# Scaling

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```					Scaling
Why do we assign numbers to characteristics of objects?
What is scaling.
What is a nominal scale and what is it used for in Marketing

Nominal Scale
This is where data is simply
in terms of names or
descriptions. For example
colours red, blue, green
would be nominal data.
What is an ordinal scale and what is it used for in Marketing?

Ordinal Scale
This is where data can be
recognised as being in some
order. For example, a collection
of names might be ordered
alphabetically. Or a list of
entrants in an exam might be
ordered by their marks. The order
does not mean that items can be
the items is unspecified.
What is an interval scale and what is it used for in Marketing?

Interval Scale
This is where the gaps between whole numbers
on the scale are equal. This permits the arithmetic
operations of addition and subtraction. An
example of this kind of scale is temperature. 20°
C is not twice as hot as 10° C because 0° is not
an absolute zero. It is simply the amount of heat
beyond which water turns from solid to liquid.
What is an interval scale and what is it used for in Marketing?

Ratio Scale
A ratio scale permits full arithmetic
operation. Measuring the time
something takes is an example of using a
ratio scale. If a train journey takes 2 hr
and 35 min, then this is half as long as a
journey which takes 5 hr and 10 min.

We need to be very careful about the
scale which is being used, and it is not
uncommon for people to do arithmetic
on scales which are simply ordinal -
marks for assignments at school for
example!
What’s the difference between comparative
and non-comparative scales?

Types of Scaling Techniques
• COMPARATIVE       SCALES
Involve the respondent directly comparing stimulus
objects. eg. How does Pepsi compare with Coke on
sweetness.

• NONCOMPARATIVE          SCALES
Respondent scales each stimulus object independently
of other objects eg. How would you rate the sweetness
of Pepsi on a scale of 1 to 10
A Classification of Scaling Techniques
SCALING TECHNIQUES

Comparative                       NonComparative
Scales                              Scales

Paired      Rank      Constant           Continuous   Itemised
Comparison    Order       Sum                Rating      Rating
Scales      Scales

Semantic
Likert                     Stapel
Differential
Constant Sum Scale
Please divide 100 pointes among the following
characteristics so the division reflects the relative
importance of each characteristic to you in the selection
of a bank
Hours of service              ________________
Friendliness                  _______________
Distance from home            ________________
Investment vehicles           ________________
Parking facilities            __________________
Continuous scale
The Likert scale
Semantic Differential Scale
• Here are a number of statements that could be used to describe
Sears. For each statement tick ( ) the box that best

Modern Store                                   Old- fashioned store
Low prices                                     High prices
Unfriendly staff                               Friendly staff
Narrow product range                           Wide product range
Sophisticated customers                        Unsophisticated customers
AGREEMENT

•Strongly Agree
•Agree Strongly
•Agree                    •Agree Moderately                           •Agree
•Undecided                •Agree Slightly        •Agree
•Undecided
•Disagree                 •Disagree Slightly     •Disagree
•Disagree Moderately                        •Disagree
•Strongly Disagree        •Disagree Strongly

•Completely Agree
•Agree Very Strongly                             •Mostly Agree        •Disagree Strongly
•Agree Strongly           •Yes                   •Slightly Agree      •Disagree
•Agree                                                                •Tend to Disagree
•Slightly Disagree
•Disagree                 •No                                         •Tend to Agree
•Disagree Strongly                               •Mostly Disagree     •Agree
•Disagree Very Strongly                          •Completely          •Agree Strongly
Disagree
FREQUENCY

•Very Frequently   •Always
•Always
•Frequently        •Very Frequently                          •Almost Always
•Usually
•Occasionally      •Occasionally                             •To a Considerable Degree
•Rarely            •Rarely                                   •Occasionally
•Seldom
•Very Rarely       •Very Rarely                              •Seldom
•Never
•Never             •Never

•A Great Deal                         •Always
•Often
•Much                                 •Very Often
•Sometimes
•Somewhat                             •Sometimes
•Seldom
•Little                               •Rarely
•Never
•Never                                •Never
IMPORTANCE

•Very Important
•Important
•Moderately Important          •Very Important
•Of Little Importance          •Moderately Important
•Unimportant                   •Unimportant

QUALITY

•Very Good              •Extremely Poor
•Good                   •Below Average         •Good
•Barely Acceptable      •Average               •Fair
•Poor                   •Above Average         •Poor
•Very Poor              •Excellent
LIKELIHOOD

•To a Great Extent
•Like Me             •Somewhat                          •True
•Unlike Me           •Very Little                       •False
•Not at All

•Almost Always True
•Definitely
•Usually True                      •True of Myself
•Very Probably
•Often True                        •Mostly True of Myself
•Probably
•Occasionally True                 •About Halfway True of Myself
•Possibly
•Sometimes But Infrequently True   •Slightly True Of Myself
•Probably Not
•Usually Not True                  •Not at All True of Myself
•Very Probably Not
•Almost Never True
A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image

•Select a plus number for words that you think describe the store accurately.
the more accurately you think the work describes the store, the larger the plus
number you should choose. Select a minus number for words you think do not
describe the store accurately. The less accurately you think the word describes
the store, the large the minus number you should choose, therefore, you can
select any number from +3 for words that you think are very accurate all the
way to -3 for words that you think are very inaccurate.

Department
Store Name
+3
+2
+1
Wide Selection
-1
-2
-3
Scale Decisions

Number of Categories   generally between 5 and 9

Balance          preferably a balanced scale

Odd or Even        if neutral responses likely, use odd number

Forced or Nonforced    if no opinion likely, use nonforced scale

Verbal Description    label and close to response categories

Physical Form       should be piloted.
Balanced and Unbalanced Scales

Balanced Scale       Unbalanced Scale

JOVAN MUSK FOR MEN IS   JOVAN MUSK FOR MEN IS

Extremely good          Extremely good
Very good               Very good
Good                    Somewhat Good

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 views: 13 posted: 12/11/2011 language: English pages: 20