful health services,
and adequate outside funding, that education can save the world’s children from the scourge of
HIV/AIDS.




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                                    DEVELOPING A POLICY
There are three most important things to consider when you are developing your own country's
policy. Whenever you are assigned a country and a topic, it is important for you to consider these
factors before making any kind of (intelligent) judgment calls on what your policy should be.

HAVE A GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF THE ISSUE AND HAVE A SENSE
OF DIRECTION.
More often than not, a MUN delegate tends to neglect this area. However, having a good
understanding of the topic, knowing exactly where the problem lies, and deciding how to
approach that topic is very important. Research the topic thoroughly! Find out about some of the
past UN actions, and use them as guidelines for your policy. The United Nations delegates, like
those in any other political organization, tend to repeat policy statements over and over again.
None of the issues that UN talks about are truly "new" issues. They just happen in different
locations of the world, or in different time frames (some of them are age-old issues that are never
resolved). Thus, having a good understanding of the issue should be your top priority so that you
can formulate intelligent and responsible policy statements.

UNDERSTAND YOUR OWN COUNTRY
Many delegates focus on this aspect of the MUN research more than any other. However, this
should only be the second step in your research. You must first understand the topic at hand
before going into your country research. Country research can be difficult due to the nature and
obscurity of some countries. (You may be, for example, representing the Chad or Bangladesh)
One helpful source for any kind of policy is actually just www.un.org. Go to their archives, and
search for speeches made by your country's delegation on the topic. (It's as easy to use as Yahoo,
a bit harder than Google, but you can't expect everything from such a huge bureaucratic non-
profit organization!) One thing to avoid in MUN research is stereotypes. Many delegates tend to
formulate their own policies based on what they think the country they represent would do or
say. Many times they can be extremely off policy. Students, for instance, may think that Brazil
would support the idea of the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas simply because how great
the idea of free trade is. Or they may believe that many Latin American countries just do what
United States wants them to, which is support FTAA. Brazil, on the other hand, is the biggest
opponent to the FTAA. So you can see that without research, people can easily fall into the trap
of stereotyping countries and people.

WORK WITH YOUR ALLIES




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One important thing in MUN events is writing resolutions and working papers. However,
working papers will never be supported if you don't have people agreeing with your position;
resolutions will never pass if there is no support for your policy. Creating your own bloc/group is
very important. Pay attention to what other delegates say in their speeches; find out who can be
of help to you and who probably will be against you. As long as you can find a group of allies to
support your ideas/actions, you are in a good position. Creating allies often require sacrifice on
your part. A good delegate often makes concessions and compromises instead of forcing his or
her policy down other people's throats. Going into a conference, you should know what are
some of the policy you cannot yield and what are some of the more expendable or negotiable
ones. China will never let Taiwan become independent, but can probably yield ground on North
Korea if the offers are advantageous. The United States will always support actions against
terrorism. Knowing what your policy is and sticking to it is what is important and compromise
on what is not very important is an essential skill to utilize. However, in the end, you should
always try your best to make compromise with your staunchest opponents. Possibly the single
most important thing MUN reflects is compromise, delegates who able to negotiate the best
obtainable with others and eventually reach an agreement.




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                                          GIVING A SPEECH

For many students, public speaking, especially in the fast-paced environment of MUN, is a
terrifying prospect; however, being able to communicate your ideas and arguments verbally is
fundamental to a successful conference. Delegates should be able to speak from a previous
prepared speech as well as extemporaneously.

PREPARATION
The key to productive speaking is being well prepared. The delegate should have knowledge on
his or her country's policy towards an issue, the history of the issue, and any current
developments in the issue along with points that supports the delegate's position as well as the
points that oppose his or her position. Being well prepared will provide the confidence needed to
not only portray the country's position strongly but also address any differing viewpoints.


