Mao's Era

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					                         Mao’s China and After
Summary of the Last Session
   Searching for way to make China wealthy and powerful.
       Technical solution 坚船利炮、洋务运动
       Institutional solution
         • Reformist 改良
         • Revolution 革命
       Cultural solution 五四运动
       Political solution
         • The KMT: fascism + state capitalism 国民党
         • The CCP: state socialism: wealthy, powerful, and equal, 共产党

Outline
 The KMT solution
 The CCP solution
 Mao’s Era
 China under Reform

                                                                         KMT’s Solution
Warlordism & Disintegration
Warlords: 直系
   以直隶(今河北省和京、津)人冯国璋为首领的一派,被称为直系军阀。
    主要成员有李纯、王占元、陈光远及曹锟等。

Warlords: 皖系
   以安徽人段祺瑞为首领的一派,被称为皖系军阀。主要成员有徐树铮、靳
    云鹏、段芝贵、卢永祥等。
Warlords: 奉系
   以奉天(今辽宁省)籍张作霖为首领,主要成员有吴俊升、张作相、张宗
    昌、杨宇霆等。
Warlords: 桂系
   桂系军阀以陆荣廷为首,控制两广和湖南。
Warlords: 滇系、晋系
Wars
   People died by millions.
Chaos
   The Chinese were deeply dissatisfied with this kinds of "competitive
    politics".
KMT in Guangdong
Northern Expedition 北伐
Celebration of the Victory of the Northern
Expedition 庆祝北伐胜利
The April 12 Incident: “四一二政变”
   The April 12 Incident was a large-scale purge of Communists from the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) in Shanghai, ordered by
    Chiang Kai-shek on 12 April 1927, during the Northern Expedition against the warlords.
   In Shanghai, over a thousand Communists were arrested, some 300 were executed, and more than 5,000 were missing.
   Communists in Canton, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Changsha were also arrested or killed.
   In Beijing on April 28, warlord Zhang Zuolin killed 20 Communists who had taken up refuge at the Soviet embassy, including Li Dazhao,
    co-founder of Chinese Communist Party.

Purge & Massacre
   在1927年4月至1928年11月间,全国工农被屠杀者约10万人,其中经过法庭正式宣布死刑者为27699人,
   蒋介石所杀者为4万人,
   冯玉祥所杀者为3万人,
   李济深、唐生智所杀者为3万人以上,
   当时被蒋、冯判刑囚禁狱中者为17200人,
   工人因政治原因解雇失业者约为10万人
   (《中国工人》1929年1月1日第四期)

Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek)
   Jiang was educated in military academies first in China and then in Japan.
   While in Japan, he was influenced by his compatriots to support the revolutionary movement to overthrow the
    Qing Dynasty.
   In 1911 he returned to China to join the revolution as an artillery officer.
   Jiang assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang, the Nationalist Party, after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925.
   He commanded the Northern Expedition to unify China against the warlords and emerged victorious in 1928 as the
    overall leader of the Republic of China.

Jiang’s Heroes
Two Books
Fascism: The Chinese Style
   1931年5月5日召开的国民会议,蒋介石在这个会议的开幕词中指出:当今世界有三种政治理论,即"共产主义之政治
    理论"、"自由民治主义之政治理论"和"法西斯主义之政治理论"。在分析和比较三种主义之后,蒋介石认为,"挽救
    迫不及待之国家危难,领导素无政治经验之民族,是非藉经过较有效能的统治之施行不可",唯有"法西斯之政治理
    论"能保证"最有效能的统治权"。
        蒋介石分批派人到德国学习
        蒋介石派他的次子蒋纬国赴德国军事学院深造。蒋纬国受到希特勒的两次召见
        邀请了一批德国将领来华当军事顾问
        仿效墨索里尼的黑衫党,蒋介石组建了一个法西斯式的机构¡ª¡ª由10000名成员组织的¡°蓝衣社¡±,一切惟¡°领袖¡±之命
         是从。
        国民党元老张继公开推崇说:¡°蒋中正先生就是中国的希特勒。¡±
   1935年,蒋介石在国民党蓝衣社的一次集会上宣称:¡°法西斯主义是衰退社会中的一服兴奋剂¡±,¡°法西斯主义
    能救中国吗?我们回答:能。法西斯主义就是现在中国最需要的东西。¡±
   1936年12月西安事变的和平解决,标志着抗日民族统一战线的初步形成,国共两党开始共同抗日救国,迫使国民党不
    敢再公开鼓吹法西斯主义。

Generalissimo
   Jiang title, "Generalissimo", was used only by one other major world leader, Francisco Franco
    of Spain, who also had close ties with the Nazi military in the 1930s.
   Such were Jiang’s ties to the Axis powers that he sent his son to train in the Nazi military and
    take part in the Austrian annexation of 1938.
Jiang’s Son In Nazi Uniform
   Jiang’s son, Jiang Weiguo (Chiang Weikuo), joined the Nazi Army for the 1938 Austrian
    Anschluss, was later Secretary General of the Council of National Security of Taiwan.
   After Nazi connections publicized in recent years, suddenly he is "not really Jiang's son" and
    disowned post-mortem to "save a face".
Jiang Weiguo (Chiang Weikuo)
Military Advisers from Nazi Germany
The Nanjing Government : 1928-1937
   The Five-Power Constitutional Framework
      立法院           Legislative Yuan
      行政院           Administrative Yuan
      司法院           Judicial Yuan
      监察院           Censorate Yuan
      考试院           Examination Yuan
   The five-power constitution fared poorly under the Nanjing
    government.
The Performance of the System
   The legislative yuan was overshadowed by the executive yuan
   The executive yuan was rivaled by party ministries not unlike the executive yuan ministries.
   The examination yuan really did not function.
        By 1935, for example, only 1585 candidates have successfully completed the Civil Service Examinations"
        Many did not receive official positions at all."
   The Censorate yuan almost entirely ineffectual.
        From 1931 to 1937, it was presented with cases of alleged corruption involving 69,500 officials.
        Of these, the yuan returned indictments on only 1,800 persons.
        Of the 1,800 officials indicted for corruption, only 268 were actually found guilty by the legal system.
        Of the 268 found guilty, 214 received no punishment, and 41 received light punishment, yet only 13 were actually
         dismissed from office.

