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                                STARTPAGE

                                 PART B

                           SCIENCE AND SOCIETY

   CALL IDENTIFIER: FP6-2004-SCIENCE-AND-SOCIETY-12



    DESCARTES PRIZE FOR RESEARCH

                  PROPOSAL ACRONYM:         PulSE
  PLEASE INDICATE THE MAIN RESEARCH FIELD YOU ARE
             ADDRESSING IN YOUR ENTRY

Research field                                   Please tick only one
 Chemistry

 Earth Sciences

 Engineering

 Information science
 Life Sciences
 Mathematics
 Physics                                                  X
 Socio-economic Sciences
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                        Instructions for preparing proposal Part B for
                       Specific Support Actions in the Descartes Prizes
In addition to the detailed technical information provided in Part B, a proposal must also contain a Part A,
containing basic information on the proposal and the consortium making the proposal1. The forms for Part A
are provided elsewhere in this Guide. Incomplete proposals are not eligible and will not be evaluated

Specific support actions are described in the Science and Society Workprogramme, and complete
details of their characteristics and their application within FP6 are at:

    http://www.cordis.lu/fp6/instrument-ssa/




1
 In the event of inconsistency between information given in Part A and that given in Part B, the Part A version will
prevail.

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I. GENERAL INFORMATION
1. WHO IS SUBMITTING THE PROPOSAL? (e.g. the coordinator of research team or a
Research team)

Professor A. G. Lyne is submitting the proposal on behalf of all the members
of the European Pulsar team.


2.WHEN DID YOUR RESEARCH START AND END? (Specify days/months/years, and
also explain any particular information regarding the research periods)

The European dimension of pulsar astronomy started in the mid-nineties with
the formation of the European Pulsar Network (EPN), funded by the EU
Human Capital and Mobility programme. The first two pan-European
meetings were held in Manchester (UK) in September 1995 and near
Thessaloniki (Greece) in September 1996, so starting an era of extensive
scientific collaboration and fruitful exchanges of students and personnel that
continues until today. The main subsequent milestones in the work of the
collaboration were:

1997. Finalised development of a common data format and the subsequent
formation of the EPN pulsar database that enabled us to pool all our
observational data in a single web-based archive, with easy access by all.

1998. First routine operation of simultaneous multi-frequency single-pulse
observations, using Europe’s four 100-m class radio telescopes.

1998. The number of known millisecond pulsars now doubled thanks to the
team’s Southern survey using the Parkes radio telescope in Australia.

1998. Start of the 13-beam multibeam survey using the Parkes radio telescope
that discovered nearly 800 pulsars.

2001. The first publication resulting from joint timing observations using the
major European radio facilities.

2002. Meeting in Amsterdam to discuss the science from the on-going single-
pulse multi-frequency observation programme.

2003-4. The discovery of the first double pulsar, opening up the possibilities of
a whole range of new astrophysical experiments.



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I. PROJECT INFORMATION
1. Describe your project and its research achievements (Please provide details in no more
than 500 words):

Separately, a research report must be annexed. This report, which may be published,
should (in a maximum of 20 pages of A4) describe in more detail the key scientific results
and achievements, the respective roles of each of the research teams, and the expected
impacts of your research success. The report should include tables, figures, drawings and
photographs where appropriate.2

Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars whose observation offers the unique
opportunity to study some of the most extreme physical conditions in the
universe. Their precise, clock-like properties allow us to conduct tests of some
of the most fundamental laws of physics that determine the nature of the
universe. European radio astronomers have worked together over the past
ten years and have now become the world-leaders in the discovery and
exploitation of these enigmatic objects.

Funded by the EU Human Capital and Mobility programme in 1995, the
research team formed the European Pulsar Network (EPN) and set out to
establish a close collaboration between the participating groups. The aims
were to foster relationships, to train people and to create a team that could
undertake large-scale research projects that were otherwise too big for
individual groups on their own. Today, 10 years later, the results are
impressive. Not only can Europe now draw on a large number of pulsar
scientists trained at its institutions but it has also led this highly competitive
field for a number of years. The research achievements cover fundamental
physics from tests of Einstein’s theory of general relativity to the solid-state
physics of super-dense matter to plasma physics under extreme conditions.
The experiments we have performed include unique simultaneous multi-
telescope observations at European telescopes, coordinated pulsar timing
programmes and major large scale surveys of the Galactic plane and
surrounding areas. Highlights of the results obtained by the team are
precision tests of theories of gravity, a greatly improved understanding of
pulsar properties on timescales from nanoseconds to years and the discovery
of nearly 800 pulsars, doubling the number which had been discovered in the
whole world in the 30 years prior to the start of the collaboration. The
culmination of these activities was undoubtedly the discovery of the first
double pulsar in 2003, opening up a whole range of new astrophysical
experiments. Our work was deemed as one of the top ten science
breakthroughs in 2004 by the journal “Science”. Exploitation of the physics of
this system and the search for even more extreme objects are continuing.
2
    The Commission will be unable to return any material, be it they photographs or other.

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2. What were the benefits of working together at Community level?
(Please provide details in no more than 250 words)

Each group in the collaboration was originally too small individually to have
the intellectual and financial resources necessary to conduct this research. A
new research community was generated which was much greater than the
straight sum of the individual parts. The pooling of expertise, gained by the
groups in using their own instruments and in previous collaborations, allowed
the development of a research infrastructure whose performance is unrivalled
in the rest of the world. The multi-institutional involvement was crucial to the
success in doubling the number of known pulsars, in understanding their
physics and in finding the unique double-pulsar system.


3. What were the benefits of working together with international partners from outside
Europe?
(Please provide details in no more than 250 words)

Working together, the European groups were able to lead a collaboration with
the small group at the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF). This
collaboration gave us excellent access to the southern sky, which contains the
richest areas of the Galaxy for searches for new pulsars. Additionally, we
were able to increase the size of the skill-base and technical expertise within
the collaboration. An additional benefit of the collaboration with the ATNF
was the local support that they provided in coordinating the several hundred
days of observation required to achieve our astrophysical ambitions.


