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HIST 002 Midterm Exam Middle Passage Who Portuguese_ Enslaved

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									HIST 002 Midterm Exam

Middle Passage

Who: Portuguese, Enslaved Africans

What: the stage of the triangle trade in which millions of people from Africa to The
New World and use them as trade. 1400’s to 1600s Portuguese had a near complete
monopoly on slave export from Africa

Where: Route through Atlantic where enslaved Africans were brought from African
to the New World and sold/bartered

When: 14th- 18th century

How: Slave ships were sent from European countries to Africa to capture slaves and
then ship them directly over to the New World to be sold for work

John Locke

Who: Along with Thomas Hobbes,

What: together developed doctrine known as social contract that says that all
political authority derives not from divine right but from implicit contracts between
citizens and their rulers. Found in “Natural Laws” written by John Locke

Where: France, England

When: 1600s

How:

Philosophes

Who: French intellectuals of 18th century, writers of the Enlightenment

What: Start of Enlightenment, used a variety of studies instead of just using
philosophical ideas.

Where: France

When: late 1700s

How: Used ideas to help solve real life problems of social and political issues; also
studied various subjects such as science, economics, politics, etc.
Voltaire

Who: Francois-Marie Arouet; Most influential writer of the Enlightenment; pen
name Voltaire

What: Made Newton’s discoveries popular; Had his own deist view of religion and
was against Christianity and Judaism; reformers not revolutionists;

Where: France

When: 1694-1778

How: Writer of Letters concerning the English Nation; it attacked Catholic bigotry, he
was exiled to England for two years; Montesquieu’s ideas on reforms were used by
Catherine II in 1767 but her reform ideas never were seen through



Encyclopaedism

Who: Encyclopaedists; writers of the Enlightenment

What: Wrote Encyclopedia; gathered knowledge about science, religion, industry,
and society

Where: France

When: Between 1751-1772

How: Philosophes believed in spread of knowledge and reform in all aspects of life;
wanted to express “natural rights” binding. Used to help support the Enlightenment


Wealth of Nations

Who: Adam Smith
What: Wrote An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations; coined
term laissez-faire (to leave alone)

Where: Scotland

When: 1776

How: Beginning of Industrial Revolution; argued that a free market economy is
more beneficial to their societies.
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