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L2K RTS France PSG13 feedback

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					direction      L2K+
              service       Monday, 21     Antoine MARTIN -
générale       France       February              SCTA/3RN
              du Contrôle
               RTS –        2005                         1
de l’Aviation
               PSG13
              du trafic
civile         Feedback
              aérien




Link2000+ France Real-Time
Simulation
a feedback

> antoine.martin@aviation-civile.gouv.fr
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                               Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                                        SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                                                   2
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback



Presentation objectives
            to provide a quick overview and disseminate
            lessons learnt
                   The RTS corroborated some options from a French point
                    of view, underlined important issues & highlighted
                    concerns calling for more work
            known limitations and scale of the
            experiment should lead to prudence
                   quite representative and reliable though
            results are only relevant for France a priori
            and are certainly not « universal » lessons
            some results might be hopefully useful for
            L2k partners
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21         Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                  SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                             3
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback



Conclusion
            the Link2000+ operational concept is
            once again confirmed as being:

            Acceptable, Useful, Suitable,
            Relevant …
            but more work is needed
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                                Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                                         SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                                                    4
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback



The simulation in a nutshell 1/2
            experiment sponsored by the Link2000+
            program
            designed by SCTA, Reims ACC and the
            Eurocontrol Experimental Center
            project manager : Franck Ballerini (EEC)
            conducted in Brétigny from 1st to 12th December
            2003
            « Light » experiment, thought as a first step
            towards definition of French operational
            requirements
                   messages, HMI functions & prerequisites, procedures…
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21        Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                 SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                            5
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback



The simulation in a nutshell 2/2
 how ? by assessing some potential needs
            part of the operational impact
         some existing solutions


 using ATCOs judgment (debriefings,
  questionnaires) and metrics

 about 3 key issues
  direction       L2K+       Monday, 21   Antoine MARTIN -
  générale        France     February            SCTA/3RN
                  RTS –      2005                       6
  de l’Aviation
                  PSG13
  civile          Feedback



  The simulation in a nutshell 2/2


Human Machine Interface (HMI)
Task sharing & working methods
Communication performances
     direction        L2K+       Monday, 21     Antoine MARTIN -
     générale         France     February              SCTA/3RN
                      RTS –      2005                         7
     de l’Aviation
                      PSG13
     civile           Feedback



    Facts and figures
2 measured sectors, 3 feeders - 6 ATCOs
ACM, ACL : Contact, Level, Direct,
Heading, Speed, Rate Of Climb/Rate Of
Descent
In addition : CAP, MONITOR
Using the EEC Link2000+ HMI (stripless)
6 traffic samples    120% & 150% traffic load
                     50% & 80% equipage rate

1196 ACL messages during 20 measured
exercises
Communication delays were randomised
Procedures in total compliance with OFG
D/L manual
 direction       L2K+       Monday, 21   Antoine MARTIN -
 générale        France     February            SCTA/3RN
                 RTS –      2005                       8
 de l’Aviation
                 PSG13
 civile          Feedback



 HMI topics overview

Use of radar labels for
CPDLC
No confirmation prior to
message sending
Unavailability of free text
Double columns menus
Combined orders
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21   Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February            SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                       9
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback



HMI topics overview (cont’d)
Frame coding
Warning and errors display
PC and TC positions with
same capability
No messages history
Messages In/Out windows
  direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                  Antoine MARTIN -
  générale        France     February                           SCTA/3RN
                  RTS –      2005                                     10
  de l’Aviation
                  PSG13
  civile          Feedback



  Messages use
                                          Direct - 54%
Most used/useful: ACM                     Climb/Descent - 32%
Direct: useful                            Heading - 11%

Speed, ROC/ROD:                           No Speed Restriction - 2%
harldy used                               Speed - 1%

ACL is barely usable                      ROC/ROD - 1%
when overloaded                           Maintain Level - 0%

There are fears about
pilot
overusing/misusing
« standby »
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                              Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                                       SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                                                 11
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback



Working methods & Task sharing
            Proposed method
                   transfer instuctions issued by PC
                   clearances possibly issued by PC (on demand)

            Opinions were divided
                   Some totally appreciated it
                   Some were totally opposed
                   4 controllers accepted transfer delegation with TC
                    pre-approval, 2 controllers were against.
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                                              Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                                                       SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                                                                 12
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback

Working methods & Task sharing
(cont’d)
            Reason why task delegation is useful
                   a means to balance workload by alleviating TC‟s workload
            Reasons why it is not
                   In some cases, it increases TC‟s instant workload
                   Transfers of non-DL aircraft were managed by TC - often
                    forgotten – requires too much focus
                   Impact on TC‟s situational awareness (transfers)
                   Transfers might not be appropriately handled by PCs in some
                    situation (when very busy)
                   Some risks (transfer of an A/C still involved in a conflict)
                   Problems due to cohabitation of several working methods (-> PC
                    could transfer A/C which is still perceived as „needed‟ by the TC)
                   There are social risks, legal issues
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                                      Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                                               SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                                                         13
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback

Working methods & Task sharing
(cont’d)
            Conclusions
                   Appropriate task sharing allows gaining all advantages of
                    data link whereas unsuitable might decrease controller
                    performance
                   “transfer by PC” cannot be a general method -- for some
                    it could
                   Delegation, of any kind of instruction, is useful and must
                    be allowed
                   Applicability is context dependant: persons, flights, traffic
                    flow, workload …
                   Clear task delegation principles must be settled on a
                    national, local, team and/or tactical basis
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                                     Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                                              SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                                                        14
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback



Working methods – First contact
            Using CPDLC for issuing the « first direct »
                   Is acceptable & useful: it reduces misunderstanding and
                    mistakes
            Use of MONITORING
                   Might require automatic warnings
                   Very beneficial, less interruptive
                   There are concerns about Situational Awareness
            MONITORING : proposed working method
                   1st voice contact initiated by ATCO, as soon as possible (it
                    would improve task prioritisation + reduce impact on SA)
direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                                     Antoine MARTIN -
générale        France     February                                              SCTA/3RN
                RTS –      2005                                                        15
de l’Aviation
                PSG13
civile          Feedback

Working methods – impact of
comm’ delays
   Work becomes more asynchronous as anticipated
   Dialogue status information becomes part of the
    scanning pattern
   Communication performances were found
    acceptable for non time-critical uses
                A Poisson‟s law was used – 4.5s means for a one way “trip”
                Errors were emulated on ~2% of uplink messages
                Insufficient for getting full benefits from ACL right now, in terms of
                 WL ?
   Impact of failures was important
   Sometimes CPDLC was used in time-critical
    situation…
       direction       L2K+       Monday, 21                Antoine MARTIN -
       générale        France     February                         SCTA/3RN
                       RTS –      2005                                   16
       de l’Aviation
                       PSG13
       civile          Feedback



       Some conclusions
                A critical prerequisite: an efficient and
                appropriate HMI
                OK for routine tasks – not for others
                Impact on Situational Awareness requires
                more consideration
                Impact on live training requires investigation
                Task sharing issues are not show stoppers
                CPDLC is
                     “useful and promising”
Report available at
www.eurocontrol.int/link2000/public/standard_page/specific_docs.html

				
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