GeneralLithology_1-1

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GeneralLithology_1-1 Powered By Docstoc
					HKEY             Hierarchy of terms (columns B - F)

[NOTE: GeneralLithology was developed for the National Geologic Map Database's Data Portal.
For background, see http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1298/pdf/usgs_of2009-1298_soller4.pdf and
   the NCGMP09 documentation.
See http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Info/standards/NCGMP09/ for updates to this list.
Please send any comments to ncgmp09@flagmail.wr.usgs.gov.]

01.00.00.00.00   Sedimentary
01.01.00.00.00        Sediment
01.01.01.00.00               Clastic sediment
01.01.01.01.00                           Sand, gravel
01.01.01.02.00                           Silt, clay
01.01.01.03.00                           Alluvium
01.01.01.03.01                                        Mostly coarse-grained
01.01.01.03.02                                        Mostly fine-grained
01.01.01.04.00                           Glacial till
01.01.01.04.01                                        Mostly sandy
01.01.01.04.02                                        Mostly silty
01.01.01.04.03                                        Mostly clayey
01.01.01.05.00                           Ice-marginal
01.01.01.05.01                                        Mostly coarse-grained
01.01.01.05.02                                        Mostly fine-grained
01.01.01.06.00                           Eolian
01.01.01.06.01                                        Sand
01.01.01.06.02                                        Loess
01.01.01.07.00                           Lacustrine
01.01.01.07.01                                        Mostly coarse-grained
01.01.01.07.02                                        Mostly fine-grained
01.01.01.08.00                           Playa
01.01.01.09.00                           Coastal zone
01.01.01.09.01                                        Mostly coarser grained
01.01.01.09.02                                        Mostly fine-grained
01.01.01.10.00                           Marine
01.01.01.10.01                                        Mostly coarser grained
01.01.01.10.02                                        Mostly fine-grained
01.01.01.11.00                           Mass movement
01.01.01.11.01                                        Widespread
01.01.01.11.02                                        Localized
01.01.02.00.00               Residual
01.01.03.00.00               Carbonate
01.01.04.00.00               Peat
01.02.00.00.00        Rock
01.02.01.00.00               Clastic rock
01.02.01.01.00                           Conglomerates
01.02.01.02.00                            Sandstones
01.02.01.03.00                            Mostly sandstone
01.02.01.04.00                            Sandstone and mudstone
01.02.01.05.00                            Mudstones
01.02.01.06.00                            Mostly mudstone
01.02.02.00.00                 Limestones
01.02.03.00.00                 Mostly limestones
01.02.04.00.00                 Evaporites
01.02.05.00.00                 Iron-rich
01.02.06.00.00                 Coal
02.00.00.00.00   Sedimentary and extrusive igneous material
03.00.00.00.00   Igneous
03.01.00.00.00        Extrusives
03.01.01.00.00                 Volcaniclastics
03.01.01.01.00                            Pyroclastic flows
03.01.01.01.01                                        Felsic
03.01.01.01.02                                        Intermediate
03.01.01.01.03                                        Mafic
03.01.01.02.00                            Air-fall tephra
03.01.01.02.01                                        Felsic
03.01.01.02.02                                        Intermediate
03.01.01.02.03                                        Mafic
03.01.02.00.00                 Lava flows
03.01.02.01.00                            Felsic
03.01.02.01.00                            Intermediate
03.01.02.01.00                            Mafic
03.02.00.00.00        Intrusives
03.02.01.00.00                 Coarse-grained
03.02.01.01.00                            Felsic
03.02.01.02.00                            Intermediate
03.02.01.03.00                            Mafic
03.02.01.04.00                            Ultramafic
03.02.02.00.00                 Fine-grained
03.02.02.01.00                            Felsic
03.02.02.02.00                            Intermediate
03.02.02.03.00                            Mafic
03.02.03.00.00                 Exotics
04.00.00.00.00   Igneous and metamorphic rock
05.00.00.00.00   Metamorphic
05.01.00.00.00        Unspecified origin
05.01.01.00.00                 Medium to High-grade
05.01.02.00.00                 Contact
05.01.03.00.00                 Deformation
05.02.00.00.00        Metasedimentary
05.02.01.00.00                 Slate and phyllite
05.02.02.00.00                Schist and gneiss
05.02.03.00.00                Marble
05.02.04.00.00                Quartzite
05.03.00.00.00        Metaigneous
06.00.00.00.00   Other
06.01.00.00.00        Rock and sediment
06.02.00.00.00        Rock
06.03.00.00.00        "Made" land
06.04.00.00.00        Water or ice
06.05.00.00.00        Unmapped
             GeneralLithology

ic Map Database's Data Portal.
_of2009-1298_soller4.pdf and

s to this list.


