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Example Data Mining for the NBA

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									Data and Applications Security
    Developments and Directions

          Dr. Bhavani Thuraisingham
        The University of Texas at Dallas


                   Lecture #4


                    Policies


                January 23, 2008
Outline of the Unit

   Need to Know to Need to Share
   RBAC
   UCON
   RBUC
   Dissemination
     Rick based access control
   Trust Management/Credential/Disclosure
     Directions
   Major conferences for Policy and Access Control:
        - IEEE Policy Workshop (June 13-15, Bologna, Italy)
        - ACM SACMAT (June 20-22, Sophia Antipolis, France)
Need to Know to Need to Share

   Need to know policies during the cold war; even if the user has
      access, does the user have a need to know?
     Pose 9/11 the emphasis is on need to share
        - User may not have access, but needs the data
               Do we give the data to the user and then analyze the
                consequences
               Do we analyze the consequences and then determine the
                actions to take
               Do we simply not give the data to the user
               What are risks involved?
RBAC
  Access to information sources including structured and
   unstructured data both within the organization and external to the
   organization
  Access based on roles
  Hierarchy of roles: handling conflicts
  Controlled dissemination and sharing of the data
RBAC (Sandhu)
UCON
  RBAC model is incorporated into UCON and useful for
   various applications
     - Authorization component
  Obligations
     - Obligations are actions required to be performed before
       an access is permitted
     - Obligations can be used to determine whether an
       expensive knowledge search is required
  Attribute Mutability
     - Used to control the scope of the knowledge search
  Condition
     - Can be used for resource usage policies to be relaxed or
       tightened
UCON (Sandhu)
Role-based Usage Control (RBUC)
 RBAC with UCON extension
                                         Role Hierachy(RH)



                  User-Role Assignment                  Pemission-Role                   Pemissions(P)
                         (URA)                         Assignment(PRA)
                                                                            Operations
          Users                             Roles                                                        Objects
                                                                              (OP)
           (U)                               (R)                                                          (O)




        User Attributes (UA)                                                                         Object Attributes (OA)



                         ●
                         ●                                      Usage
                      Sessions                                 Decisions
                        (S)
                         ●



              Session Attributes (SA)
                                                     Authori    Obliga     Condi
                                                     zations    tions      tions
                                                       (A)        (B)       (C)
     RBUC in Coalition Environment
                                                                  •The coalition partners maybe
                                                                  trustworthy), semi-trustworthy) or
                       professor
                                                                  untrustworthy), so we can assign different
                                                                  roles on the users (professor) from
                                                                  different infospheres, e.g.
                         C(semi-trustworthy)                      •professor role,
                                                                  •trustworthy professor role,
                                                                  •semi-trustworthy professor role,
                                                                  •untrustworthy professor role.

                          professor
                                                      professor
                                                                  •We can enforce usage control on data by
professor                                                         set up object attributes to different roles
B(trustworthy)
                                                                  during permission-role-assignment,
                                                                  •e.g. professor role: 4 times a day,
                                               D(untrustworthy)


                                                                  trustworthy role: 3 times a day
                                                                  semi-trustworthy professor role: 2 times a
                 Student record                                   day,
                                                                  untrustworthy professor role: 1 time a day
                   A
Dissemination Policies

   Release policies will determine to whom to release the data
      - What is the connection to access control
      - Is access control sufficient
      - Once the data is retrieved from the information source (e.g.,
        database) should it be released to the user
   Once the data is released, dissemination policies will determine who
    the data can be given to
      - Electronic music, etc.
Risk Based Data Sharing/Access Control

   What are the risks involved in releasing/disseminating the data
   Risk modeling should be integrated with the access control model
   Simple method: assign risk values
   Higher the risk, lower the sharing
   What is the cost of releasing the data?
     Cost/Risk/Security closely related
Trust Management
  Trust Services
    - Identify services, authorization services, reputation
       services
  Trust negotiation (TN)
     - Digital credentials, Disclosure policies
  TN Requirements
     - Language requirements
          Semantics, constraints, policies
     - System requirements
          Credential ownership, validity, alternative negotiation
           strategies, privacy
  Example TN systems
     - KeyNote and Trust-X (U of Milan), TrustBuilder (UIUC)
Trust Management
     The problem: establishing trust in open
                   systems
 Interactions between strangers
     - In conventional systems user identity is known in advance
        and can be used for performing access control
     - In open systems partecipants may have no pre-existing
       relationship and may not share a common security domain




    Mutual authentication

       - Assumption on the counterpart honesty no longer holds
       - Both participants need to authenticate each other
Trust Negotiation
model
     A promising approach for open systems where most of the interactions
      occur between strangers

     The goal: establish trust between parties in order to exchange sensitive
      information and services

     The approach: establish trust by verifying properties of the other party
Trust negotiation: the approach

   Interactions between strangers in open systems
   are different from traditional access control models




Policies and mechanisms developed in conventional
             systems need to be revised
         USER ID’s                             ACCESS CONTROL
                                                  POLICIES
             VS.
                                                          VS.
   SUBJECT PROPERTIES
                                            DISCLOSURE POLICIES
Subject properties: digital credentials
    Assertion about the credential owner issued and certified by a Certification
     Authority.

  Each entity has an associated set of credentials,
     describing properties and attributes of the owner.