SPEECH FORMAT
A productive speech should:

Open with: "Thank you Mr./Madame/Honorable-Chair/President etc"

Include the following:

   1.   A brief introduction of delegate's country's history of the topic
   2.   The current situation of the topic
   3.   The country's overall position on the topic/reason for position (i.e. religious ideologies)
   4.   The country's position within the bloc, major powers etc
   5.   Past action taken by the U.N. Member States to combat the problem
   6.   Possible ideas or objectives for a resolution
   7.   Role of NGOs in combating the issue (if applicable)
   8.   Possible negotiable point

   PREPARED SPEECHES
   Writing a speech ahead of time is always ideal so none of the important issues are left out.
   This can be a particularly effective technique for speeches in the first or second session of the
   conference. A productive speech needs to be both well organized and well written. The
   speaker will lose the audience’s attention if the speech is too hard to follow. Just as important
   is practice. Practice reading the speech out loud over and over again to get a feel for where



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   words should be ennunciated or for where pauses should be placed. Another helpful hint is
   to only use note cards with your speech organized in simple bullet points. This technique will
   help you easily find your place if you are lost and will keep you from reading your speech
   directly from the written text, which is neither powerful nor interesting.

   EXTEMPORANEOUS SPEECHES
   In MUN extemporaneous speeches are the most common way for a delegate to communicate
   his or her opinion about a certain issue. While these speeches are not prepared beforehand,
   you can still take a number of steps to ensure a more powerful delivery. First, take the time
   to write down some notes on what you would like to address. This step will keep you from
   rambling. Second, note what other speakers say before you, including both comments made
   that support your argument that you would like to reiterate; and arguments made against your
   point of view that you would want to address. Out of common courtesy, you will want to
   acknowledge the delegate whose idea to which you are referring. Third, if numerous speakers
   before you address the same issue, try to shed light on an aspect that might still be unclear.


   GIVING A SPEECH

   The following suggestions should be considered in order to make your speech interesting and
   memorable:

   1. Be concise: Cover every point you would like to address thoroughly but do not ramble.
      Rambling causes the audience to lose interest and weakens your argument.
   2. Speak slowly: When nervous, people have a natural habit of talking faster. If you are
      nervous, take a deep breath and be conscious of how fast you are speaking. Do not be
      afraid to pause. In fact, pauses can add effect to a particularly powerful and thought-
      provoking comment. Speak confidently; In order to convince your audience that you are
      confident on the subject matter, you must first believe it yourself.
   3. Make eye contact with the audience: A good speaker will try to make eye contact with as
      many of the audience members as possible. Do not look at the floor when you speak or
      above the audience's heads.
   4. Use hand gestures to emphasize points: One of the main problems people have when
      speaking is knowing what to do with their hands. Do not be afraid to emphasize points
      with large hand moments
   5. Avoid unnecessary words or syllables: Try to use the following words as little as
      possible: "like," "um," "and," "a," "just," or any other unnecessary monosyllables. Also
      try to avoid words that would weaken your argument. For example, avoid: "I think," "sort
      of," "well," "might," "it is kind-a like," and "I'm sorry."
   6. Breathe: Most importantly, do not forget to relax and breathe both regularly and deeply.

Above all, the more you give speeches, the more confident and fluid you will become so
practice, practice, practice.

Contents to be found at http://www.unausa.org


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                   RESOLUTION WRITING

     THERE ARE NO PRE-WRITTEN RESOLUTIONS AT CCWAMUN.
A resolution is written in the form of a long sentence. The following rules apply:
    The committee name and topic name should be written against the top, left margin.
    The resolution’s name will be assigned by the Chair, and is determined by the topic and
       the order in which it was introduced to the committee. For example, if the resolution is
       the third one introduced for the second topic, it receives the appellation: B/3.
    The list of signatories follows the heading and resolution name. There are no official
       sponsors at CCWAMUN. A signatory doesn’t favor or oppose the resolution necessarily
       but is in favor of discussing it.
    The resolution begins with the name of the committee.
    The next section, consisting of Preambulatory Clauses, addresses the problem being
       discussed, recalls past actions taken, explains the purpose of the resolution, and offers
       support for the operative clauses. Each clause in the Preamble begins with an underlined
       phrase and ends with a comma.
    Operative Clauses state the actions to be taken by the body. These clauses are numbered
       and begin with present tense active verbs. Each operative clause is followed by a semi-
       colon except the last, which ends with a period.
                                         Preambulatory Phrases