             Sedimentary material
             Sediment
             Clastic sediment
             Sand and gravel of unspecified origin
             Silt and clay of unspecified origin
             Alluvial sediment
             Alluvial sediment, mostly coarse-grained
             Alluvial sediment, mostly fine-grained
             Glacial till
             Glacial till, mostly sandy
             Glacial till, mostly silty
             Glacial till, mostly clayey
             Ice-contact and ice-marginal sediment
             Ice-contact and ice-marginal sediment, mostly coarse-grained
             Ice-contact and ice-marginal sediment, mostly fine-grained
             Eolian sediment
             Dune sand
             Loess
             Lacustrine sediment
             Lacustrine sediment, mostly coarse-grained
             Lacustrine sediment, mostly fine-grained
             Playa sediment
             Coastal zone sediment
             Coastal zone sediment, mostly coarser grained
             Coastal zone sediment, mostly fine-grained
             Marine sediment
             Marine sediment, mostly coarser grained
             Marine sediment, mostly fine-grained
             Mass movement sediment
             Colluvium and other widespread mass-movement sediment
             Debris flows, landslides, and other localized mass-movement sediment
             Residual material
             Carbonate sediment
             Peat and muck
             Sedimentary rock
             Clastic sedimentary rock
             Conglomerate
Sandstone
Mostly sandstone, interbedded with other sedimentary rocks which locally may include conglomerate and
Sandstone and mudstone
Mudstone
Mostly mudstone, interbedded with other sedimentary rocks which locally may include coarser grained cla
Carbonate rock
Mostly carbonate rock, interbedded with clastic sedimentary rock
Evaporitic rock
Iron-rich sedimentary rock
Coal and lignite
Sedimentary and extrusive igneous material
Igneous rock
Extrusive igneous material
Volcaniclastic (fragmental) material
Pyroclastic flows
Felsic-composition pyroclastic flows
Intermediate-composition pyroclastic flows
Mafic-composition pyroclastic flows
Air-fall tephra
Felsic-composition air-fall tephra
Intermediate-composition air-fall tephra
Mafic-composition air-fall tephra
Lava flows
Felsic-composition lava flows
Intermediate-composition lava flows
Mafic-composition lava flows
Intrusive igneous rock
Coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock
Coarse-grained, felsic-composition intrusive igneous rock
Coarse-grained, intermediate-composition intrusive igneous rock
Coarse-grained, mafic-composition intrusive igneous rock
Ultramafic intrusive igneous rock
Fine-grained intrusive igneous rock
Fine-grained, felsic-composition intrusive igneous rock
Fine-grained, intermediate-composition intrusive igneous rock
Fine-grained, mafic-composition intrusive igneous rock
Exotic-composition intrusive igneous rock
Igneous and metamorphic rock
Metamorphic rock
Regional metamorphic rock, of unspecified origin
Medium and high-grade regional metamorphic rock, of unspecified origin
Contact-metamorphic rock
Deformation-related metamorphic rock
Metasedimentary rock
Slate and phyllite, of sedimentary rock origin
Schist and gneiss, of sedimentary rock origin
Marble
Quartzite
Metaigneous rock
Other materials
Rock and sediment
Rock
"Made" or human-engineered land
Water or ice
Unmapped
Definition:




