ETHIOPIA 1- Current status of the EFA and /or sector plans in the country. In 1994, Ethiopia as a part of its education sector strategy set the year 2015 as a target for achieving the goal of good quality universal primary education. Ethiopia renewed this commitment in the world education forum in April 2000 in Dakar. In fact the Dakar Framework for action was in line with the goals that Ethiopia has set six years earlier, in 1994. Therefore, the Five-year Education program and the ESDP II have made EFA one major component and addressed the EFA goals and strategies set in the Dakar Framework for Action. The country takes a sector wide and integrated approach to the development of education rather than compartmentalizing its goals strategies and plans for different Sub- sectors of education. Therefore, EFA goal are treated within ESDPs I and II in an integrated manner, through its sector wide approach. The six major components of the EFA are given prominence and considerable attention throughout the proposed program of action for achieving ESDP II goals, increasing primary enrollment, with quality and equity, is the basic theme of the primary education. However, programs for achieving quality and equity are not only confined to primary education alone but they also influence the programs and investments in secondary and tertiary education. ESDP II pays special attention to the question of equity. Strategies for improving gender equity are woven into annual planning process to improve the intake of girls into primary schools, teacher education programs, community participation strategies, curriculum development, etc. Special attention is also paid to improving access to education for the children of highly marginalized and pastoralist communities, to narrowing the urban rural gap in access to education and to reducing the regional disparities. Adult and non-formal education is also treated in ESDP II as an integral part of the strategies for achieving the goals of universal primary education and education for all. Non-formal education modes are proposed within the program as an alternative to school based primary education for out of school children and for very sparsely populated and remote communities, of course, with options of graduates of these programs to join the regular schools. Adult and non- formal education programs are also seen as vehicles for improving the occupational and life skills of the general adult population as part of the poverty alleviation strategy. Generally the access and coverage of primary education as measured by enrollment in grades 1-8 expanded rapidly, at an annual rate of growth of 13.4%, during the first four years of the implementation of ESDP I Enrollment in primary schools, which stood at 4,468,294 students in 1996/97, the year prior to the start of the implementation of the ESDP I, reached 7,401,473 in 2000/2001, the fourth year of the implementation. This achievement was against a target of 7 million students for the end of the ESDP I period. Thus, a total of 2,933,179 students were added to the primary education system during the first four years of the ESDP I. The target for enrollment for the fifth year of the ESDP has been over achieved by approximately 0.4 million during the fourth year of the implementation. If the past trends in apparent intake and internal efficiency are maintained, the total primary enrollment in 2001/2002 may reach figure of approximately 8.36 million students. During the same four-year period, gross enrollment rate (GER) for first cycle (1-4) primary moved up from 54.8% to 83.0 %; for second cycle (5-8) primary moved up from 17.9% to 30.8%; and for the complete (1-8) primary moved up from 34.7% to 57.4%. As these trends indicate, the impact of the expansion in the first cycle primary education is yet to be felt in the second cycle. During ESDP II period, there shall be an accelerated growth in the expansion of the second cycle primary enrollment. Apparent and net intake rates in grade I moved up from 87.5% and 19.0% respectively in 1996/97 to 99.5% and 31.9% respectively in 2000/2001, thereby showing increasing access to primary education. These nearly equal increases in apparent and net intake rates, approximately 12%, achieved during the four-year period are indicative of the increasing awareness among parents and communities to enroll their children in grade 1 at the official entry age of 7. This trend augurs well for the future of the Ethiopian education system to move towards the achievement of universal primary education with grater efficiency and quality through bringing desired improvement in the age structure of the primary school children. The change in net enrollment rate (NER) for primary (1-8) followed more or less the same trend as that of the changes in the gross enrollment, apparent intake and net intake rates. NER increased by 21.8 percentage points- from 27.0% in 1996/97 to 48.8% in 2000/01 keeping pace with the increase in GER, there by concerning the positive trend in