4. What makes your work unique?
(Please provide details in no more than 250 words)

The research that we have conducted is world-leading and covers a wide
range of fundamental physics. The combined intellectual and technical skills
of the members of the team provided the strength which was not possible in
other laboratories around the world, most notably in the United States. The
work enables precise experiments involving gravitational and magnetic fields
and matter under extreme conditions that cannot be matched in any
terrestrial laboratory. The strength of gravitational and magnetic fields
involved exceeds values encountered in the solar system by many orders of
magnitude. The matter densities are only rivalled by the densities in atomic
nuclei and they even exceed those. Hence, our work provides the only precise
experimental constraints and results for a wide range of modern physics.


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5. Who could benefit from your work? And how?
(Please provide details in no more than 500 words)

Our work increases mankind’s knowledge of some of the fundamental
physical laws that govern the universe. Specifically, exceptional and
unprecedented tests of gravitational theories, including Einstein’s theory of
general relativity, are enabled by this work. The discovery of the double-
pulsar system significantly increases the probability of direct detection of
neutron-star merger events, a result of great interest to those developing
gravitational-wave detectors. Physical conditions near pulsars are extreme,
with particle energies and magnetic fields many orders of magnitude greater
than can be achieved on Earth. Studies of pulsars, and the double-pulsar
system in particular, allow us to extend our understanding of physical laws to
these extreme environments. Our observations of pulsars provide the
experimental constraints for many theories that are at the centre of research
around the world. These range from the international quest for quantum
gravity to the equation of state of matter with super-nuclear density to the
understanding of superconductivity and super-fluid liquids.

These results are not only of interest to scientific professionals, but they have
a large impact on the wider community. The public are fascinated more by
astronomy than by any other physical science and have a great interest in
exciting new developments. Results such as these help to interest young people
in astronomy, physics and basic research, forming an important foundation
for a society increasingly based on science and technology.



6. Are you aware about any competing research/ inventions/products/
services/processes/techniques?
(Please provide details in no more than 250 words)

The impact of pulsar astrophysics on a huge range of fundamental physics is
widely recognised internationally. For that reason, there are pulsar research
efforts in progress world-wide. However, because pulsar observations are
technically challenging and require considerable expertise, there are only a
few other established programmes. Since none of the others had the benefit
of the European team-work, they have not had the same success and impact as
the project described here.




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7. Please list all your joint publications arising from your research as described
In your annexed report


We present here the publications that directly originated from the European
collaboration. We list only those publications that appeared in peer-reviewed
journals. Hence we do not show the even larger number of papers that were
presented at conferences or in popular science magazines. Furthermore, we
do not list publications that originated only at a single institute or did not
directly involve joint projects even though they may have benefited from the
partnership in a significant way. The total number of more than 100 peer-
reviewed publications since 1995 documents the success of the collaboration.

1. Bailes, M., Johnston, S., Bell, J. F., Lorimer, D. R., Stappers, B. W., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G.,
Nicastro, L., D'Amico, N., Gaensler, B. M. 1997, ApJ, 481, 386. Discovery of Four Isolated Millisecond
Pulsars
2. Burgay, M., Burderi, L., Possenti, A., D'Amico, N., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F.,
Campana, S. 2003, ApJ, 589, 902. A Search for Pulsars in Quiescent Soft X-Ray Transients. I.
3. Burgay, M., D'Amico, N., Possenti, A., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Joshi, B. C., McLaughlin,
M. A., Kramer, M., Sarkissian, J. M., Camilo, F., Kalogera, V., Kim, C., Lorimer, D. R. 2003, Nature,
426, 531. An increased estimate of the merger rate of double neutron stars from observations of a highly
relativistic system
4. Burgay, M., Possenti, A., Manchester, R. N., Kramer, M., McLaughlin, M. A., Lorimer, D. R., Stairs,
I. H., Joshi, B. C., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., D'Amico, N., Freire, P. C. C., Sarkissian, J. M., Hotan, A. W.,
Hobbs, G. B. 2005, ApJ, 624, L113. Long-Term Variations in the Pulse Emission from PSR J0737-3039B
5. Camilo, F., Bell, J. F., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Possenti, A., Kramer, M., Kaspi, V. M.,
Stairs, I. H., D'Amico, N., Hobbs, G., Gotthelf, E. V., Gaensler, B. M. 2001, ApJ, 557, L51. PSR J1016-
5857: A Young Radio Pulsar with Possible Supernova Remnant, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Associations
6. Camilo, F., Kaspi, V. M., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Bell, J. F., D'Amico, N., McKay, N. P. F.,
Crawford, F. 2000, ApJ, 541, 367. Discovery of Two High Magnetic Field Radio Pulsars
7. Camilo, F., Lorimer, D. R., Freire, P., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N. 2000, ApJ, 535, 975.
Observations of 20 Millisecond Pulsars in 47 Tucanae at 20 Centimeters
8. Camilo, F., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Bell, J. F., Stairs, I. H., D'Amico, N., Kaspi, V. M.,
Possenti, A., Crawford, F., McKay, N. P. F. 2001, ApJ, 548, L187. Discovery of Five Binary Radio
Pulsars
9. Camilo, F., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Gaensler, B. M., Possenti, A., D'Amico, N., Stairs, I. H.,
Faulkner, A. J., Kramer, M., Lorimer, D. R., McLaughlin, M. A., Hobbs, G. 2004, ApJ, 611, L25. The
Very Young Radio Pulsar J1357-6429
10. Camilo, F., Stairs, I. H., Lorimer, D. R., Backer, D. C., Ransom, S. M., Klein, B., Wielebinski, R.,
Kramer, M., McLaughlin, M. A., Arzoumanian, Z., Mueller, P. 2002, ApJ, 611, L25. Discovery of Radio
Pulsations from the X-Ray Pulsar J0205+6449 in Supernova Remnant 3C 58 with the Green Bank
Telescope
11. Cordes, J. M., Kramer, M., Lazio, T. J. W., Stappers, B. W., Backer, D. C., Johnston, S. 2004, New
Astronomy Review, 48, 1413. Pulsars as tools for fundamental physics
12. Crawford, F., Kaspi, V. M., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., D'Amico, N. 2001, ApJ,
553, 367. Radio Pulsars in the Magellanic Clouds

