ETHIOPIA by HC11121121373



1- Current status of the EFA and /or sector plans in the country.

       In 1994, Ethiopia as a part of its education sector strategy set the year 2015 as a
   target for achieving the goal of good quality universal primary education. Ethiopia
   renewed this commitment in the world education forum in April 2000 in Dakar. In fact the
   Dakar Framework for action was in line with the goals that Ethiopia has set six years
   earlier, in 1994. Therefore, the Five-year Education program and the ESDP II have made
   EFA one major component and addressed the EFA goals and strategies set in the Dakar
   Framework for Action.

   The country takes a sector wide and integrated approach to the development of
   education rather than compartmentalizing its goals strategies and plans for different Sub-
   sectors of education. Therefore, EFA goal are treated within ESDPs I and II in an
   integrated manner, through its sector wide approach.

   The six major components of the EFA are given prominence and considerable attention
   throughout the proposed program of action for achieving ESDP II goals, increasing
   primary enrollment, with quality and equity, is the basic theme of the primary education.
   However, programs for achieving quality and equity are not only confined to primary
   education alone but they also influence the programs and investments in secondary and
   tertiary education.

   ESDP II pays special attention to the question of equity. Strategies for improving gender
   equity are woven into annual planning process to improve the intake of girls into primary
   schools, teacher education programs, community participation strategies, curriculum
   development, etc. Special attention is also paid to improving access to education for the
   children of highly marginalized and pastoralist communities, to narrowing the urban rural
   gap in access to education and to reducing the regional disparities.

   Adult and non-formal education is also treated in ESDP II as an integral part of the
   strategies for achieving the goals of universal primary education and education for all.
   Non-formal education modes are proposed within the program as an alternative to
   school based primary education for out of school children and for very sparsely
   populated and remote communities, of course, with options of graduates of these
   programs to join the regular schools. Adult and non- formal education programs are also
   seen as vehicles for improving the occupational and life skills of the general adult
   population as part of the poverty alleviation strategy.

   Generally the access and coverage of primary education as measured by enrollment in
   grades 1-8 expanded rapidly, at an annual rate of growth of 13.4%, during the first four
   years of the implementation of ESDP I Enrollment in primary schools, which stood at
   4,468,294 students in 1996/97, the year prior to the start of the implementation of the
   ESDP I, reached 7,401,473 in 2000/2001, the fourth year of the implementation. This
   achievement was against a target of 7 million students for the end of the ESDP I period.

   Thus, a total of 2,933,179 students were added to the primary education system during
   the first four years of the ESDP I. The target for enrollment for the fifth year of the ESDP
   has been over achieved by approximately 0.4 million during the fourth year of the
   implementation. If the past trends in apparent intake and internal efficiency are
maintained, the total primary enrollment in 2001/2002 may reach figure of approximately
8.36 million students.
During the same four-year period, gross enrollment rate (GER) for first cycle (1-4)
primary moved up from 54.8% to 83.0 %; for second cycle (5-8) primary moved up from
17.9% to 30.8%; and for the complete (1-8) primary moved up from 34.7% to 57.4%.
As these trends indicate, the impact of the expansion in the first cycle primary education
is yet to be felt in the second cycle. During ESDP II period, there shall be an accelerated
growth in the expansion of the second cycle primary enrollment.

Apparent and net intake rates in grade I moved up from 87.5% and 19.0% respectively in
1996/97 to 99.5% and 31.9% respectively in 2000/2001, thereby showing increasing
access to primary education. These nearly equal increases in apparent and net intake
rates, approximately 12%, achieved during the four-year period are indicative of the
increasing awareness among parents and communities to enroll their children in grade 1
at the official entry age of 7. This trend augurs well for the future of the Ethiopian
education system to move towards the achievement of universal primary education with
grater efficiency and quality through bringing desired improvement in the age structure of
the primary school children.

The change in net enrollment rate (NER) for primary (1-8) followed more or less the
same trend as that of the changes in the gross enrollment, apparent intake and net
intake rates. NER increased by 21.8 percentage points- from 27.0% in 1996/97 to 48.8%
in 2000/01 keeping pace with the increase in GER, there by concerning the positive
trend in the age structure of the primary school students.

The number of primary schools in the country grew at an annual rate of 3.2% during the
ESDP I implementation periods. From 10394 schools in 1996/1997, the number of
schools reached 11780 in 2000/2001. A total of 1386 primary schools were constructed
during the four-year period. This was against a target of 2423 schools for the entire
ESDP I period. This situation resulted in an over crowdedness of class of classrooms.