An aggregation of particles deposited by gravity, air, water, or ice, or as accumulated by other natural age
Unconsolidated material (sediment) composed of particles deposited by gravity, air, water, or ice, or as a
A sediment formed by the weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks or minerals; the eroded particles o
A sediment composed mostly of sand and/or gravel, formed by the weathering and erosion of preexisting
A sediment composed mostly of silt and/or clay, formed by the weathering and erosion of preexisting rock
Unconsolidated material deposited by a stream or other body of running water, as a sorted or semi-sorted
Unconsolidated material deposited by a stream or other body of running water, as a sorted or semi-sorted
Unconsolidated material deposited by a stream or other body of running water, as a sorted or semi-sorted
Mostly unsorted and unstratified material, generally unconsolidated, deposited directly by and underneath
Mostly unsorted and unstratified material, generally unconsolidated, deposited directly by and underneath
Mostly unsorted and unstratified material, generally unconsolidated, deposited directly by and underneath
Mostly unsorted and unstratified material, generally unconsolidated, deposited directly by and underneath
Mostly sand, silt, and gravel-sized particles or "clasts" derived from rock or preexisting sediment eroded a
Mostly sand and gravel-sized particles or "clasts," with lesser silt and clay, derived from rock or preexistin
Mostly silt and clay-sized particles or "clasts," with lesser sand and gravel, derived from rock or preexistin
Silt- and sand-sized sediment deposited by wind.
Mostly sand-sized sediment deposited by wind. Typically characterized by various dune landforms.
Silty material deposited by winds near the glacial margin.
Mostly well sorted and well bedded material ranging in grain size from clay to gravel, deposited in perenn
Mostly well-sorted and well-bedded material, generally sand- and gravel-sized with lesser silt and clay, de
Mostly well-sorted and well-bedded material, generally silt- and clay-sized with lesser sand and gravel, de
Fine-grained sediment and evaporite salts deposited in ephemeral lakes in the centers of undrained basi
Mud and sandy sediment deposited in marine deltaic, strand plain, beach, barrier island, or in various low
Mostly sand-, silt-, and gravel-sized sediment deposited on beaches and dunes, and in shallow marine an
Mostly clay- and silt-sized sediment deposited in lagoons, tidal flats, backbarriers, and coastal marshes.
Mud and sandy sediment deposited in various marine settings. Sediment may originate from erosion of r
Mud and sandy sediment derived from erosion or rocks and sediment on land, transport by streams, and
Mostly clay- and silt-sized sediment deposited in relatively deep, quiet water, far removed from areas whe
Formed by downslope transport of particles or "clasts" produced by weathering and breakdown of the und
Formed by relatively widespread and slow downslope transport of particles or "clasts" produced by weath
Formed by relatively localized downslope transport of particles or "clasts" produced by weathering and br
Unconsolidated material presumed to have developed in place, by weathering of the underlying rock or s
A sediment formed by the biotic or abiotic precipitation from aqueous solution of carbonates of calcium, m
An unconsolidated material principally composed of plant remains, with lesser amounts of generally fine-g
Consolidated material (rock) composed of particles deposited by gravity, air, water, or ice, or as accumula
Sedimentary rock that is composed dominantly of particles or "clasts" derived by erosion, weathering, or m
Sedimentary rock that is composed dominantly of particles or "clasts" derived by erosion and weathering
Sedimentary rock that is composed dominantly of particles or "clasts" derived by erosion and weathering
This area is underlain by sequences of various sedimentary rocks that, for this generalized map depiction
Approximately equal (or unspecified) proportion of sandstone and mudstone (which includes shale and si
Sedimentary rock that is composed dominantly of particles or "clasts" derived by erosion and weathering
This area is underlain by sequences of various sedimentary rocks that, for this generalized map depiction
A sedimentary rock such as limestone or dolomite, consisting chiefly of carbonate minerals.
This area is underlain by sequences of various sedimentary rocks that, for this generalized map depiction
Sedimentary rock composed primarily of minerals produced by evaporation of a saline solution. Example
Sedimentary rock in which at least 50 percent of the observed minerals are iron-bearing (hematite, magn
Organic rich sedimentary rock formed from the compaction and alteration of plant remains. Coal is a con
This area is underlain either by (1) sedimentary rock and/or unconsolidated material (sediment) and by ex
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma).
Molten material that was erupted onto the surface of the Earth, fusing into rock or remaining as unconsol
Rock and unconsolidated material consisting of particles or "clasts" that were formed by volcanic explosio
Hot ash, pumice, and rock fragments erupted from a volcano. This material moves downslope commonly
Hot ash, pumice, and rock fragments erupted from a volcano. This material moves downslope commonly
Hot ash, pumice, and rock fragments erupted from a volcano. This material moves downslope commonly
Hot ash, pumice, and rock fragments erupted from a volcano. This material moves downslope commonly
Fragments of volcanic rock and lava, of various sizes, are known as "tephra." This material is carried into
Fragments of volcanic rock and lava, of various sizes, are known as "tephra." This material is carried into
Fragments of volcanic rock and lava, of various sizes, are known as "tephra." This material is carried into
Fragments of volcanic rock and lava, of various sizes, are known as "tephra." This material is carried into
A lateral, surficial outpouring of molten lava from a vent or a fissure, and the solidified body of rock that fo
A lateral, surficial outpouring of molten lava from a vent or a fissure, and the solidified body of rock that fo
A lateral, surficial outpouring of molten lava from a vent or a fissure, and the solidified body of rock that fo
A lateral, surficial outpouring of molten lava from a vent or a fissure, and the solidified body of rock that fo
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma), forming below the Earth's surface
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at some depth beneath
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at some depth beneath
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at some depth beneath
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at some depth beneath
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at some depth beneath
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at shallow depths bene
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at shallow depths bene
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at shallow depths bene
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma). It formed at shallow depths bene
Rock that solidified from molten or partly molten material (i.e., magma), forming below the Earth's surface
Consists of coarse-grained intrusive igneous rocks and generally medium to high grade metamorphic roc
A rock derived from preexisting rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or structural changes, essentially in the
A rock derived from preexisting rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or structural changes, essentially in the
A rock derived from preexisting rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or structural changes, essentially in the
Rock that originated by local processes of thermal metamorphism, genetically related to the intrusion and
A rock derived from preexisting rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or structural changes, essentially in the
A rock derived from preexisting sedimentary rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or structural changes, esse
A fine-grained rock derived from preexisting sedimentary rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or structural c
A foliated rock derived from preexisting sedimentary rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or structural chang
A rock derived from preexisting (commonly carbonate) sedimentary rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or s
A rock derived from preexisting (commonly sandstone) sedimentary rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or
A rock derived from preexisting igneous rocks by mineralogical, chemical, or structural changes, essentia