the age structure of the primary school students. The number of primary schools in the country grew at an annual rate of 3.2% during the ESDP I implementation periods. From 10394 schools in 1996/1997, the number of schools reached 11780 in 2000/2001. A total of 1386 primary schools were constructed during the four-year period. This was against a target of 2423 schools for the entire ESDP I period. This situation resulted in an over crowdedness of class of classrooms. The significant improvements in access and coverage of primary education described above were achieved with greater movement towards equity. Gender and rural-urban disparities were reduced, while the reduction in the regional disparities indicated a wide difference between non-pastoralists and other regions. The gender gap in apparent intake rate has been more than halved during the four-year period under review. From 47.5 percentage points in 1996/97 in favor of boys, the gender gap in apparent intake rate was brought down to 21.6 percentage points in 2000/01. Net intake rate also showed the same trend in the reduction of gender disparities From 5.5 percentage points, the gap in net intake rate for boys and girls was reduced to 3.7 percentage points. These trends are significant, as they shall promote grater gender parity in the future. The impact of reduction in the gender gap in apparent and net intake rates is visible in the gross enrollment rates in the first cycle primary. The gender gap of 30.2 percentage points in favor of boys in 1996/1997 in GER for the first cycle primary was brought down to 25.1 percentage points in 2000/2001. The Gender gap for the whole primary (1-8) has remained constant at approximately 20 percentage points through out the four-year period of implementation of ESDP I. This gap is likely to show declining trend in the future, once the impact of the narrowing of gender gap in apparent and net intakes move to higher grades of the primary schools. The trend in regional disparities show mixed results. All regions, except Somali have increased their GER during the four-year period. However, the gap between the lowest- and highest performing regions in GER for primary (1-8) in 1996/97 was 71.9 percentage points. This gap has increased to 107.7 percentage points in 2000/2001. The standard deviations of the GER for the regions have also moved up from approximately 25 to 36 during the four-year period. If the highly urban regions such as Addis Ababa and Harari are taken out from the equation, the change in the disparity may not as highly pronounced as it would seem to be. During the four years under review, the urban rural disparity in primary enrollment has shown a declining trend. While the urban primary enrollment grew at an annual compounded rate of growth of 7.7%, the annual growth in rural enrollment was 16.5%, more than double that of the growth rate for the urban areas of the country. Annual rate of growth for rural female students was even higher at 22.8%. This faster rate of growth for rural female students has contributed to significantly reducing the gap in female students as a percent of the total enrollment in urban and rural difference in female enrollment as percent of the total enrollment was 14.8% by 2000/2001, this gap has narrowed down by half to 7.3%. Rate of growth in expansion of the primary education in terms of the number of schools built over the ESDP I period shows no difference between the urban and rural areas of the country. Overall 1386 additional schools were built in the country. Of these, 214 were in urban, while 1172 (85%) were in rural areas showing identical annual growth rates of 3.2% each for urban and rural areas. 2. Partnerships with development agencies and civil society Partnership is not spontaneous relationship that comes usually or on its own accord. It is rather a deliberate activity. Therefore NGOs have proved to be worth partners of EFA by providing innovative and alternative non-formal basic education programme and serving the Educational need of children, youth and adults in disadvantaged and remote area. Hence NGOs should be involved in all stages of education policy and programme formulation, implementation, and evaluation. Though the country plan for education stresses the need to rely more extensively on alternative modes for the delivery of basic education for the realization of UPE by 2015 Educational NGOs can make positive contribution to EFA. They are perceived as complementing government efforts in education rather than competing with these efforts. In addition to this multilateral and by lateral of donors participate in different activities in all regions of the country and financing the education. At no point in time has development been a one-man (group) -Job. Rather, it has always been a collective endeavor of civil society and its various institutions as well as government and non-government organizations. The development of the education sector could be no exception. The need for partnerships among the