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13. Cusumano, G., Hermsen, W., Kramer, M., Kuiper, L., Loehmer, O., Massaro, E., Mineo, T.,
Nicastro, L., Stappers, B. W. 2003, A&A, 410, L9. The phase of the radio and X-ray pulses of PSR
B1937+21
14. Cusumano, G., Hermsen, W., Kramer, M., Kuiper, L., Loehmer, O., Massaro, E., Mineo, T.,
Nicastro, L., Stappers, B. W. 2004, Nuclear Physics B Proceedings Supplements, 132, 596. The phase of
the radio and X-ray pulses of PSR B1937+21
15. D'Amico, N., Kaspi, V. M., Manchester, R. N., Camilo, F., Lyne, A. G., Possenti, A., Stairs, I. H.,
Kramer, M., Crawford, F., Bell, J. F., McKay, N. P. F., Gaensler, B. M., Roberts, M. S. E. 2001, ApJ,
552, L45. Two Young Radio Pulsars Coincident with EGRET Sources
16. D'Amico, N., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Camilo, F. M., Kaspi, V. M., Bell, J., Stairs, I. H.,
Crawford, F., Morris, D., Possenti, A. 2001, AIP Conf. Proc. 599: X-ray Astronomy: Stellar Endpoints,
AGN, and the Diffuse X-ray Background, 599, 598. The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey: Preliminary
results
17. D'Amico, N., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Possenti, A., Camilo, F. 2001, ApJ, 548, L171.
Discovery of Short-Period Binary Millisecond Pulsars in Four Globular Clusters
18. D'Amico, N., Possenti, A., Fici, L., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., Sarkissian, J. 2002,
ApJ, 570, L89. Timing of Millisecond Pulsars in NGC 6752: Evidence for a High Mass-to-Light Ratio in
the Cluster Core
19. D'Amico, N., Possenti, A., Manchester, R. N., Sarkissian, J., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F. 2001, ApJ, 561,
L89. An Eclipsing Millisecond Pulsar with a Possible Main-Sequence Companion in NGC 6397
20. D'Amico, N., Stappers, B. W., Bailes, M., Martin, C. E., Bell, J. F., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N.
1998, MNRAS, 297, 28. The Parkes Southern Pulsar Survey - III. Timing of long-period pulsars
21. Doroshenko, O., Loehmer, O., Kramer, M., Jessner, A., Wielebinski, R., Lyne, A. G., Lange, Ch.
2001, A&A, 379, 579. Orbital variability of the PSR J2051-0827 binary system
22. Faulkner, A. J., Kramer, M., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., McLaughlin, M. A., Stairs, I. H.,
Hobbs, G., Possenti, A., Lorimer, D. R., D'Amico, N., Camilo, F., Burgay, M. 2005, ApJ, 618, L119. PSR
J1756-2251: A New Relativistic Double Neutron Star System
23. Faulkner, A. J., Stairs, I. H., Kramer, M., Lyne, A. G., Hobbs, G., Possenti, A., Lorimer, D. R.,
Manchester, R. N., McLaughlin, M. A., D'Amico, N., Camilo, F., Burgay, M. 2004, MNRAS, 355, 147.
The Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey - V. Finding binary and millisecond pulsars
24. Fierro, J. M., Arzoumanian, Z., Bailes, M., Bell, J. F., Bertsch, D. L., Brazier, K. T. S., Chiang, J.,
D'Amico, N., Dingus, B. L., Esposito, J. A., Fichtel, C. E., Hartman, R. C., Hunter, S. D., Johnston, S.,
Kanbach, G., Kaspi, V. M., Kniffen, D. A., Lin, Y. C., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Mattox, J. R.,
Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A., Michelson, P. F., von Montigny, C., Nel, H. I., Nice, D., Nolan, P. L.,
Schneid, E. J., Shriver, S. K., Sreekumar, P., Taylor, J. H., Thompson, D. J., Willis, T. D. 1995, ApJ,
447, 807. EGRET High-Energy gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies. II. Individual Millisecond Pulsars
25. Freire, P. C., Camilo, F., Kramer, M., Lorimer, D. R., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., D'Amico, N.
2003, MNRAS, 340, 1359. Further results from the timing of the millisecond pulsars in 47 Tucanae
26. Freire, P. C., Camilo, F., Lorimer, D. R., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., D'Amico, N. 2001,
MNRAS, 326, 901. Timing the millisecond pulsars in 47 Tucanae
27. Freire, P. C., Kramer, M., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., Manchester, R. N., D'Amico, N. 2001, ApJ, 557,
L105. Detection of Ionized Gas in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae
28. Freire, P. C. C., Hessels, J. W. T., Nice, D. J., Ransom, S. M., Lorimer, D. R., Stairs, I. H. 2005, ApJ,
621, 959. The Millisecond Pulsars in NGC 6760
29. Gil, J. A. Lyne, A. G. 1995, MNRAS, 276, L55. Unravelling the position angle variations in PSR
0329+54
30. Hobbs, G., Faulkner, A., Stairs, I. H., Camilo, F., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Kramer, M.,
D'Amico, N., Kaspi, V. M., Possenti, A., McLaughlin, M. A., Lorimer, D. R., Burgay, M., Joshi, B. C.,