Various rocks and sediment, not differentiated.
Various rock types, not differentiated.
Modern, unconsolidated material known to have human-related origin.
d by other natural agents operating at Earth's surface such as chemical precipitation or secretion by organisms. May
 water, or ice, or as accumulated by other natural agents operating at Earth's surface such as chemical precipitation
he eroded particles or "clasts" are transported and deposited by gravity, air, water, or ice.
erosion of preexisting rocks or minerals; the eroded particles or "clasts" are transported and deposited by gravity, air
on of preexisting rocks or minerals; the eroded particles or "clasts" are transported and deposited by gravity, air, wat
 sorted or semi-sorted sediment in the bed of the stream or on its floodplain or delta, or as a cone or fan at the base
 sorted or semi-sorted sediment in the bed of the stream or on its floodplain or delta, or as a cone or fan at the base
 sorted or semi-sorted sediment in the bed of the stream or on its floodplain or delta, or as a cone or fan at the base
tly by and underneath a glacier without subsequent reworking by meltwater, and consisting of a heterogeneous mixtu
tly by and underneath a glacier without subsequent reworking by meltwater, and consisting of clay, silt, sand, gravel,
tly by and underneath a glacier without subsequent reworking by meltwater, and consisting of a heterogeneous mixtu
tly by and underneath a glacier without subsequent reworking by meltwater, and consisting of a heterogeneous mixtu
ng sediment eroded and transported by glaciers. As the ice melted, this material was deposited by running water es
 om rock or preexisting sediment eroded and transported by glaciers. As the ice melted, this material was deposited
 om rock or preexisting sediment eroded and transported by glaciers. As the ice melted, this material was deposited

dune landforms.