various actors in promoting basic education in developing countries like Ethiopia is even more accentuated for at least two reasons. On the one hand, despite the considerable achievements attained in this sphere during the last ten years, access to basic education still remains a distant dream for hundreds of millions of children. Youth, and adults in these countries. This illustrates beyond the reaches of governments. It was precisely for the above stated reasons that the Jomtien International Conference of Education for All underlined the vitality of partnerships for attaining the sacred goals of EFA Article 7 of the declaration issued by the conference which reads among all sub- sectors and forms of education partnerships between education and other government departments, including planning, finance, labour, communications… Partnerships between government and non-government organization, the private sector, local communities, religious groups and families. Likewise, the Dakar International Forum on Education For All has also identified partnerships (including GO-NGO partnerships) as a key strategy for attaining the goals of EFA. Generally speaking, the reasons that make genuine Go- NGO partnerships an indispensable strategy to promote basic education can be summed-up in the following points. Go-NGO partnership will be instrumental to mobilize more resources, and consequently, increase the accessibility and quality of basic education. Both partners can share their experiences and expertise and employ them to serve the cause of EFA better. The education system will have more diversified modes of delivery and hence will be more capable of meeting the basic educational needs of society. Some of the virtues of the innovative non-formal basic education programs (such as cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and high community participation) can be injected into the conventional school system to expand access and improve quality and efficiency, and vice-versa. NGOs will have a more favorable legal environment to run their programs. 3. Financing and expenditure frameworks Ethiopia's per capita income is one of the lowest in the world. However, spending on education still falls short of that required because of the country's low income base and the reliance of education on public financing and limited funding. Of course Education costs money as each sectors of public and private life competes for what it regards as its fair share of available resources, education must Justify itself in the face of others pressing clams. However, it is no matter of simple cost effectiveness or returns on investment. There is now strong evidence of ways in which education through its influence on attitudes and behavior and its positive impact on health, productivity, protection of environment, family planning and child care can transform the cultural social and economic life of the people and communities. .. The current level and types of resources available to meet basic learning needs are simply not sufficient. New resources can be sought from different sources: a broader government base of support, an increased financial effort due to expanded participation by non-governmental organizations, communities, families and individuals, and increased- and more effective- support form external funding as well as communities contribution in various form. In the case of Ethiopia, the table below indicates the level of national commitment towards financing the EFA Plan. (In millions of Birr) Indicative Budget Allocation for 2005/06 – 2009/10 Sub-programs Capital Recurrent Total percentage share Primary Education 10,535.92 12,859.31 23,395.24 50 Formal primary Education 9,591 11,668 21,259 45.26 Teacher Training (TTI and TTC) 1,191 1,191 2.54 Special Education 2 2 0.0004 Overage Cost 943 943 2.01 Secondary Education 2,582 1,442 4,023 8.57 Technical and Vocational Education and 1,299 4,090 5,389 11,47 Training (TVET) Tertiary Education 5,264 7,664 12,928 27,52 Capacity Building 139 21 160 0.34 Administration and Others 61 1,018 1,078 2.30 Total 19,881 27,093 46,974 100 Primary education, tertiary education and technical and vocational training are given high priority in the resource allocation and account for 50.0%, 27.52% and 11.47 % of the overall program cost. This shows that primary education is still number one priority. Source Draft ESDP III, page 36. 