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Crawford, F. 2004, MNRAS, 352, 1439. The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey - IV. Discovery of 180
pulsars and parameters for 281 previously known pulsars
31. Hobbs, G., Lyne, A. G., Joshi, B. C., Kramer, M., Stairs, I. H., Camilo, F., Manchester, R. N.,
D'Amico, N., Possenti, A., Kaspi, V. M. 2002, MNRAS, 333, L7. A very large glitch in PSR J1806-
2125
32. Johnston, S., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Kaspi, V. M., D'Amico, N. 1995, A&A, 293, 795.
Timing measurements for 45 pulsars.
33. Johnston, S., Wex, N., Nicastro, L., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G. 2001, MNRAS, 326, 643. The
1997 periastron passage of the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63
34. Johnston, S., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., D'Amico, N., Bailes, M., Gaensler, B. M., Nicastro, L.
1996, MNRAS, 279, 1026. Radio observations of PSR B1259-63 around periastron
35. Johnston, S., Walker, M. A., van Kerkwijk, M. H., Lyne, A. G., D'Amico, N. 1995, MNRAS, 274,
L43. A 1500-MHz survey for pulsars near the Galactic Centre
36. Joshi, B. C., Burgay, M., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Possenti, A., Camilo, F., D'Amico, N.,
Kramer, M. 2002, Bull. Astr. Soc. of India, 30, 687. A high galactic latitude search for pulsars.
37. Joshi, B. C., Lyne, A. G., Jordan, C., Krawczyk, A., Gil, J. A. 2002, Bull. Astr. Soc. of India, 30,
691. Observations of rotational instabilities in radio pulsars.
38. Joshi, B. C., McLaughlin, M. A., Lyne, A. G., Kramer, M., Lorimer, D. R., Manchester, R. N.,
Camilo, F., Burgay, B., Possenti, A., D'Amico, N., Freire, P. C. C. 2004, Bull. Astr. Soc. of India, 32,
191. Double pulsar system J0737-3039 and its low-frequency observations with GMRT.
39. Kalogera, V., Kim, C., Lorimer, D. R., Burgay, M., D'Amico, N., Possenti, A., Manchester, R. N.,
Lyne, A. G., Joshi, B. C., McLaughlin, M. A., Kramer, M., Sarkissian, J. M., Camilo, F. 2004, ApJ, 601,
L179. The Cosmic Coalescence Rates for Double Neutron Star Binaries
40. Karastergiou, A., Johnston, S., Kramer, M. 2003, A&A, Simultaneous single-pulse observations of
radio pulsars, 404, 325. III. The behaviour of circular polarization
41. Karastergiou, A., Kramer, M., Johnston, S., Lyne, A. G., Bhat, N. D. R., Gupta, Y. 2002, A&A, 391,
247. Simultaneous single-pulse observations of radio pulsars. II. Orthogonal polarization modes in PSR
B1133+16
42. Karastergiou, A., von Hoensbroech, A., Kramer, M., Lorimer, D. R., Lyne, A. G., Doroshenko, O.,
Jessner, A., Jordan, C., Wielebinski, R. 2001, A&A, 379, 270. Simultaneous single-pulse observations
of radio pulsars. I. The polarization characteristics of PSR B0329+54
43. Kaspi, V. M., Camilo, F., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Bell, J. F., D'Amico, N., McKay, N. P. F.,
Crawford, F. 2001, AIP Conf. Proc. 599: X-ray Astronomy: Stellar Endpoints, AGN, and the Diffuse X-
ray Background, 599, 453. Discovery of two high-magnetic-field radio pulsars
44. Kaspi, V. M., Crawford, F., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., D'Amico, N., Gaensler, B.
M. 1998, ApJ, 503, L161. The 69 Millisecond Radio Pulsar near the Supernova Remnant RCW 103
45. Kaspi, V. M., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Crawford, F., Camilo, F., Bell, J. F., D'Amico, N.,
Stairs, I. H., McKay, N. P. F., Morris, D. J., Possenti, A. 2000, ApJ, 543, 321. Discovery of a Young
Radio Pulsar in a Relativistic Binary Orbit
46. Kaspi, V. M., Manchester, R. N., Johnston, S., Lyne, A. G., D'Amico, N. 1996, Astronomical
Journal, 111, 2028. A Search for Radio Pulsars in Southern Supernova Remnants
47. Kramer, M., Backer, D. C., Cordes, J. M., Lazio, T. J. W., Stappers, B. W., Johnston, S. 2004, New
Astronomy Review, 48, 993. Strong-field tests of gravity using pulsars and black holes
48. Kramer, M., Bell, J. F., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., Stairs, I. H., D'Amico, N., Kaspi,
V. M., Hobbs, G., Morris, D. J., Crawford, F., Possenti, A., Joshi, B. C., McLaughlin, M. A., Lorimer, D.
R., Faulkner, A. J. 2003, MNRAS, 342, 1299. The Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey - III. Young pulsars
and the discovery and timing of 200 pulsars

