Differentiated Instruction: by K6Hj21

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									                         Differentiated
                           Instruction:
                Meeting the Instructional Needs
                         Of Diverse Classrooms

                               presented by
                          Dr. Abraham H. Jones
                       NEA Resource Cadre Member

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Note of Appreciation to

                   Deborah E Burns, Curriculum Coordinator,
                    Cheshire Connecticut Public Schools
                   Kathleen Whitmire, Director, School Services
                    in Speech-Language Pathology, American
                    Speech and Hearing Association

           for their collaboration in development of this
              presentation.

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Essential Questions
                     What is
                      Differentiated
                      Instruction?
                     What strategies
                      can you use?
                     What Teaching
                      Methods can you
                      use?
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Your KWLish wish list
     What do you:
               Already know about differentiation?
               Want to learn about differentiation?


     At the end of this session:
               Reflect on what you have learned




   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Have you ever…
          given a pretest?
          tutored a child?
          taught students in a small group?
          analyzed similarities and differences in students‟
           work samples/tests?
          given students different materials to read based
           on ability and/or interest?

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
        “You‟ve been doing
        many of these things
        intuitively.
                    Differentiation is about
                    doing them intentionally.”

                                          Sharon R. Schultz
   NEA IDEA
Special Education                       NEA IDEA Cadre (IN)
 Resource Cadre
     Differentiated Instruction…
                    a process that enhances student
                    learning by matching students‟
                    characteristics and differences with
                    changes in various instructional
                    components




   NEA IDEA
Special Education                                Definition & Rationale
 Resource Cadre
     New idea or not?
                       Tutors
                       One Room Schoolhouses
                       Grade Levels
                       Accelerated Classes
                       Individualization
                       Title One
                       Special Education
                       Gifted Education
                       ESL Education
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                                   Differentiated Classroom
             “When once the child has learned
             that four and two are six, a thousand
             repetitions will give him no new
             information, and it is a waste of time to
             keep him employed in that manner.”
                                                     J.M. Greenwood
                     Principles of Education Practically Applied, 1888



   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Why the Current Interest?

                       Standards movement
                       IDEA „04
                       ESEA/NCLB
                       Achievement gaps
                       Rulings and adjudications

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Students and learning gaps
          Special education
          English language
           learners                 Disengaged
          Culturally diverse       Male or female
          Low income               Career and technical
                                     education
          Gifted and talented
                                    American students


   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
    The Roots of Student Differences


                                         Student
                                                                  FAMILY

                    Nature              Differences           Nurture
                                                                           COMMUNITY
    GENETICS
                                                                  SCHOOL




                                            SOCIAL
                             ACADEMIC        and      COGNITIVE
   NEA IDEA
                                          EMOTIONAL
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
   One Line of Thinking…

                    If differences in both nature and
                    nurture cause many students to
                    have different levels of academic
                    learning, social and emotional
                    development, and cognitive
                    abilities, and these differences
                    impact student achievement, and


   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                    if school is the variable we can
                          change most readily,



   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                       and lesson plans and
                    teaching are part of our job,



   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
              then it‟s likely that differentiating our
                lessons and units will provide the
           appropriate level of challenge to allow all
            learners to enhance their achievement.




   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                  We need to use our achievement
                data and students‟ learning profiles to
                       make careful decisions
                   about the subject areas and the
                  students that need differentiation.



                                                    HISTORY
       WRITING

                                SCIENCE
                                          MATHEMATICS
                      READING
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Powerful differences
        exist among students
                       Prior knowledge or skill expertise
                       Learning rate
                       Cognitive ability
                       Language
                       Learning style/communication preferences
                       Motivation, attitude, effort/talent
                       Gender
                       Ethnicity

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                                    S of Differentiation


                   Academic achievement
                   Achievement of ELL students
                   Challenge level for achieving students
                   Support for struggling learners
                   Interest in and excitement about learning
                   Student confidence in own learning ability
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Lessons from Goldilocks

       Too much challenge / too little challenge
       Challenging and meaningful curriculum

       Not always every student
        doing same thing




   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                          NEA IDEA

                        Resource Cadre
                       Special Education
                                            Objective


                                  Assessment


                                           Resources

                                   Introduction

                                            Teaching

                                            Learning

                                            Grouping
                                                        CORE CURRICULUM




                                             Pacing
Curriculum Framework




                                            Products

                                           Extension
     A sampling of strategies…


          Pre-assessment
          Flexible small group teaching
          Tiered content and resources




   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                                           3 Areas for Differentiation
     Pre-assessment
      Uncover what students already know
      Helps make decisions
               Which students need differentiation
               What challenge levels are needed
               What components to differentiate




   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Sample Pre-assessment
     Techniques
      K-W-N Charts
      Journals