The significant improvements in access and coverage of primary education described
above were achieved with greater movement towards equity. Gender and rural-urban
disparities were reduced, while the reduction in the regional disparities indicated a wide
difference between non-pastoralists and other regions.

The gender gap in apparent intake rate has been more than halved during the four-year
period under review. From 47.5 percentage points in 1996/97 in favor of boys, the
gender gap in apparent intake rate was brought down to 21.6 percentage points in
2000/01. Net intake rate also showed the same trend in the reduction of gender
disparities From 5.5 percentage points, the gap in net intake rate for boys and girls was
reduced to 3.7 percentage points. These trends are significant, as they shall promote
grater gender parity in the future.

The impact of reduction in the gender gap in apparent and net intake rates is visible in
the gross enrollment rates in the first cycle primary. The gender gap of 30.2 percentage
points in favor of boys in 1996/1997 in GER for the first cycle primary was brought down
to 25.1 percentage points in 2000/2001. The Gender gap for the whole primary (1-8) has
remained constant at approximately 20 percentage points through out the four-year
period of implementation of ESDP I. This gap is likely to show declining trend in the
future, once the impact of the narrowing of gender gap in apparent and net intakes move
to higher grades of the primary schools.

The trend in regional disparities show mixed results. All regions, except Somali have
increased their GER during the four-year period. However, the gap between the lowest-
   and highest performing regions in GER for primary (1-8) in 1996/97 was 71.9 percentage
   points. This gap has increased to 107.7 percentage points in 2000/2001. The standard
   deviations of the GER for the regions have also moved up from approximately 25 to 36
   during the four-year period. If the highly urban regions such as Addis Ababa and Harari
   are taken out from the equation, the change in the disparity may not as highly
   pronounced as it would seem to be.

   During the four years under review, the urban rural disparity in primary enrollment has
   shown a declining trend. While the urban primary enrollment grew at an annual
   compounded rate of growth of 7.7%, the annual growth in rural enrollment was 16.5%,
   more than double that of the growth rate for the urban areas of the country. Annual rate
   of growth for rural female students was even higher at 22.8%. This faster rate of growth
   for rural female students has contributed to significantly reducing the gap in female
   students as a percent of the total enrollment in urban and rural difference in female
   enrollment as percent of the total enrollment was 14.8% by 2000/2001, this gap has
   narrowed down by half to 7.3%.

   Rate of growth in expansion of the primary education in terms of the number of schools
   built over the ESDP I period shows no difference between the urban and rural areas of
   the country. Overall 1386 additional schools were built in the country. Of these, 214 were
   in urban, while 1172 (85%) were in rural areas showing identical annual growth rates of
   3.2% each for urban and rural areas.

2. Partnerships with development agencies and civil society

   Partnership is not spontaneous relationship that comes usually or on its own accord. It is
   rather a deliberate activity. Therefore NGOs have proved to be worth partners of EFA by
   providing innovative and alternative non-formal basic education programme and serving
   the Educational need of children, youth and adults in disadvantaged and remote area.
   Hence NGOs should be involved in all stages of education policy and programme
   formulation, implementation, and evaluation.

   Though the country plan for education stresses the need to rely more extensively on
   alternative modes for the delivery of basic education for the realization of UPE by 2015
   Educational NGOs can make positive contribution to EFA. They are perceived as
   complementing government efforts in education rather than competing with these efforts.

   In addition to this multilateral and by lateral of donors participate in different activities in
   all regions of the country and financing the education.

   At no point in time has development been a one-man (group) -Job. Rather, it has always
   been a collective endeavor of civil society and its various institutions as well as
   government and non-government organizations. The development of the education
   sector could be no exception.

   The need for partnerships among the various actors in promoting basic education in
   developing countries like Ethiopia is even more accentuated for at least two reasons.
      On the one hand, despite the considerable achievements attained in this sphere
   during the last ten years, access to basic education still remains a distant dream for
   hundreds of millions of children. Youth, and adults in these countries. This illustrates
   beyond the reaches of governments.

   It was precisely for the above stated reasons that the Jomtien International Conference
   of Education for All underlined the vitality of partnerships for attaining the sacred goals of
   EFA Article 7 of the declaration issued by the conference which reads among all sub-
   sectors and forms of education partnerships between education and other government
   departments, including planning, finance, labour, communications… Partnerships
   between government and non-government organization, the private sector, local
   communities, religious groups and families.

   Likewise, the Dakar International Forum on Education For All has also identified
   partnerships (including GO-NGO partnerships) as a key strategy for attaining the goals
   of EFA.