                                                                 CA
     CA

       CA                                                                 CA
Use of Credentials


                            Digital Credentials                 Credential
                               -Julie                             Issuer
                               -3 kids
         Alice                 -Married
                                                                 Check
                               -American                                         Check




                        -Julie
       -Julie
                        - Married
       - American
                                                Company B

                                          Want to know marital status

      Company A

                            Referenced from http://www.credentica.com/technology/overview.pdf
 Want to know citizenship
Credentials
  Credentials can be expressed through the Security Assertion
   Mark-up Language (SAML)
  SAML allows a party to express security statements about a
   given subject
     - Authentication statements
     - Attribute statements
     - Authorization decision statements
 Disclosure policies
Disclosure policies
  Disclosure policies govern:
     Access to protected resources
     Access to sensitive information
     Disclosure of sensitive credentials
   Disclosure policies express trust requirements by means of credential
    combinations that must be disclosed to obtain authorization
Disclosure policies - Example

  Suppose NBG Bank offers loans to students
  To check the eligibility of the requester, the Bank asks the
   student to present the following credentials
     - The student card
     - The ID card
     - Social Security Card
     - Financial information – either a copy of the Federal Income Tax
       Return or a bank statement
Disclosure policies - Example

p1= ({}, Student_Loan  Student_Card());
p2= ({p1}), Student_Loan  Social_Security_Card());
p3= ({p2}, Student_Loan  Federal_Income_Tax_Return());
p4= ({p2}, Student_Loan  Bank_Statement());
P5=({p3,p4}, Student_Loan  DELIV);
  These policies result in two distinct “policy chains” that lead to disclosure
                                [p1, p2, p3, p5]          [p1, p2, p4, p5]
Trust Negotiation - definition




    The gradual disclosure of credentials and requests for credentials between two
    strangers, with the goal of establishing sufficient trust so that the parties can
    exchange sensitive information and/or resources
Trust-X system: Joint Research with University
of Milan


  A comprehensive XML based framework for trust negotiations:


     Trust negotiation language (X-TNL)
     System architecture
     Algorithms and strategies to carry out the negotiation process
      Trust-X language: X-TNL

Able to handle mutliple and heterogeneus certificate
  specifications:
     Credentials
     Declarations


Able to   help the user in customizing the management of
  his/her own certificates
     X-Profile

     Data Set


Able to  define a wide range of protection requirements by
  means of disclosure policies
X-TNL: Credential type system
 X-TNL simplifies the
                             <!DOCTYPE library_badge[
  task of                    <!ELEMENT library_badge (name, address, phone_number*,
                               email?, release_date, profession,Issuer)>
  credential                 <!ELEMENT name               (fname, lname)>
                             <!ELEMENT address                 (#PCDATA)>
 specification by            <!ELEMENT phone_number            (#PCDATA)>
                             <!ELEMENT email                   (#PCDATA)>
  using a set of templates   <!ELEMENT release_date            (#PCDATA)>
  called credential types    <!ELEMENT profession              (#PCDATA)>
                             <!ELEMENT fname                   (#PCDATA)>
                             <!ELEMENT lname                   (#PCDATA)>
                             <!ELEMENT Issuer        ANY>
 Uniqueness is ensured by    <!ATTLIST Issuer
                                XML:LINK          CDATA      #FIXED “SIMPLE”
 use of XML Namespaces          HREF    CDATA     #REQUIRED
                                TITLE   CDATA     #IMPLIED>
                             <!ATTLIST    library_badge CredID ID #REQUIRED>
                             <!ATTLIST    library_badge SENS CDATA #REQUIRED>
 Credential types            ]>
 are defined by using
 Document Type Definition
Trust-X negotiation phases-
basic model

 1.       Introduction

             Send a request for a resource/service
             Introductory policy exchanges

 2.       Policy evaluation phase

             Disclosure policy exchange
             Evaluation of the exchanged policies in order to determine secure solutions
              for both the parties.

 3.       Certificate exchange phase

             Exchange of the sequence of certificates determined at step n. 2.
 Trust-X Architecture

Trust-X has been specifically designed for a peer-to-peer environment in
that each party is equipped with the same functional modules and thus it
can alternatively act as a requester or resource controller during different
negotiations.
                 REQUESTER                           CONTROLLER


                      POLICY
            X-         BASE                                POLICY
          PROFILE                                           BASE




                                                                      X-
                                   POLICY EXCHANGE                  PROFILE

                    COMPLIANCE                       COMPLIANCE
                      CHECKER                          CHECKER




                                 POLICY EXCHANGE
                     TREE                             TREE
                    MANAGER                          MANAGER
How a policy is processed
      Upon receiving a disclosure policy the compliance checker
      determines if it can be satisfied by any certificate of the local X-
      profile.
      Then, the module checks in the policy base the protection needs
      associated with the certificates, if any.
      The state of the negotiation is anyway updated by the tree
      manager, which records whether new policies and credentials
      have been involved or not.

                      COMPLIANCE                TREE
Disclosure Policies    CHECKER                 MANAGER

                                                      Policy
                                   X-Profile             Base    Policy Reply
Directions

   Policies are of much interest to many organizations and
    applications
      - Financial, Medical, Retail, Manufacturing etc
   Roles and responsibilities
   Flexible policies
   RBAC, UCON, RBUC, Trust Negotiation, Dissemination
    Policies
   Need to Know to Need to Share
   IEEE POLICY and ACM SACMAT

								
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