      Parent Letters

      Lists, Surveys

      Performances

      Conferences

      Concept Maps


   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Modified K-W-L: K-W-N

                K             W                   N
     What the student   What the student    What the student
    ALREADY KNOWS       WANTS TO KNOW       NEEDS TO KNOW

      Prior              Their interests,   A self-rating of
      experiences,       questions, and     their current
      knowledge,         ideas for          understanding
      skills, and        exploration or     about the unit
      attitudes
                         investigation      objectives

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Concept Map                                                   Word Bank
                                                                        sun
      day                                                            hot gas
                                                                      space
                                                                       heat
                     see in                                            night
                                                                   constellation
                              is a              is in
              sun                     star              space           day

                                               has
                    see at
                                                heat
                                     makes a
          night                                           makes
                              constellation              hot gas
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Pre-assessment data
          Think like a researcher
          Sort data
          Identify learning difference
          Address through differentiated
           teaching/learning activities.



   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Sorting data
                                             Prior knowledge
                                                 Concept
                                                 Skill
                                                 Application
             Area of interest
                   History
                   Geography
                   Elements of culture

                                             Preferred learning style
                                                 Small group
                                                 Alone with visuals
   NEA IDEA
                                                 With adult support
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Flexible small groups
             Usually occur within a class
             Vary in size (2-8 students)
             Vary in duration of time together
             Allow for differentiating
                   Learning objective
                   Teaching methods
                   Materials
                   Student strategies for access


   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Use flexible small groups to…
      Enhance achievement
      Honor student differences

      Foster self-regulatory behaviors

      Permit ongoing assessment

      Alleviate problems associated with ability
       grouping


   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Scheduling
      Whole class practice sessions
      Designated time of the week

      During dual coverage opportunities

      During volunteer time

      In a subject area of highest priority




   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     3-group/4-activities paradigm

                           Three groups of students
                           Four activities
                            Instructional activities
                            Learning activities
                            Anchoring activities
                            Optional activities


   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                                                  3 Group Paradigm
     Potential anchoring
     and optional activities
                     Journals
                     Student reflections

                     Writers workshop

                     Vocabulary work

                     Independent reading

                     Computer software

                     Practice activities

                     Listening/video center
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Ensure…
          Membership changes when learning
             objective has been met
          Content and learning objective are
           differentiated
          Scaffolding varies across groups
          Students are working at an
              appropriate level of challenge

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Tiering instruction
               Learning goals
               Teaching activities
               Learning activities      Requires
               Resources                    Pre-assessment
               Products                     Small group
                                              teaching
                                             Anchoring
                                              activities



   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Tie shoelaces

                       Tier One: make a knot
                       Tier Two: make a bow
                       Tier Three: make a
                        double knot/bow



   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     The student will use the scientific process
     to answer everyday questions.

          Everyone knows: What an experiment is; how
           to ask a question
          Some know: How to pose a hypothesis
          Few know: How to control variables
          No one knows: Difference between
           independent and dependent variables



   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Differentiating Teaching Methods
                          Think-Aloud
                          Modeling
                          Strategy Training
                          Questioning
                          Coaching
                          Feedback Provider
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Additional strategies
          Learner profiles            Software
          Contracts                   Web quests
          Graphic organizers          Tutoring
          Rubrics                     Leveled books and
          Questioning strategies       classes
          Writers workshop            Sheltered English
          Guided reading               immersion
                                       Inquiry based learning
                                        activities
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Designing a tiered lesson plan
                   Tier a component of the lesson
                       Learning goal
                       Resources to access content
                       Teaching strategy
                       Learning activity
                       Product to demonstrate learning
                   Design for
                       Novice learners
                       Typical learners
                       Advanced learners
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                                                    Designing a 3-tiered lesson plan
     Debriefing…Reflecting…
                  KWL Revisited
                       What was most interesting to you?
                       What new ideas do you have?
                       What questions do you still have?
                       What do you want to do next?
                       How and where may/do you get
                        support?

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
         Caution:
         Cape does not
         enable user to fly.
                         Batman Costume
                             warning label



   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Things Take Time

                       One subject area at a time
                       One unit at a time
                       One lesson at a time
                       One student at a time
                       One strategy at a time

   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
     Essential Questions
                     What is
                      Differentiated
                      Instruction?
                     What strategies
                      can you use?
                     What Teaching
                      Methods can you
                      use?
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
 Resource Cadre
                               Resources
                      Online Resources
                    The Access Center
              www.k8accesscenter.org

                    Association for Supervision and
                       Curriculum Development
                            www.ascd.org

                                 Internet4Classrooms
                      http://www.internet4classrooms.com/di.htm
                                   Staff Development for Educators
   NEA IDEA
Special Education
                                  http://differentiatedinstruction.com/
 Resource Cadre

								
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