Acknowledging         Deeply convinced            Guided By                   Noting with satisfaction
Affirming             Deeply disturbed            Having adopted              Noting with zest
Alarmed by            Deeply regretting           Having considered           Observing
Approving             Desiring                    Having considered further   Reaffirming
Aware of              Emphasizing                 Having devoted attention    Realizing
Bearing in mind       Expecting                   Having examined             Recalling
Believing             Expressing its appreciation Having heard                Recalling with concern
Cognizant of          Expressing its satisfaction Having received             Recognizing
Confident             Fulfilling                  Having studied              Referring
Considering also      Fully alarmed               Hoping                      Seeking
Contemplating         Fully aware                 Keeping in mind             Taking into account
Convinced             Fully believing             Noting further              Taking into consideration
Declaring             Further deploring           Noting with approval        Taking note
Deeply concerned      Further recalling           Noting with deep concern    Viewing with appreciation
Deeply conscious      Gravely concerned           Noting with regret          Welcoming

                                           Operative Clauses

Accepts               Decides                      Further invites            Renews
Affirms               Declares accordingly         Further proclaims          Regrets
Appeals               Demands*                     Further Recommends         Requests
Approves              Deplores                     Further reminds            Resolves
Authorizes            Designates                   Further requests           Solemnly affirms
Calls                 Draws attention              Has resolved               Strongly condemns*
Calls for             Emphasizes                   Notes                      Supports
Calls upon            Encourages                   Offers                     Takes note of
Commends              Endorses                     Proclaims                  Transmits
Condemns*             Expresses its appreciation   Reaffirms                  Trusts
Congratulates         Expresses its hope           Recommends                 Urges
Confirms              Further endorses             Reminds

*Only the Security Council may condemn or demand


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               SAMPLE RESOLUTION

LEGAL COMMITTEE
TOPIC A: THE IMMIGRATION OF PEOPLE WITH HIV/AIDS
RESOLUTION A/1
Signatories: Angola, Brazil, France, India, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Malaysia,
South Africa, Zimbabwe

The Legal Committee,

Recognizing the plight of peoples throughout the world infected by HIV/AIDS,

Aware of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS within and among countries,

Recalling Article 13.2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “Everyone has the right to
leave any country, including his own, and return to his country,”

Reaffirming the principle of national sovereignty,

   1. Requests that all citizens of all states be granted the minimum international human rights
      standards affirmed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

   2. Deplores any state that impedes the basic human rights of and the internal movement of
      its citizens that are infected with HIV/AIDS;

   3. Notes that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights permits peoples suffering from
      persecution to seek asylum in other countries;

   4. Further notes that the above mentioned right may only be invoked in cases of political
      persecution;

   5. Reaffirms that sovereign states have the right to deny entry into their countries;

   6. Proclaims that all states have the right to control the entry of all individuals into their
      borders and to decide which applicants for citizenship in their state may become full
      citizens of that state;

   7. Reminds the members of the UN that HIV-positive testing is an inefficient and expensive
      means of policing national borders;

   8. Urges all states to pursue compassionate and humanitarian policies toward the victims of
      HIV/AIDS;

   9. Affirms to remain actively seized of the matter.


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                                           MUN GLOSSARY


ABSTENTION- abstaining from a vote means to withdraw from voting on a resolution instead of
giving a “yes” or “no” answer.

AMENDMENTS- are usually details or conditions added to resolutions. Friendly amendments
require the support of the sponsors in order for their addition to resolutions.. Unfriendly
amendments can be initiated by anyone in the committee but require supporters and a majority
vote.

BILATERAL V. MULTILATERAL- adjectives describing relations between states. Bilateral
agreements or treaties involving only two countries were characteristic of the pre-WWI period
while multilateral relationships, involving more than two countries, are much more common
today.

BLOC- a group of countries that form a logical combination because of geographical, economic,
or cultural considerations (e.g.) G8, African bloc, Arab League).