4. Resource Projection for EFA As can be seen from the goals, the most critical goal towards the achievement of the EFA in goal No.2 Universal primary education. For example, achieving equitable access without disparity and meeting the educational needs of the young people are integral to the UPE goals and strategies. The table below demonstrates projection interims of resources and educational inputs, calculated and specified in the EFA plans Key performance Indicators of ESDP III 1998-2002 E.C. (2005/06-2010/11) N Suggested Indicators Base Target Target set Target Target set Target Target o Year Set for for 1998 Set for for 2000 Set for Set for 1996 1997 E.C 1999 E.C E.C 2001 E.C 2002 E.C E.C E.C 1. Budgetary and Expenditure Indicators Education's share of the total budget (current FY) 2. Access Indicators Grade 1 Net Intake Rate 35 NA 90 100 100 100 100 Net enrolment rate at primary (1-8) level 57.41 62.15 66.9 71.66 76.41 80.67 84.93 Girls' NER 51.77 57.6 63.42 69.24 75.06 79.89 84.71 Boys' NER 62.88 66.59 70.36 74.02 77.73 81.44 85.15 Gross enrolment rate at primary (1-8) level 68.37 70 76.82 82.94 88.34 92.59 95.77 Girls' GER 59.09 62 70.4 77.95 84.62 89.94 94.07 Boys' GER 77.39 78 83.09 87.8 91.9 95.18 97.44 Gross enrolment rate at secondary (9-10) 20.40 NA 21.23 22.0 22.1 23.38 24.22 level Girls' GER 14.29 NA 15.49 16.41 17.83 19.27 20.81 Boys' GER 26.30 NA 26.8 27.6 27.66 27.39 27.55 Admission to preparatory (11-12) 45,937 86,493 98,288 109,106 154,062 156,583 194,172 Girls' GER 11,324 32,029 37,160 42,941 60,883 61,656 80,033 Boys' GER 34,613 54,464 61,128 66,166 93,179 94,926 114,679 Admission TVET 40,440 55,000 153,342 155,973 192,044 195,360 209,352 Diploma Program Degree Program / * Including private inst./ 25,864 31,897 45,018 * 84,764 * 96,322 * 106,924 * 150,981 Admission to graduate program 2,532 6,000 6,550 11,413 16,275 21,138 26,000 Share of female students in higher education enrolment 25.2, 30.0 37 38 39 40 3. Quality Indicators Share of lower primary (1-4) teachers who 96.30 99 98.3 99.2 99.8 99.8 99.8 are qualified Share of upper primary (5-8) teachers who 56.26 80 89.6 98.0 99 99 99.3 are qualified Share of secondary (9-12) teachers who are 44.33 73.2 67 87 94.7 99.7 qualified Primary school student/text book ratio 2:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 Secondary school student/text book ratio 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 Grade 4 sample assessment of learning 48.5 - - - - - 50 achievement Grade 8 sample assessment of learning 39.7 - - - - - 50 achievement 4. Efficiency Indicators Primary (1-4) student/section ratio 75 60 66 61 57 53 50 Primary (5-8) student/section ratio 71 60 63 60 56 53 50 Secondary school student/section ratio 79 60 66 60 53 47 40 Grade 1 dropout rate 15.53 14.2 4 2 0.97 0.49 0.24 Total primary school dropout rate 19.23 8.9 5 2 1.20 0.60 0.30 Average primary school dropout for girls 18.47 8.5 5 2 1.15 0.58 0.29 Average grade 4 to 8 repetition rate 10.5 6.4 3 1 0.66 0.33 0.16 Average grade 4 to 8 repetition rate for girls 13.6 8.1 3 2 0.85 0.43 0.21 Primary school completion rate 35 NA 44 53 64 73 81 5. Equity Indicators Gross primary enrolment rate in the two most under-served regions Somali 16.08 20 38.6 60 70 80 90 Afar 14.8 20 37.4 60 70 80 90 Net enrollment share of girls in primary 44.4 45.7 46.8 47.7 48.5 48.9 49.3 school enrolment (1-8) Gross enrollment share of girls in 42.6 43.5 45.2 46.4 47.35 48 48.6 primary school enrolment (1-8) Note: - The targets are indicative. The Draft ESDP III is not yet finalized. 5. Challenges for EFA achievement Where ever illiteracy exists, it goes hand in hand with poverty, whether as a cause or a consequence. However, Poverty reduction is the core objective of the government of Ethiopia. In order to drive this forward a comprehensive sustainable Development and poverty reduction program has been developed based on 4 pillars: Agricultural Development led Industrialization, Justice System and Civil Service Reform, Decentralization and Empowerment and Capacity Building in Public and Private Sectors. Education is seen as a key element in support of each of these pillars. The most important requirement for Education for All was variously claimed to be the pupil, the teacher, the community, the non- governmental organizations, the instructional materials, technology, assment techniques, etc. Education for All needs the proper mix of these requirements; no single requirements can operate effectively in the absence of the others and often will work most efficiently only when operating in concert with each others. But, the following are some of the main challenges for EFA Achievement Improve the quality of education in order to increase completion rates and maintain the confidence of parents in the school system. Address inequities, in access through appropriate and relevant education channels (ABE, NFE inclusive education and meeting the special educational needs.) Promote ABE in the education system Increase the efficiency of the programme by making better use of available resources (Construction of school buildings, shift system, multi-grade teaching assistant teachers, staffing of office) Improve the capacities of education offices at the various levels through an incremental, needs based capacity building programme. Increase the number of female teachers at secondary schools. Mainstream gender in all aspects as ESDP Make efficient use of ICT applications in the teaching learning process Match the community contributions with adequate government assistance to sustain initiatives of the communities.
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