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49. Kramer, M., Karastergiou, A., Gupta, Y., Johnston, S., Bhat, N. D. R., Lyne, A. G. 2003, A&A, 407,
655. Simultaneous single-pulse observations of radio pulsars. IV. Flux density spectra of individual
pulses
50. Kramer, M., Lyne, A. G., Hobbs, G., Loehmer, O., Carr, P., Jordan, C., Wolszczan, A. 2003, ApJ,
593, L31. The Proper Motion, Age, and Initial Spin Period of PSR J0538+2817 in S147
51. Kramer, M., Xilouris, K. M., Jessner, A., Lorimer, D. R., Wielebinski, R., Lyne, A. G. 1997, A&A,
322, 846. Origin of pulsar radio emission. I. High frequency data.
52. Krawczyk, A., Lyne, A. G., Gil, J. A., Joshi, B. C. 2003, MNRAS, 340, 1087. Observations of 14
pulsar glitches
53. Kuiper, L., Hermsen, W., Bennett, K., Carraminana, A., Lyne, A., McConnell, M., Schoenfelder, V.
1998, A&A, 337, 421. Detection of pulsed MeV emission from PSR B1951+32 by COMPTEL
54. Kuiper, L., Hermsen, W., Verbunt, F., Belloni, T., Lyne, A. 1999, Astrophysical Letters
Communications, 38, 13. High-Energy Observations of the Binary Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0218+4232
55. Kuiper, L., Hermsen, W., Verbunt, F., Ord, S., Stairs, I., Lyne, A. 2002, ApJ, 577, 917. High-
Resolution Spatial and Timing Observations of Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0218+4232 with Chandra
56. Kuiper, L., Hermsen, W., Verbunt, F., Thompson, D. J., Stairs, I. H., Lyne, A. G., Strickman, M. S.,
Cusumano, G. 2000, A&A , 359, 615. The likely detection of pulsed high-energy gamma -ray emission
from millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232
57. Kuzmin, A. D., Izvekova, V. A., Shitov, Yu. P., Sieber, W., Jessner, A., Wielebinski, R., Lyne, A.
G., Smith, F. G. 1998, A&A Supplement Series, 127, 355. Catalogue of time aligned profiles of 56
pulsars at frequencies between 102 and 10500 MHz
58. Kuzmin, A. D., Kondrat'ev, V. I., Kostyuk, S. V., Losovsky, B. Ya., Popov, M. V., Soglasnov, V. A.,
D'Amico, N., Montebugnoli, S. 2002, Astronomy Letters, 28 ,251. Frequency Dependence of the
Scattering Pulse Broadening for the Crab Pulsar
59. Lange, Ch., Camilo, F., Wex, N., Kramer, M., Backer, D. C., Lyne, A. G., Doroshenko, O. 2001,
MNRAS, 326, 274. Precision timing measurements of PSR J1012+5307
60. Loehmer, O., Kramer, M., Driebe, T., Jessner, A., Mitra, D., Lyne, A. G. 2004, A&A, 426, 631. The
parallax, mass and age of the PSR J2145-0750 binary system
61. Loehmer, O., Kramer, M., Mitra, D., Lorimer, D. R., Lyne, A. G. 2001, ApJ, 562, L147. Anomalous
Scattering of Highly Dispersed Pulsars
62. Loehmer, O., Mitra, D., Gupta, Y., Kramer, M., Ahuja, A. 2004, A&A, 425, 569. The frequency
evolution of interstellar pulse broadening from radio pulsars
63. Lorimer, D. R., Jessner, A., Seiradakis, J. H., Lyne, A. G., D'Amico, N., Athanasopoulos, A.,
Xilouris, K. M., Kramer, M., Wielebinski, R. 1998, A&A Supplement Series, 128, 541. A flexible format
for exchanging pulsar data
64. Lorimer, D. R., Lyne, A. G., Bailes, M., Manchester, R. N., D'Amico, N., Stappers, B. W., Johnston,
S., Camilo, F. 1996, MNRAS, 283, 1383. Discovery of Four Binary Millisecond Pulsars A search for
pulsars in supernova remnants
65. Lorimer, D. R., Lyne, A. G., Festin, L., Nicastro, L. 1995, Nature, 376, 393. Birth Rate of
Millisecond Pulsars
66. Lorimer, D. R., Nicastro, L., Lyne, A. G., Bailes, M., Manchester, R. N., Johnston, S., Bell, J. F.,
D'Amico, N., Harrison, P. A. 1995, ApJ, 439, 933. Four new millisecond pulsars in the galactic disk
67. Lyne, A. G., Burgay, M., Kramer, M., Possenti, A., Manchester, R. N., Camilo, F., McLaughlin, M.
A., Lorimer, D. R., D'Amico, N., Joshi, B. C., Reynolds, J., Freire, P. C. C. 2004, Science, 303, 1153. A
Double-Pulsar System: A Rare Laboratory for Relativistic Gravity and Plasma Physics




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68. Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., Manchester, R. N., Bell, J. F., Kaspi, V. M., D'Amico, N., McKay, N. P. F.,
Crawford, F., Morris, D. J., Sheppard, D. C., Stairs, I. H. 2000, MNRAS, 312, 698. The Parkes
Multibeam Pulsar Survey: PSR J1811-1736, a pulsar in a highly eccentric binary system
69. Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., D'Amico, N. 1996, ApJ, 460, L41. PSR B1745-20 and Young
Pulsars in Globular Clusters
70. Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Lorimer, D. R., Bailes, M., D'Amico, N., Tauris, T. M., Johnston, S.,
Bell, J. F., Nicastro, L. 1998, MNRAS, 295, 743. The Parkes Southern Pulsar Survey - II. Final results
and population analysis
71. Manchester, R. N., Johnston, S., Lyne, A. G., D'Amico, N., Bailes, M., Nicastro, L. 1995, ApJ, 445,
L137. Period evolution of PSR B1259-63: Evidence for propeller-torque spindown
72. Manchester, R. N., Kramer, M., Possenti, A., Lyne, A. G., Burgay, M., Stairs, I. H., Hotan, A. W.,
McLaughlin, M. A., Lorimer, D. R., Hobbs, G. B., Sarkissian, J. M., D'Amico, N., Camilo, F., Joshi, B.
C., Freire, P. C. C. 2005, ApJ, 621, L49. The Mean Pulse Profile of PSR J0737-3039A
73. Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., Bell, J. F., Kaspi, V. M., D'Amico, N., McKay, N. P. F.,
Crawford, F., Stairs, I. H., Possenti, A., Kramer, M., Sheppard, D. C. 2001, MNRAS, 328, 17. The Parkes
multi-beam pulsar survey - I. Observing and data analysis systems, discovery and timing of 100 pulsars
74. Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., D'Amico, N., Bailes, M., Johnston, S., Lorimer, D. R., Harrison, P.
A., Nicastro, L., Bell, J. F. 1996, 279, 1235. MNRAS, The Parkes southern pulsar survey - I. Observing
and data analysis systems and initial results.
75. Maron, O., Kijak, J., Kramer, M., Wielebinski, R. 2000, A&A Supplement Series, 147, 195. Pulsar
spectra of radio emission
76. McLaughlin, M. A., Camilo, F., Burgay, M., D'Amico, N., Joshi, B. C., Kramer, M., Lorimer, D. R.,
Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Possenti, A. 2004, ApJ, 605, L41. X-Ray Emission from the Double
Pulsar System J0737-3039
77. McLaughlin, M. A., Kramer, M., Lyne, A. G., Lorimer, D. R., Stairs, I. H., Possenti, A., Manchester,
R. N., Freire, P. C. C., Joshi, B. C., Burgay, M., Camilo, F., D'Amico, N. 2004, ApJ, 613, L57. The
Double Pulsar System J0737-3039: Modulation of the Radio Emission from B by Radiation from A
78. McLaughlin, M. A., Lyne, A. G., Lorimer, D. R., Possenti, A., Manchester, R. N., Camilo, F., Stairs,
I. H., Kramer, M., Burgay, M., D'Amico, N., Freire, P. C. C., Joshi, B. C., Bhat, N. D. R. 2004, ApJ, 616,
L131. The Double Pulsar System J0737-3039: Modulation of A by B at Eclipse
79. McLaughlin, M. A., Stairs, I. H., Kaspi, V. M., Lorimer, D. R., Kramer, M., Lyne, A. G.,
Manchester, R. N., Camilo, F., Hobbs, G., Possenti, A., D'Amico, N., Faulkner, A. J. 2003, ApJ, 591,
L135. PSR J1847-0130: A Radio Pulsar with Magnetar Spin Characteristics
80. Mineo, T., Cusumano, G., Kuiper, L., Hermsen, W., Massaro, E., Becker, W., Nicastro, L., Sacco,
B., Verbunt, F., Lyne, A. G., Stairs, I. H., Shibata, S. 2000, A&A, 355, 1053. The pulse shape and
spectrum of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232 in the energy band 1-10 keV observed with
BeppoSAX
81. Mitra, D., Wielebinski, R., Kramer, M., Jessner, A. 2003, A&A, 398, 993. The effect of HII regions
on rotation measure of pulsars
82. Morris, D. J., Hobbs, G., Lyne, A. G., Stairs, I. H., Camilo, F., Manchester, R. N., Possenti, A., Bell,
J. F., Kaspi, V. M., Amico, N. D', McKay, N. P. F., Crawford, F., Kramer, M. 2002, MNRAS, 335, 275.
The Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey - II. Discovery and timing of 120 pulsars
83. Navarro, J., de Bruyn, A. G., Frail, D. A., Kulkarni, S. R., Lyne, A. G. 1995, ApJ, 455, L55. A Very
Luminous Binary Millisecond Pulsar
84. Nel, H. I., Arzoumanian, Z., Bailes, K. T. S., Brazier, M., D'Amico, N., Esposito, J. A., Fichtel, C.
E., Fierro, J. M., Hunter, S. D., Johnston, S., Kanbach, G., Kaspi, V. M., Kniffen, D. A., Lyne, A. G., Lin,
Y. C., Manchester, R. N., Mattox, J. R., Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A., Merck, M., Michelson, P. F., Nice,