CAUCUS- a forum for informal debate, where the rules of debate are suspended, and delegates are
able to gather in groups and freely discuss and write with one another. Caucuses can be
MODERATED, where the chair calls on individuals to speak and the speaking list is not used. A
moderated caucus also has no yields, time, limits or opportunities for questioning the speaker.
Caucuses may also be UN-MODERATED, where the committee members are free to move about
the room and engage in discussion with other members or groups. Usually some of a
committee’s most productive work is accomplished during caucuses.
CLAUSES- the individual sections of a resolution. They are of two types: PREAMBULATORY (at
the beginning of a resolution to introduce the issue, state concerns, and previous United Nation’s
actions) and OPERATIVE to set out actual solutions and initiatives for the committee to undertake.
Operative clauses are numbered.
COMMENTS- if a delegate doesn’t yield his/her time during a speech in formal debate, the chair
may recognize two delegates to make comments specifically on that speech.
CONSENSUS- goal of UN resolutions and policy making to obtain the largest amount of
agreement on any action that is possible, rather than the majority votes which determine
outcomes in most national governmental institutions.
DIVIDING THE QUESTION- once in voting procedure, a motion to divide the question means
splitting up operative clauses to be voted on separately (e g. Vote on Clauses 1 and 3 together,
but the rest individually). This is useful if you agree with one part of a resolution but not the
whole thing.
FOREIGN AID- money given by one government to another for humanitarian or developmental
purposes. It plays a key role in shaping many countries’ foreign policy. Non-governmental
institutions are also key donors; their aid may be given to governments or to individuals/ groups


                                                                                                    25
within a country. Today, however, states may be more interested in receiving FOREIGN DIRECT
INVESTMENT through which foreign citizens and companies may locate companies and
businesses within the country and employ its citizens.
FOREIGN POLICY- the attitudes and interests of a state towards external issues. Foreign policy
can be influenced by a variety of factors such as military strength, trading partners, history,
domestic government, and the interests of groups within the country.

FORMAL DEBATE- procedure through which the committee follows a speaker’s list, and each
speaker is given a strict time limit within which to make a point. Speakers must also formally
yield the floor to questions, the chair, or another delegate. Rules regarding motions, voting and
“right of reply” are enforceable only in formal debate.

G8 (Group of Eight)- a body comprised of eight of the world’s most powerful nations: Canada,
the U.S., U.K., France, Italy, Japan, Germany, and Russia. Yearly meetings enable the leaders of
these nations to establish more personal relationships and discuss issues.

GLOBAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS- Recognizing the importance of economic factors in ensuring
peace and human rights, the UN helped to sponsor the founding of these institutions shortly after
WWII. Though they operate independently from the UN, they often work in consultation with
various UN bodies. THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) is primary concerned with the
stability of the world’s financial systems and currency controls, while the WORLD BANK awards
loans and grants to countries to alleviate poverty. Though both include members of most of the
world’s states, they rely primarily on richer countries for their funding. THE WORLD TRADE
ORGANIZATION (WTO) brings its members together to negotiate reductions in tariffs and other
barriers to trade and to enforce the members’ agreements. Supporters praise the enormous
growth in the volume of worldwide trade since their establishment, while detractors criticize rich
country dominance in making policy, and insufficient concern for labor and the environment.

LOBBYING- refers to informal caucusing between a small group of delegates, usually outside the
committee room while debate is still in progress. A delegation of two or more can afford to
spare someone outside the room much more easily then a solo debater.

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDG’S)- accepted by most countries in 2000, these goals
are guiding the work of the United Nations, the World Bank, and other global and national
institutions. They include the halving of absolute poverty by 2015 throughout the world,
establishing worldwide universal elementary school education, protecting the environment and
human rights, meeting the special needs of Africa, and reforming the UN.

MOTIONS- most motions can only be made in formal debate. In fact, the only motion permitted
in informal debate is to move to formal debate. Motions must be made to open, close, postpone,
or adjourn debate, to set the agenda, table the topic, enact right of reply, and caucus.

NGO’s (Non-governmental Corporations)- are organizations or associations that are not
associated with a specific country or international political organization. Their aims can be
broad (World Vision International, Amnesty International, Greenpeace) or quite specific



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(Doctors Without Borders) in their activities and goals. The United Nations has a history of
working closely with NGO’s on issues, especially relating to humanitarian projects.

NON-MEMBERS- delegates who sit in a committee and are allowed to speak but don’t have voting
privileges. Often they have what is called OBSERVER STATUS like the PLO or the Vatican.

PLACARD- your key prop at all times, a sign stating the name of your country which is used to
gain recognition from the chair and to cast your delegation’s votes. Just be sure not to replace it
with your own creation, or to wave it hysterically while someone else is speaking.