 , deposited in perennial to intermittent lakes. Much of the sediment is derived from material eroded and transported
 esser silt and clay, deposited in perennial to intermittent lakes. Much of the sediment is derived from material erode
  r sand and gravel, deposited in perennial to intermittent lakes. Much of the sediment is derived from material erode
ers of undrained basins. Includes material deposited in playas, mudflats, salt flats, and adjacent saline marshes. Ge
 and, or in various low-energy shoreline (mud flat, tidal flat, sabka, algal flat) settings.
d in shallow marine and related alluvial environments.
nd coastal marshes.
nate from erosion of rocks and sediments on land, or from marine organisms (of carbonate or siliceous composition)
 port by streams, and deposition on marine deltas and plains. Sediment therefore is mostly siliceous in composition.
moved from areas where coarser grained clastic sediments are washed into the marine environment. Includes sedim
 breakdown of the underlying rock, sediment, and/or soil. Composed of poorly sorted and poorly stratified material ra
 s" produced by weathering and breakdown of the underlying rock, sediment, and/or soil. Composed of poorly sorted
 by weathering and breakdown of the underlying rock, sediment, and/or soil. Composed of poorly sorted and poorly s
   underlying rock or sediment. Usually forms a relatively thin surface layer that conceals the unweathered or partly a
 bonates of calcium, magnesium, or iron; e.g., limestone and dolomite.
  nts of generally fine-grained clastic sediment. Deposited in a water-saturated environment such as a swamp, marsh
 or ice, or as accumulated by other natural agents operating at Earth's surface such as chemical precipitation or secre
  sion, weathering, or mass-wasting of preexisting rock, and deposited by gravity, air, water, or ice.
  sion and weathering of preexisting rock, and containing more than 30 percent gravel-sized particles.
sion and weathering of preexisting rock, consisting mostly of sand-sized particles, with or without a fine-grained mat
ralized map depiction, are too complex to be shown separately. Mostly sandstone, interbedded with other sediment
includes shale and siltstone).
sion and weathering of preexisting rock, consisting mostly of mud (silt- and clay-sized particles). Includes shale and
ralized map depiction, are too complex to be shown separately. Mostly mudstone, interbedded with other sedimenta

ralized map depiction, are too complex to be shown separately. Mostly carbonate rock, interbedded with clastic sed
ne solution. Examples include gypsum, anhydrite, other diverse sulfates, halite (rock salt), primary dolomite, and var
ring (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron sulfides).
mains. Coal is a consolidated, hard black organic rock, whereas lignite is a semiconsolidated brown to black, earthy
 (sediment) and by extrusive igneous material (volcanic rock and/or sediment) or (2) by volcanic rock and/or sedimen

 maining as unconsolidated particles. Includes lava flows and pyroclastic material such as volcanic ash.
d by volcanic explosion or aerial expulsion from a volcanic vent.
 downslope commonly in chaotic flows. Once deposited, the material may deform and weld together because of the
 downslope commonly in chaotic flows. Once deposited, the material may deform and weld together because of the
 downslope commonly in chaotic flows. Once deposited, the material may deform and weld together because of the
 downslope commonly in chaotic flows. Once deposited, the material may deform and weld together because of the
material is carried into the air by explosions and by hot gases in eruption columns or lava fountains. As tephra falls t
material is carried into the air by explosions and by hot gases in eruption columns or lava fountains. As tephra falls t
material is carried into the air by explosions and by hot gases in eruption columns or lava fountains. As tephra falls t
material is carried into the air by explosions and by hot gases in eruption columns or lava fountains. As tephra falls t
 d body of rock that forms when it cools. Composed generally of fine-grained, dark-colored rocks (e.g., basalt), and t
 d body of rock that forms when it cools. Composed of fine-grained, light-colored rocks which, because of their high-
 d body of rock that forms when it cools. Composed of fine-grained rocks intermediate in color and mineral composi
 d body of rock that forms when it cools. Composed of fine-grained, dark-colored rocks, and tends to form extensive
ow the Earth's surface.
  some depth beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling slowly enough for mineral crystals to grow to a size large e
  some depth beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling slowly enough for mineral crystals to grow to a size large e
  some depth beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling slowly enough for mineral crystals to grow to a size large e
  some depth beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling slowly enough for mineral crystals to grow to a size large e
  some depth beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling slowly enough for mineral crystals to grow to a size large e
  shallow depths beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling quickly. These rocks generally are fine-grained, but ma
  shallow depths beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling quickly. These rocks generally are fine-grained, but ma
  shallow depths beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling quickly. These rocks generally are fine-grained, but ma
  shallow depths beneath the Earth's surface, thereby cooling quickly. These rocks generally are fine-grained, but ma
ow the Earth's surface and having exotic mineralogical, textural, or field setting characteristics. These rocks typically
ade metamorphic rocks.
ges, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, and che
ges, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked regional changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress,
ges, essentially in the solid state, in response to relatively intense regional changes in temperature, pressure, shearin
 d to the intrusion and extrusion of magmas and taking place in rocks at or near their contact with a body of igneous
ges, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, and che
 uctural changes, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure, shearing str
emical, or structural changes, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure,
al, or structural changes, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure, she
 logical, chemical, or structural changes, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes in temperature
alogical, chemical, or structural changes, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes in temperature
ral changes, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress,
cretion by organisms. May include unconsolidated material (sediment) and/or sedimentary rock. Does not here inclu
 as chemical precipitation or secretion by organisms. Does not here include sedimentary material directly deposited