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D. J., Nolan, P. L., Ramanamurthy, P. V., Taylor, J. H., Thompson, D. J., Westbrook, C. 1996, A&A
Supplement Series, 120, 89. EGRET pulsar upper limits.
85. Nel, H. I., Arzoumanian, Z., Bailes, M., Brazier, K. T. S., D'Amico, N., Esposito, J. A., Fichtel, C.
E., Fierro, J. M., Hunter, S. D., Johnston, S., Kanbach, G., Kaspi, V. M., Kniffen, D. A., Lin, Y. C., Lyne,
A. G., Manchester, R. N., Mattox, J. R., Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A., Merck, M., Michelson, P. F., Nice,
D. J., Nolan, P. L., Ramanamurthy, P. V., Taylor, J. H., Thompson, D. J., Westbrook, C. 1996, ApJ, 465,
898. EGRET High-Energy Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies. III. A Survey
86. Nicastro, L., Cusumano, G., Loehmer, O., Kramer, M., Kuiper, L., Hermsen, W., Mineo, T., Becker,
W. 2004, A&A, 413, 1065. BeppoSAX observation of PSR B1937+21
87. Popov, M. V. Stappers, B. 2003, Astronomy Reports, 47, 660. Simultaneous Dual-Frequency
Observations of Giant Radio Pulses from the Millisecond Pulsar B1937+21
88. Possenti, A., D'Amico, N., Manchester, R. N., Camilo, F., Lyne, A.G., Sarkissian, J., Corongiu, A.
2003, ApJ, 599, 475. Three Binary Millisecond Pulsars in NGC 6266
89. Ramachandran, R. Kramer, M. 2003, A&A, 407, 1085. Unusual profile variations in pulsar PSR
J1022+1001 - Evidence for magnetospheric ``return currents''?
90. Robinson, C., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., Bailes, M., D'Amico, N., Johnston, S. 1995, MNRAS,
274, 547. Millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae
91. Seiradakis, J. H., Gil, J. A., Graham, D. A., Jessner, A., Kramer, M., Malofeev, V. M., Sieber, W.,
Wielebinski, R. 1995, A&A Supplement Series, 111, 205. Pulsar profiles at high frequencies. I. The data.
92. Seiradakis, J. H. Wielebinski, R. 2004, A&A Review, 12, 239. Morphology and characteristics of
radio pulsars
93. Shishov, V. I., Smirnova, T. V., Sieber, W., Malofeev, V. M., Potapov, V. A., Stinebring, D.,
Kramer, M., Jessner, A., Wielebinski, R. 2003, A&A, 404, 557. Measurements of the interstellar
turbulent plasma spectrum of PSR B0329+54 using multi-frequency observations of interstellar
scintillation
94. Stairs, I. H., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Kaspi, V. M., Camilo, F., Bell, J. F., D'Amico, N.,
Kramer, M., Crawford, F., Morris, D. J., Possenti, A., McKay, N. P. F., Lumsden, S. L., Tacconi-Garman,
L. E., Cannon, R. D., Hambly, N. C., Wood, P. R. 2001, MNRAS, 325, 979. PSR J1740-3052: a pulsar
with a massive companion
95. Stappers, B. W., Bailes, M., Lyne, A. G., Camilo, F., Manchester, R. N., Sandhu, J. S., Toscano, M.,
Bell, J. F. 2001, MNRAS, 321, 576. The nature of the PSR J2051-0827 eclipses
96. Stappers, B. W., Bailes, M., Lyne, A. G., Manchester, R. N., D'Amico, N., Tauris, T. M., Lorimer, D.
R., Johnston, S., Sandhu, J. S. 1996, ApJ, 465, L119. Probing the Eclipse Region of a Binary Millisecond
Pulsar
97. Thompson, D. J., Bailes, M., Bertsch, D. L., Cordes, J., D'Amico, N., Esposito, J. A., Finley, J.,
Hartman, R. C., Hermsen, W., Kanbach, G., Kaspi, V. M., Kniffen, D. A., Kuiper, L., Lin, Y. C., Lyne,
A., Manchester, R., Matz, S. M., Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A., Michelson, P. F., Nolan, P. L., Oegelman,
H., Pohl, M., Ramanamurthy, P. V., Sreekumar, P., Reimer, O., Taylor, J. H., Ulmer, M. 1999, ApJ, 516,
297. Gamma Radiation from PSR B1055-52
98. van den Heuvel, E. P. J. Lorimer, D. R. 1996, MNRAS, 283, L37. On the galactic and cosmic merger
rate of double neutron stars.
99. Vranesevic, N., Manchester, R. N., Lorimer, D. R., Hobbs, G. B., Lyne, A. G., Kramer, M., Camilo,
F., Stairs, I. H., Kaspi, V. M., D'Amico, N., Possenti, A., Crawford, F., Faulkner, A. J., McLaughlin, M.
A. 2004, ApJ, 617, L139. Pulsar Birthrates from the Parkes Multibeam Survey
100. Wex, N., Johnston, S., Manchester, R. N., Lyne, A. G., Stappers, B. W., Bailes, M. 1998, MNRAS,
298, 997. Timing models for the long orbital period binary pulsar PSR B1259-63
101. Wex, N., Kalogera, V., Kramer, M. 2000, ApJ, 528, 401. Constraints on Supernova Kicks from the
Double Neutron Star System PSR B1913+16