POINTS- can be raised in formal or informal debate. There are two points that can interrupt a
speech. They are POINT OF PERSONAL PRIVILEGE (if there is too much noise, heat/cold, etc.) and
POINT OF ORDER (if a member believes a rule has been violated). A delegate may also raise a
POINT OF PARLIAMENTARY INQUIRY (if there is a question on the rules and procedures of debate)
and a POINT OF INFORMATION (general questions to the chair).

POSITION PAPER- a written statement by a delegate on a particular agenda topic, outlining one’s
foreign policy, proposed solutions and alternatives. Generally submitted prior to the beginning
of a conference.

REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS- Regional organizations are specifically permitted by the UN Charter
and may be economic, political, or a combination of the two. Frequently, they work in
combination with the UN but they may also be tasked by the UN to carry out a specific function.
Some of the better known economic regional institutions are the European Union (EU) which has
increasingly played a political role as well, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC), and the North American Free Trade Organization (NAFTA). Political regional
institutions include the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization of
American States (OAS), the Arab League, and the African Union.

RESOLUTION- a statement of policy accepted/rejected by various bodies or committees of the
United Nations. Resolutions contain a preamble, ambulatory clauses, and operative clauses.

RIGHT OF REPLY- used only in formal debate when a delegate feels another debater has insulted
and/or slandered their country or them personally.

ROLL CALL- a motion made in voting procedure to individually call out each country’s name for
their vote. A delegate can vote for, vote against, abstain, or pass. A country that passes will be
asked again at the end of the list, but cannot abstain.

SOVEREIGNTY- the right of a state to control its own destiny and its own citizens without
interference from other bodies. Security Council members are often particularly protective of
their sovereignty and may use the threat or fear of loss of sovereignty to veto a resolution in that
body.

SPEAKER’S LIST- in formal debate the chair follows the speaker’s list to recognize delegates.
Your country’s name can’t be on it more than once at any one time.


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SPONSOR/CO-SPONSOR- working papers and resolutions require sponsors (the main authors) and
in some cases co-sponsors. Being a co-sponsor does not necessarily mean being in support of
the ideas presented; you may just want to see them debated in front of the rest of the committee.

VETO POWERS- the five permanent members of the Security Council (U.S., U.K., France, Russia
and China) have the right to single-handedly veto a resolution by voting no (casting a VETO.)

WMD- refers to weapons of mass destruction whether they are nuclear, chemical, or biological.
Eliminating and controlling these weapons has been and continues to be a primary concern of the
United Nations.

WORKING PAPER- sometimes referred to as an “idea paper”, it is drawn up in the form of a
resolution, but its status as a “working paper” allows for easily made amendments that do not
require the support of the entire committee, only the sponsors themselves. Working papers are
one step below being a resolution, and many are often combined into one. Their overall purpose
is to set out specific solutions or policy stances on an issue that can be debated within the
committee.

YIELD- In formal debate the delegate must yield his/her time at the end of the speech in one of
three ways: to the chair (once the speech is over the chair takes the floor and moves on with the
speaker’s list); to questions (delegates can ask the speaker questions for the speaker’s remaining
time)or to another delegate (another speaker uses up the remaining time to give a speech, but
cannot yield themselves.)

Information taken and adapted from http://www.cowac.org/textmuntools.html.




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            PRECEDENCE OF MOTIONS
1. Parliamentary Points
       a. Points which may interrupt a speaker
               i. Points of Personal Privilege (Rule 28)
              ii. Points of Order (Rule 29)
       b. Points which are in order only when the floor is open
               i. Points of Parliamentary Inquiry (Rule 30)
              ii. Rights of Reply (Rule 27)
2. Procedural Motions
       a. Motions which are not debatable
               i. Caucusing (Rule 19)
              ii. Moderated Caucusing (Rule 20)
             iii. Suspension of the Meeting (Rule 23)
             iv. Adjournment of the Meeting (Rule 23)
       b. Motions which are applicable to the matter under consideration
               i. Tabling of Debate (Rule 21)
              ii. Closure of Debate (Rule 22)
             iii. Competence (Rule 35)
             iv. Division of the Question (Rule 36)
3. Substantive motions
       a. Introduction of Resolutions (Rule 33)
       b. Introduction of Amendments (Rule 34)
4. Other procedural motions
       a. Time Limit on Speeches (Rule 25)




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