d deposited by gravity, air, water, or ice.
 posited by gravity, air, water, or ice.
 a cone or fan at the base of a mountain slope. Grain size varies from clay to gravel.
 a cone or fan at the base of a mountain slope. This sediment is mostly sand and gravel, but may contain some mud
 a cone or fan at the base of a mountain slope. This sediment is mostly silt and clay, but may contain some coarser
  of a heterogeneous mixture of clay, silt, sand, gravel, and boulders ranging widely in size and shape.
  of clay, silt, sand, gravel, and boulders ranging widely in size and shape. Relatively sandy in texture.
  of a heterogeneous mixture of clay, silt, sand, gravel, and boulders ranging widely in size and shape. Relatively loa
  of a heterogeneous mixture of clay, silt, sand, gravel, and boulders ranging widely in size and shape. Relatively cla
osited by running water essentially in contact with glacial ice, or was transported and deposited by glacially fed stream
 is material was deposited by running water essentially in contact with glacial ice, or was transported and deposited b
 is material was deposited by running water essentially in contact with glacial ice, or was transported and deposited b



al eroded and transported by streams. Includes deposits of lake-marginal beaches and deltas.
 rived from material eroded and transported by streams. Includes deposits of lake-marginal beaches and deltas.
 rived from material eroded and transported by streams. Includes deposits of lake-marginal beaches and deltas.
 acent saline marshes. Generally interbedded with eolian sand and with lacustrine sediment deposited during wetter



  or siliceous composition).
y siliceous in composition.
ironment. Includes sediment derived from marine organisms.
poorly stratified material ranging in size from clay to boulders. Includes colluvium, landslides, talus, and rock avalanc
 omposed of poorly sorted and poorly stratified material ranging in size from clay to boulders.
 poorly sorted and poorly stratified material ranging in size from clay to boulders. Commonly, the slopes on which th
 e unweathered or partly altered source material below, and is the material from which soils are formed.

t such as a swamp, marsh, or bog. It is an early stage or rank in the development of coal.
mical precipitation or secretion by organisms. Does not here include sedimentary material directly deposited as a re
without a fine-grained matrix of silt or clay.
dded with other sedimentary rocks which locally may include conglomerate and finer grained clastics (mudrock), car

icles). Includes shale and siltstone.
dded with other sedimentary rocks which locally may include coarser grained clastics (sandstone, conglomerate), ca

 erbedded with clastic sedimentary rock.
 primary dolomite, and various nitrates and borates.

ted brown to black, earthy material, which may contain large particles of recognizable plant parts and tends to crack
canic rock and/or sediment and by such material after erosion and redeposition.

 volcanic ash.