   Generally speaking, the reasons that make genuine Go- NGO partnerships an
   indispensable strategy to promote basic education can be summed-up in the following

      Go-NGO partnership will be instrumental to mobilize more resources, and
       consequently, increase the accessibility and quality of basic education.
      Both partners can share their experiences and expertise and employ them to serve
       the cause of EFA better.
      The education system will have more diversified modes of delivery and hence will be
       more capable of meeting the basic educational needs of society.
      Some of the virtues of the innovative non-formal basic education programs (such as
       cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and high community participation) can be injected into
       the conventional school system to expand access and improve quality and efficiency,
       and vice-versa.
      NGOs will have a more favorable legal environment to run their programs.

3. Financing and expenditure frameworks

   Ethiopia's per capita income is one of the lowest in the world. However, spending on
   education still falls short of that required because of the country's low income base and
   the reliance of education on public financing and limited funding. Of course Education
   costs money as each sectors of public and private life competes for what it regards as its
   fair share of available resources, education must Justify itself in the face of others
   pressing clams. However, it is no matter of simple cost effectiveness or returns on
   investment. There is now strong evidence of ways in which education through its
   influence on attitudes and behavior and its positive impact on health, productivity,
   protection of environment, family planning and child care can transform the cultural
   social and economic life of the people and communities. ..

   The current level and types of resources available to meet basic learning needs are
   simply not sufficient. New resources can be sought from different sources: a broader
   government base of support, an increased financial effort due to expanded participation
   by non-governmental organizations, communities, families and individuals, and
   increased- and more effective- support form external funding as well as communities
   contribution in various form.

   In the case of Ethiopia, the table below indicates the level of national commitment
   towards financing the EFA Plan.

                                                                           (In millions of Birr)
                   Indicative Budget Allocation for 2005/06 – 2009/10
                 Sub-programs                         Capital     Recurrent       Total      percentage
Primary Education                                     10,535.92     12,859.31    23,395.24              50
Formal primary Education                                  9,591        11,668       21,259          45.26
Teacher Training (TTI and TTC)                                          1,191        1,191            2.54
Special Education                                             2                          2         0.0004
Overage Cost                                                943                        943            2.01
Secondary Education                                       2,582         1,442        4,023            8.57
Technical and Vocational Education and                    1,299         4,090        5,389          11,47
Training (TVET)
Tertiary Education                                         5,264        7,664       12,928           27,52
Capacity Building                                            139           21          160            0.34
Administration and Others                                     61        1,018        1,078            2.30
Total                                                     19,881      27,093        46,974             100
Primary education, tertiary education and technical and vocational training are given high priority in the
resource allocation and account for 50.0%, 27.52% and 11.47 % of the overall program cost. This
shows that primary education is still number one priority. Source Draft ESDP III, page 36.

4.    Resource Projection for EFA

      As can be seen from the goals, the most critical goal towards the achievement of the
      EFA in goal No.2 Universal primary education. For example, achieving equitable
      access without disparity and meeting the educational needs of the young people are
      integral to the UPE goals and strategies.

