Natural and man-made disasters

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					Natural and man-made
      disasters
   History of disasters studies
• Vicksburg tornado 1953
  (Perry et al, 1965)
• Coal mining accident 1966
  (Lacey, 1972)
• Buffalo Creek dam collapse 1972
  (e.g. Gleser et al., 1981)
• Chowchilla school bus kidnapping 1976
  (Terr, 1979, 1983)
• Early descriptive studies
• Relatively mild response to more sever
  reactions
• parent reports to direct evaluations
• Most common disaster response
  – Specific fears
  – Separation difficulties
  – PTS
              Current view
• PTSD symptoms
  – Comparison across studies difficult
  – Most extreme scores by children with most
    sever threat or loss
  – Differences in specific disaster experience
  – And/or age
  – Re-experiencing even after mild or indirect
    exposure
  – Avoidance/numbing more likely in high levels
    of exposure
      Some specific PTSD/ stress-
             responses
• Reenactment in play
   – Course of play “stuck”
• Sleep problems
   – Sleep alone, getting to sleep, nightmares
• Increased irritability
   – Tantrums (↓), fearfulness, dependency on adults
• Regression
   – E.g. enuresis (↓)
• Somatic complaints
   – E.g. headaches and stomachaches (↑)
• Guilt
   – E.g. over pre-disaster behavior
 Other symptoms and disorders
• Anxiety
  – Overlap with PTSD symptoms
• Depression
  – Less common than PTSD symptoms
• School performance
  – Most likely for children with
     • persisting post-disaster symptoms
     • High levels of parental symptoms
  Factors influencing response
• Disaster characteristics
• Child characteristics
• Family and Community Effects
  Factors influencing response
• Disaster characteristics
  – Life threat and exposure to the grotesque
  – Bereavement
  – Separation
  – (Injury)
  – Physical losses and disruption of the
    environment
  Factors influencing response
• Child characteristics
  – Age
     • Older
     • Complex, maybe mediators, such as appraisal,
       coping strategies, control beliefs, community
       involvement
  – Gender
     • Female, internalizing symptoms
  – Prior pathology and traumatic experiences
     • unclear
 Family and Community Effects
• Family factors
  – Corr. child-parent response
  – parental distress, communication patterns
• Effects of Evacuation/Relocation
  – Evacuation without subsequent return can be
    stressful
• Community support
  – E.g. rebuilding efforts

				
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