d together because of the intense heat and the weight of the overlying material.
d together because of the intense heat and the weight of the overlying material. Composed of light-colored rocks (e.
d together because of the intense heat and the weight of the overlying material. Composed of rocks (e.g., andesite)
d together because of the intense heat and the weight of the overlying material. Composed of dark-colored rocks (e.
ountains. As tephra falls to the ground with increasing distance from a volcano, the average size of the individual roc
ountains. As tephra falls to the ground with increasing distance from a volcano, the average size of the individual roc
ountains. As tephra falls to the ground with increasing distance from a volcano, the average size of the individual roc
ountains. As tephra falls to the ground with increasing distance from a volcano, the average size of the individual roc
d rocks (e.g., basalt), and tends to form extensive sheets with generally low relief except in the vent areas where cind
 ich, because of their high-silica content and resulting high viscosity, tend to erupt explosively, and so these deposits
 olor and mineral composition between felsic and mafic rocks, and commonly erupts from stratovolcanoes as thick la
nd tends to form extensive sheets with generally low relief. Includes basaltic shield volcanoes, which may become ve

 ls to grow to a size large enough to be visible to the naked eye.
 ls to grow to a size large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Composed mostly of light-colored minerals. Include
 ls to grow to a size large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Intermediate in color and mineral composition betw
 ls to grow to a size large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Composed mostly of dark-colored minerals. Includ
 ls to grow to a size large enough to be visible to the naked eye. Composed mostly of mafic minerals, e.g., monomin
 ly are fine-grained, but may contain large mineral crystals (phenocrysts), and they occur as tabular dikes or sills.
 ly are fine-grained, but may contain large mineral crystals (phenocrysts), and they occur as tabular dikes or sills. Co
 ly are fine-grained, but may contain large mineral crystals (phenocrysts), and they occur as tabular dikes or sills. In
 ly are fine-grained, but may contain large mineral crystals (phenocrysts), and they occur as tabular dikes or sills. Co
ics. These rocks typically are dark colored with abundant phenocrysts. Includes kimberlite, lamprophyre, lamproite,

, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's crust.
pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's crust. In this area, the origin
perature, pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's crust. In this area, th
 ct with a body of igneous rock. Metamorphic changes are effected by the heat and fluids emanating from the magm
, shearing stress, and chemical environment. Generally forms in narrow, planar zones of local deformation (e.g., alo
ure, pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's crust.
  in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's crust. Includ
 mperature, pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's crust. Includes s
 d changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's cr
ed changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's cr
pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth's crust. Mafic and ultramafic sc
 rock. Does not here include sedimentary material directly deposited as a result of volcanic activity.
material directly deposited as a result of volcanic activity.




 ut may contain some mud and/or cobbles and boulders.
may contain some coarser material (e.g., sand, gravel).
 and shape.
 y in texture.
 and shape. Relatively loamy (silty) in texture.
 and shape. Relatively clayey in texture.
 ited by glacially fed streams. Includes sediment deposited into water bodies adjacent to the glacial ice margin.
ansported and deposited by glacially fed streams. Includes sediment deposited into water bodies adjacent to the gla
ansported and deposited by glacially fed streams. Includes sediment deposited into water bodies adjacent to the gla




al beaches and deltas.
al beaches and deltas.
nt deposited during wetter climatic periods; commonly intertongue upslope with sediment deposited by alluvial fans.




 es, talus, and rock avalanches.

 ly, the slopes on which this material occurs fail because of water, earthquake, or volcanic activity, and this material i
  are formed.


 directly deposited as a result of volcanic activity.
ed clastics (mudrock), carbonates, and/or coal.


dstone, conglomerate), carbonates, and/or coal.




 t parts and tends to crack upon drying.




d of light-colored rocks (e.g., rhyolite, dacite, trachyte, latite) which, because of their high-silica content and resulting
d of rocks (e.g., andesite) intermediate in color and mineral composition between felsic and mafic rocks. Andesite m
d of dark-colored rocks (e.g., basalt) which, because of their low-silica content and resulting low viscosity, tend to eru
 e size of the individual rock particles and the thickness of the resulting deposit decrease. At some distance from a v
 e size of the individual rock particles and the thickness of the resulting deposit decrease. Composed of light-colored
 e size of the individual rock particles and the thickness of the resulting deposit decrease. Composed of rocks (e.g.,
 e size of the individual rock particles and the thickness of the resulting deposit decrease. Composed of dark-colored
 the vent areas where cinder cones or shield volcanoes may form. Includes basaltic shield volcanoes, which may be
ely, and so these deposits are uncommon. Includes rhyolitic, dacitic, trachytic, and latitic rock.
 tratovolcanoes as thick lava flows. Includes andesitic rock.
oes, which may become very large (e.g., Hawaii). Includes basaltic rock.