      The table below demonstrates projection interims of resources and educational inputs,
      calculated and specified in the EFA plans
             Key performance Indicators of ESDP III
             1998-2002 E.C. (2005/06-2010/11)
N                    Suggested Indicators                    Base     Target       Target set    Target    Target set    Target      Target
o                                                            Year     Set for      for 1998      Set for   for 2000      Set for     Set for
                                                             1996      1997           E.C       1999 E.C      E.C       2001 E.C    2002 E.C
                                                             E.C       E.C
1.   Budgetary and Expenditure Indicators
      Education's share of the total budget (current
2.   Access Indicators
      Grade 1 Net Intake Rate                                   35      NA               90        100         100         100         100
      Net enrolment rate at primary (1-8) level              57.41    62.15            66.9       71.66       76.41       80.67       84.93
           Girls' NER                                        51.77     57.6           63.42       69.24       75.06       79.89       84.71
           Boys' NER                                         62.88    66.59           70.36       74.02       77.73       81.44       85.15
             Gross enrolment rate at primary (1-8) level     68.37       70           76.82       82.94       88.34       92.59       95.77
           Girls' GER                                        59.09       62            70.4       77.95       84.62       89.94       94.07
           Boys' GER                                         77.39       78           83.09        87.8        91.9       95.18       97.44
             Gross enrolment rate at secondary (9-10)        20.40      NA            21.23        22.0        22.1       23.38       24.22
           Girls' GER                                        14.29      NA           15.49        16.41      17.83        19.27       20.81
           Boys' GER                                         26.30      NA            26.8         27.6      27.66        27.39       27.55
             Admission to preparatory (11-12)               45,937   86,493         98,288      109,106    154,062      156,583     194,172
           Girls' GER                                       11,324   32,029         37,160       42,941     60,883       61,656      80,033
           Boys' GER                                        34,613   54,464         61,128       66,166     93,179       94,926     114,679
             Admission TVET                                 40,440   55,000        153,342      155,973    192,044      195,360     209,352
           Diploma Program
           Degree Program / * Including private inst./      25,864   31,897          45,018    * 84,764    * 96,322    * 106,924   * 150,981
             Admission to graduate program                   2,532    6,000           6,550      11,413      16,275      21,138      26,000
             Share of female students in higher
        education enrolment                                   25.2,     30.0                          37          38          39          40
3.   Quality Indicators
             Share of lower primary (1-4) teachers who       96.30          99         98.3        99.2        99.8        99.8        99.8
        are qualified
             Share of upper primary (5-8) teachers who       56.26          80         89.6        98.0          99          99        99.3
        are qualified
             Share of secondary (9-12) teachers who are      44.33     73.2              67          87                    94.7        99.7
             Primary school student/text book ratio            2:1          1:1         1:1         1:1         1:1         1:1         1:1
             Secondary school student/text book ratio          1:1          1:1         1:1         1:1         1:1         1:1         1:1
             Grade 4 sample assessment of learning            48.5      -                 -           -           -           -          50
             Grade 8 sample assessment of learning            39.7      -                  -          -            -           -         50
4.   Efficiency Indicators
           Primary (1-4) student/section ratio                  75     60                66          61          57          53          50
           Primary (5-8) student/section ratio                  71     60                63          60          56          53          50
           Secondary school student/section ratio               79     60                66          60          53          47          40
           Grade 1 dropout rate                              15.53    14.2                4           2        0.97        0.49        0.24
           Total primary school dropout rate                 19.23    8.9                 5           2        1.20        0.60        0.30
           Average primary school dropout for girls          18.47    8.5                 5           2        1.15        0.58        0.29
           Average grade 4 to 8 repetition rate               10.5    6.4                 3           1        0.66        0.33        0.16
           Average grade 4 to 8 repetition rate for girls     13.6    8.1                 3           2        0.85        0.43        0.21
           Primary school completion rate                       35    NA                 44          53          64          73          81
5.   Equity Indicators
      Gross primary enrolment rate in the two most
       under-served regions
         Somali                                              16.08     20              38.6         60          70          80          90
         Afar                                                 14.8     20              37.4         60          70          80          90
           Net enrollment share of girls in primary           44.4    45.7             46.8        47.7        48.5        48.9        49.3
       school enrolment (1-8)
           Gross enrollment share of girls in                 42.6    43.5             45.2        46.4       47.35          48        48.6
       primary school enrolment (1-8)
             Note: - The targets are indicative. The Draft ESDP III is not yet finalized.

             5. Challenges for EFA achievement
                Where ever illiteracy exists, it goes hand in hand with poverty, whether as a cause or a
However, Poverty reduction is the core objective of the government of Ethiopia. In order
to drive this forward a comprehensive sustainable Development and poverty reduction
program has been developed based on 4 pillars: Agricultural Development led
Industrialization, Justice System and Civil Service Reform, Decentralization and
Empowerment and Capacity Building in Public and Private Sectors. Education is seen as
a key element in support of each of these pillars. The most important requirement for
Education for All was variously claimed to be the pupil, the teacher, the community, the
non- governmental organizations, the instructional materials, technology, assment
techniques, etc. Education for All needs the proper mix of these requirements; no single
requirements can operate effectively in the absence of the others and often will work
most efficiently only when operating in concert with each others.

But, the following are some of the main challenges for EFA Achievement

   Improve the quality of education in order to increase completion rates and maintain
    the confidence of parents in the school system.
   Address inequities, in access through appropriate and relevant education channels
    (ABE, NFE inclusive education and meeting the special educational needs.)
   Promote ABE in the education system
   Increase the efficiency of the programme by making better use of available resources
    (Construction of school buildings, shift system, multi-grade teaching assistant
    teachers, staffing of office)
   Improve the capacities of education offices at the various levels through an
    incremental, needs based capacity building programme.
   Increase the number of female teachers at secondary schools.
   Mainstream gender in all aspects as ESDP
   Make efficient use of ICT applications in the teaching learning process
   Match the community contributions with adequate government assistance to sustain
    initiatives of the communities.

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