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102. Wolszczan, A., Doroshenko, O., Konacki, M., Kramer, M., Jessner, A., Wielebinski, R., Camilo, F.,
Nice, D. J., Taylor, J. H. 2000, ApJ, 528, 907. Timing Observations of Four Millisecond Pulsars with the
Arecibo and Effelsberg Radio Telescopes
103. Xilouris, K. M., Seiradakis, J. H., Gil, J., Sieber, W., Wielebinski, R. 1995, A&A, 293, 153. Pulsar
polarimetric observations at 10.55GHz.
104. Xilouris, K. M., Kramer, M., Jessner, A., von Hoensbroech, A., Lorimer, D., Wielebinski, R.,
Wolszczan, A., Camilo, F. 1998, ApJ, 501, 286. The Characteristics of Millisecond Pulsar Emission. II.
Polarimetry




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8. If the results of your work have been patented, please give a full list of the corresponding
patent applications

Not applicable. Descriptions of techniques and all results are published in the
open scientific literature.



9. How do you intend to exploit and diffuse the results of your project?
(Please provide details in no more than 500 words)

The results of our research are publicised by presentation at national and
international scientific meetings and by publication in the open scientific
literature. We are successful in making our results accessible to the general
public by giving public lectures, radio and television interviews and by writing
articles for astronomy magazines and other popular media. A good example is
the Royal Society’s decision to accept our proposal to present the
collaboration’s research on the double pulsar system as one of the highlighted
exhibitions at the prestigious Royal Society exhibition in London this summer.

Observational data obtained by the collaboration are made publicly available
in an online pulsar database, which is an invaluable resource to the pulsar
community and astronomers in general. Results of the European research
also feature in textbooks of which the two premier textbooks on pulsar
astronomy have been written by Jodrell Bank astronomers.

Our research project has firmly established Europe as the world-leader in
pulsar astronomy. We propose to exploit the situation by taking the lead in
future global projects such as the international Square Kilometre Array
(SKA) telescope project. The SKA will be the largest telescope ever built on
Earth and will be the ideal instrument for pulsar observations. Indeed, an
international science working group has selected pulsar astronomy as one of
five Key Science Projects, following the proposal lead by the European
collaboration. Some of the technical development work will lead to
international investment in the European SKA telecommunication and
computing industry.

Similarly, our world-leadership in the technically-challenging pulsar
observations and their exploitation is also being used to define the observing
capabilities and goals for the new low-frequency array (LOFAR) which
complements the SKA capabilities at very low radio frequencies.



                                          Page 14 of 21
                                                                          PulSE

With our high international standing, we continue to attract bright young
students and colleagues into the field. Additionally, the wide range of
technical and scientific questions addressed by our research places us in a
superb position to train young researchers for any career path they may want
to choose in science or industry. This provides the ultimate fulfilment of the
aims of the HCM programme in 1995.




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III. QUALITY OF THE CO-OPERATION3
PARTICIPANT TEAM 1 : JBO, UK

1. In no more than 500 words, describe the team’s contribution to the achievements:


The team has provided major intellectual input and technical support for the
experiments of the collaboration from its concept. In particular, it has been
responsible for:
 Participation in the design of the 13-beam receiver for the 64-m telescope
   at Parkes and the provision of 26 low-noise cryogenic amplifiers which
   provided the basic sensitivity of the system
 Design of a massive filterbank with 2x13x96 receiving channels of 3-MHz
   bandwidth each, and provision of most of the filterbank units
 Design and provision of a 1248-channel high-speed single-bit digitiser
 Design and provision of most of a 2x512-channel high-resolution filterbank
 Provision of some of the on-line software for control of the observing
   system and the main data acquisition and storage
 Major design and development of the offline data processing algorithms
 Provision of a large 182-processor Beowulf processing cluster (COBRA)
   for off-line data processing
 Development of COBRA as the first real-time coherent-dedispersion
   software-based pulsar receiver
 Extensive participation in observing sessions, data reduction and scientific
   interpretation
 Making timing measurements of about 600 pulsars with the 76-m telescope
   at Jodrell Bank
 Provision of pulsar ephemeredes for use in detecting pulsar’s with ESA’s
   Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO)
 Participating in multi-frequency single-pulse multi-telescope polarisation
   observations with other partners
 Training of more pulsar students and post-doctoral researchers than
   anywhere in the world




3
 Please use the same format in additional pages for each research team involved, including the project co-ordinator.
Remember to number them as you did in PART A of your proposal.