-colored minerals. Includes granitic, syenitic, and monzonitic rock.
 mineral composition between felsic and mafic igneous rock. Includes dioritic rock.
 -colored minerals. Includes gabbroic rock.
 c minerals, e.g., monomineralic rocks composed of hypersthene, augite, or olivine.
s tabular dikes or sills.
s tabular dikes or sills. Composed mostly of light-colored minerals. Includes rhyolitic, dacitic, trachytic, and latitic roc
s tabular dikes or sills. Intermediate in color and mineral composition between felsic and mafic igneous rock. Includ
s tabular dikes or sills. Composed mostly of dark-colored minerals. Includes basaltic rock.
e, lamprophyre, lamproite, and foiditic rocks.


st. In this area, the origin of the preexisting rock is mixed (e.g., igneous and sedimentary) or is not known.
arth's crust. In this area, the origin of the preexisting rock is mixed (e.g., igneous and sedimentary) or is not known.
emanating from the magma and by some deformation because of emplacement of the igneous mass.
ocal deformation (e.g., along faults) and characterized by foliation or alignment of mineral grains. Includes mylonite.

n the Earth's crust. Includes phyllite and slate, which is a compact, fine-grained rock that possesses strong cleavage
  Earth's crust. Includes schist (characterized by such strong foliation or alignment of minerals that it readily splits int
y at depth in the Earth's crust. Characterized by recrystallization of the carbonate minerals in the source rock.
y at depth in the Earth's crust. Characterized by recrystallization of quartz in the source rock.
st. Mafic and ultramafic schists and gneisses are common.
he glacial ice margin.
 bodies adjacent to the glacial ice margin.
 bodies adjacent to the glacial ice margin.




 eposited by alluvial fans.




activity, and this material is then transported and deposited downslope. The speed of sediment transport ranges fro
 lica content and resulting high viscosity, tend to erupt explosively.
d mafic rocks. Andesite magma commonly erupts from stratovolcanoes as thick lava flows but also can generate stro
g low viscosity, tend to erupt gently as lava flows rather than more forcefully as pyroclastic flows.
At some distance from a volcano, the deposit is known as volcanic ash.
Composed of light-colored rocks (e.g., rhyolite, dacite, trachyte, latite) which, because of their high-silica content and
Composed of rocks (e.g., andesite) intermediate in color and mineral composition between felsic and mafic rocks. A
Composed of dark-colored rocks (e.g., basalt) which, because of their low-silica content and resulting low viscosity, t
  volcanoes, which may become very large (e.g., Hawaii).




tic, trachytic, and latitic rock.
mafic igneous rock. Includes andesitic rock.




or is not known.
mentary) or is not known. Includes rocks such as amphibolite, granulite, schist, and gneiss.
 ous mass.
grains. Includes mylonite.

possesses strong cleavage and hence can be split into slabs and thin plates. Mostly formed from fine-grained mater
rals that it readily splits into flakes or slabs) and gneiss (characterized by alternating, irregular bands of different min
 in the source rock.
ment transport ranges from rapid to imperceptible.
 but also can generate strong explosive eruptions to form pyroclastic flows.


heir high-silica content and resulting high viscosity, tend to erupt explosively, readily forming pumice and volcanic ash
n felsic and mafic rocks. Andesite magma commonly erupts from stratovolcanoes as thick lava flows but also can ge
nd resulting low viscosity, tend to erupt gently as lava flows rather than more forcefully, and so these deposits are un




d from fine-grained material such as mudstone.
ular bands of different mineral composition). Mostly formed from fine-grained material such as mudstone.
g pumice and volcanic ash.
lava flows but also can generate strong explosive eruptions, readily forming pumice and volcanic ash.
 so these deposits are uncommon.
h as mudstone.
olcanic ash.

				
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