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					         The Nature of Terrorism
       “Putting the horror in the minds of the audience,
       and not necessarily on the screen”




•Topics covered —
What is terrorism?
Where terrorists come from?
What causes terrorism?
What are the 3 Rs of terrorism?
Why do terrorists kill themselves?
What is to be done?
                What is Terrorism?
Deliberately and violently targeting civilians for political purposes

•  Has seven crucial characteristics —
1. Politically inspired (otherwise it’s simply a crime)
2. Violence or threat of violence (‘cyberterrorism’ is not terrorism)
3. Point of terrorism is not to defeat enemy-send a message
4. Act & victim usually have symbolic significance
5. Is act of sub-state groups, not states
6. Victim of violence & audience terrorists trying to reach are not
   the same.
7.Terrorism deliberately targets civilians.
   This distinguishes terrorism from guerilla warfare.
Terms:                                                      Types
                                          Agro-terrorism
separatist, freedom fighter, liberator,
revolutionary, vigilante, militant,       Propaganda of the deed
paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel,           Bioterrorism
jihahi or mujaheddin, or fedayeen,
                                          Christian terrorism
                                          Cyber-terrorism
                                          Communist terrorism
                                          Eco-terrorism
                                          Islamist terrorism
                                          Narcoterrorism
                                          Nationalist
                                          Nuclear terrorism
                                          Political
                                          Racist
                                          Other religious terrorism
                                          State
                                          State-sponsored
    Understanding Terrorists


When terrorists act,
 they are seeking 3
immediate objectives
    (3 Rs):
 • exact revenge
 • achieve glory
 • force adversary
   into reaction
           History of Terrorism
                        • Term “terrorism” coined
                          during French
                          Revolution’s Reign of
                          Terror (1793 – 1794)
                        • Birth of Government-
                          sponsored Terrorism
                        • State terrorism goal to
                          eliminate opposition &
                          consolidate power

“ONE MAN'S TERRORIST IS ANOTHER MAN'S FREEDOM FIGHTER”
                                           David Brownlow
           History of Terrorism
• Anarchists were seen in late 19th century

• Individual terrorism
  – Use of selective terror against individual to bring
    down a government
  – ie:Lincoln assassination


• Propaganda by deeds
         History of Terrorism:
Religious terrorism 20th century became more
frequent.
Economic terrorism-destruction of industry and
agriculture system.

             Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare.


  Asymmetric warfare is use of random & unpredictable
violence by weak military against stronger military.
 Key of asymmetric warfare is using unexpected,
unconventional tactics in combat. ie: suicide bombers
          Types of Terrorism
• Domestic terrorism-terrorist
  activities directed at
  government without foreign
  involvement.
    ie:Oklahoma City
• International terrorism-
  terrorist activities foreign-
  based and/or directed by
  countries or groups outside
  country
    ie:Sept. 11
 Example of Chemical Terrorism

• Sarin nerve
  agent attack on
  Tokyo subway
  system in March
  20, 1995
• 12 people killed
  and 53 seriously
  injured
                  Biological terrorism
• Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce
  illness, death and terror
• Paths of infection can be contaminated water,
  food, air and packages.
• Microbes –Bacteria, Viruses, Toxins
               Is this something new?


  14th Century – Kaffa City on Crimean Peninsula
  Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it

18th Century French and Indian WarBritish Officers gave
                                    Phillip aligned with
blankets from smallpox victims to Indians L. Coule, M.D. French    11
                 Risk of Dying
Smoking 10 cigarettes a day         One in 200
All natural causes age 40            One in 850
Road accident                      One in 8,000
Playing soccer                   One in 25,000
Homicide                        One in 100,000
Terrorism attack in 2001        One in 100,000
Hit by lightning              One in 10,000,000
Terrorism attack in 1990’s    One in 50,000,000
  Death Rate of Various Causes in
          USA year 2000
Heart disease*                     One in 400
Cancer *                           One in 500
Cerebrovascular diseases*        One in 2,000
Accidents *                      One in 3,000
Diabetes*                        One in 4,000
Suicide*                       One in 10,000
Homicide*                      One in 20,000
Terrorism in 2001             One in 100,000
Terrorism in 1990’s         One in 50,000,000
          What Is to Be Done?
• Terrorism will continue to be
  employed as long as it is
  deemed effective
• Technological developments
  will make it easier for ever
  smaller groups to employ
  weapons of ever greater
  lethality
• Political, social, and
  economic developments will
  continue to produce
  disaffected individuals
• We will never be able to
  prevent every attack,      but
  we can control our reaction
  to those attacks
                     Conclusion
• Unlawful act
• History of being used to achieve
  political, religious and ideological
  objectives
• Can be conducted through firearms,
  explosive devices,biological,
  chemical, nuclear materials
• Even after events of 2001,risk of
  dying from terrorism has remained
  much lower than that from motor
  vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic
  beverage.
                        Tim McVeigh                                                                          4



                                                      2                            3

                                                               Samina Malik
                1                                            “Lyrical terrorist”

                                                                                       5
                    6



                                                                                           Uganda soldiers
                           Tim Smith killed in Iraq


                                                                    8
Una Bomber Ted Kaczynski
                                                                                                             9

                    7



                                             Tony Blair   Osama bin Laden
                                                                                           Rwanda boys

				
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posted:12/11/2011
language:English
pages:23