                                                  Page 16 of 21
                                                                                                           PulSE

III. QUALITY OF THE CO-OPERATION4
PARTICIPANT TEAM 2 :INAF-OAC, Italy

1. In no more than 500 words, describe the team’s contribution to the achievements:


The team has provided major intellectual input and technical support for the
experiments of the collaboration from its concept. In particular, it has been
responsible for:
 Provision of some of filterbank units of the massive filterbank with
   2x13x96 receiving channels of 3-MHz bandwidth each for the Parkes
   surveys
 Provision of some of a filterbank with 2x512 receiving channels of 0.5-MHz
   bandwidth, used for searching pulsars in globular clusters and timing
   observation of rapidly spinning pulsars discovered in all the experiments
 Provision of an extension for the high-speed single-bit digitiser in the
   Parkes system
 Conception and implementation of software to monitor data acquisition
 Provision of a 40-processor Beowulf processing cluster (Mangusta) for off-
   line data processing
 Extensive participation in observing sessions, data reduction and scientific
   interpretation
 Leading the search for pulsars in globular clusters resulting in a significant
   increase in the number of globular clusters which are now known to
   contain pulsars
 Development of offline data processing algorithms for search for pulsar in
   globular clusters
 Training of students and post-doctoral researchers
Moreover, using the Northern Cross Telescope at Medicina, the group:
 Invested a major intellectual effort in developing and implementing
   hardware and software for a data acquisition system with high frequency
   and time resolution
 Participated in multi-frequency multi-telescope polarisation observations
   with other European partners
 Performed pulsar timing observations correlated with the Gamma-Ray
   Observatory (GRO)
 Performed a large scale survey for ultra-rapidly rotating pulsars resulting
   in the discovery of a millisecond pulsar


4
 Please use the same format in additional pages for each research team involved, including the project co-ordinator.
Remember to number them as you did in PART A of your proposal.


                                                  Page 17 of 21
                                                                                                           PulSE




III. QUALITY OF THE CO-OPERATION5
PARTICIPANT TEAM 3 : MPIfR, Germany

1. In no more than 500 words, describe the team’s contribution to the achievements:

The team has provided major intellectual input and technical support for the
experiments of the collaboration from its concept. In particular, it has been
responsible for:
 Coordinating the EPN
 Leading the development of the common EPN data format
 Installing, hosting and maintaining the main site of the EPN data base
 Provisions of algorithms and software libraries for data analysis and
   visualization of multi-frequency data
 Coordinating and participating in the multi-frequency single-pulse multi-
   telescope polarisation observations with other partners
 Leading the collation, reduction and analysis of multi-station data
 Making high-precision timing measurements of northern millisecond
   pulsars with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope
 Provision of initial leadership in the analysis of multi-station timing data
 Extensive participation in observing sessions, data reduction and scientific
   interpretation
 Hosting an colloquium of International Astronomical Union (IAU) on
   pulsar research, highlighting research results obtained by the collaboration
 Training of many students and post-doctoral researchers




5
 Please use the same format in additional pages for each research team involved, including the project co-ordinator.
Remember to number them as you did in PART A of your proposal.


                                                  Page 18 of 21
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III. QUALITY OF THE CO-OPERATION6
PARTICIPANT TEAM 4 : ASTRON, Netherlands

1. In no more than 500 words, describe the team’s contribution to the achievements:


The team led from ASTRON and including staff and students at the
Universities of Amsterdam, Utrecht and Nijmegen in the Netherlands have
provided both technical and scientific input to the collaboration:
 Developed two sophisticated pulsar machines for the Westerbork Array.
   The first was a flexible digital filterbank and the second is the largest wide
   bandwidth coherent de-dispersing pulsar machine in the world and is
   based on off the shelf components. The latter was inspired by the COBRA
   machine development at JBO
 Provided a database for observational data products and discussion forum
   for the simultaneous multi-frequency observations projects
 Held a workshop in May 2002 which formalised the Simultaneous Multi-
   frequency observations projects
 Co-developed a sophisticated pulsar analysis package, PSRCHIVE, which
   is freely available
 Pioneered the use of a phased array of telescopes for regular pulsar
   observations and developed a sophisticated way of combining those
   telescopes for use for pulsar surveys. The skills developed are also
   required for the future large radio telescopes like LOFAR and SKA
 Developed several new techniques and associated software for the analysis
   of single pulses from pulsars and their polarisation properties
 Provided high-precision pulsar timing data from a monthly observing
   program
 Participated in multi-frequency, multi-telescope, single-pulse polarisation
   observations with other partners
 Provided valuable input into the development and implementation of
   pulsar observing modes and capabilities in the low-frequency array
   telescope LOFAR



6
 Please use the same format in additional pages for each research team involved, including the project co-ordinator.
Remember to number them as you did in PART A of your proposal.


                                                  Page 19 of 21
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III. QUALITY OF THE CO-OPERATION7
PARTICIPANT TEAM 5 : UTHESS, Geece

1. In no more than 500 words, describe the team’s contribution to the achievements:

The University of Thessaloniki played a key role in the establishment of the
European Pulsar Network (EPN) and was strongly involved in the
development of the EPN data format and the public pulsar database
(http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/div/pulsar/data).
 The very first data to be included in the database were the large sample of
   profiles observed and subsequently published by Seiradakis et al. (1995).
 The search engine associated with the data base was initiated at the
   University of Thessaloniki and was finished in Bonn, following an extensive
   visit of an MSc student (Andreas Athanasopoulos) to the Max-Planck-
   Institute für Radioastronomie (MPIfR).
 The close relations between Thessaloniki and the other European institutes
   were enhanced by several visits of students and staff to MPIfR, Jodrell
   Bank and Amsterdam (K. Xilouris: Post Doc at MPIfR, E. Angelakis:
   Erasmus visit at Jodrell Bank and recently PhD student at MPIfR, A.
   Karastergiou: PhD at MPIfR, O. Barziv: PhD student at Amsterdam, J.H.
   Seiradakis: Sabbatical at MPIfR and external examiner at Jodrell Bank).
 Recently an extensive review article on the morphology of pulsar profiles
   was published by J.H. Seiradakis and R. Wielebinski.




7
 Please use the same format in additional pages for each research team involved, including the project co-ordinator.
Remember to number them as you did in PART A of your proposal.


                                                  Page 20 of 21
                                                   PulSE




                   ENDPAGE

                     PART B

             SCIENCE AND SOCIETY

CALL IDENTIFIER: FP6-2004-SCIENCE-AND-SOCIETY-12

        DESCARTES PRIZE FOR RESEARCH




     PROPOSAL ACRONYM:              PulSE




                    Page 21 of 21

				
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