Challenges
 Warlords
 Insufficient revenue
 Corruption
 Crisis in the countryside
 Communist challenge

Warlords
   From 1928-1937, Jiang and the KMT achieved the high point of their rule (Golden 10 years) of China. However, at no time,
    were they in full command.
   In 1928, the KMT controlled only a small area in parts of Zhejiang and Jiangsu.
   In nearly every year, the Nanjing government had some war with remaining warlords.
   By about 1934, Jiang had nearly complete control over 6 provinces, partial control over 3 more.
   The Nanjing government also had considerable influence in 6 additional provinces.
   Fighting against the Communists in 1934-35 enabled KMT power to extend to other 4 provinces, and during the period, three
    more moved closer to the KMT government.
   The outlook of war against Japan in 1937 produced a new surge of patrotism, of which Jiang was the major symbol. The war
    thus had its positive side for KMT rule: it offered Jiang the best chance to unify the country.

Insufficient Revenue
   The proportion of revenue at all levels of government to GNP in 1936 was about 5%, about
    twice the figure for 1931.
   This proportion was low for the period compared with other countries.
   Military costs and costs of maintaining a civil administrative bureaucracy absorbed almost half
    of total revenue throughout the period.
   The government devoted only a small portion of its revenue to such items as education, cultural
    activities, transportation, rural reconstruction, public health, and industry.
Corruption
   Jiang said in 1928: "Party members no longer strive either for principles or for the masses.
    They struggled for power and profit, no longer willing to sacrifice.“
   Jiang said in 1930: "Not only is it impossible to find a single party headquarter which
    administers to and works for the welfare of the people, but all are stigmatized by the most
    reprehensible practices, such as corruption, bribery, and scrambling.“
   Jiang said in 1936: "If we do not weed the present body of corruption, bribery, perfunctoriness,
    and ignorance, and establish instead a clean and efficient administration, the day will soon come
    when the revolution will be started against us as we did against the Manchus.”
Crisis in the Countryside
   The Chinese economy was overwhelmingly agrarian and traditional.
        In 1933, for example, the modern sector of manufacturing, mining, and utilities accounted for only about 3.4% of the net
         GDP. 80% of population were living in the countryside.
   The farmers lived in appalling poverty.
        In 1930, China's death rate was about the highest in the world, two and a half times higher than that of the US, and markedly
         higher than that of India.
        According to a 1936 field study by China's leading anthropologist, the villagers' income was insufficient to secure the
         minimum requirement of livelihood. He concluded: "It is the hunger of the people that is the real issue in China.“
   The basic cause of this rural poverty was the unequal distribution of land.
        A small number of landlord owned a disproportionate share of the farmlands, and rented these to tenants at very high rates
         (50-70%).
   The peasants therefore felt no identification with the government.

                                  CCP’s Solution
The Rise of the Chinese Communist Party
 Founded in 1921with 57 members
 United Front with the KMT: 1923-27
 The break-up with the KMT: 1927
 Two-lines within the CCP (1927-1935)
      Land Reform in the Base Areas
      Military strategy
      The Long March
   The Sino-Japanese War
Chen Duxiu 陈独秀
The Society of New People 新民学会
The Chinese Version of Communist Manifesto, 1920
The Founding of the CCP, 1921
The Rise of the Chinese Communist Party
The Massacre of 1927
   宁可错杀一千,不可放过一个
   310,000 were killed, among them 26,000 were CCP members
The CCP’s Road to Power
The Secret of the CCP's Success
   Conspiracy theory
        Jiang Jieshi: Support by the Soviet Union
   The nationalist theory
        Chalmers Johnson: The Sino-Japanese War weakened the KMT and allowed
         the CCP to grow.
Comments on the Conspiracy Theory
 Stalin did not trust Mao
 Stalin did not supply a large amount of weapons to the CCP
 The Soviet returned the areas they had helped to liberate to the KMT
  rather than the CCP forces after the war.
April 1947
Comments on the Nationalist Theory: Balance of Power in the Eve
of Civil War, June 1946
   After the war, Jiang was regarded as the national hero, the symbol of the country's unity.
   Before the breakout of the civil war in June 1946, the KMT occupied all major cities, entire industrial base, all main transportation lines, and
    three-fourths of the population.
   The KMT's armed force were consisted of had 90 divisions (about 4.5 million)
   The KMT had clear superiority of arms, equipment, transport capability. The best-equipped army at the time in the world.
   The KMT was supported by the US
   At the beginning of the civil war, Jiang was so confident that he required his army to wipe out the entire CCP forces within 3-6 months.
   Only 95 million Chinese lived under Communist control in territories scattered across north China.
   The CCP force only 18 divisions (about 900,000).
   The CCP had no experience other than guerrilla warfare, no air force, no navy.
   The CCP did not receive supplies from the Soviet Union.
   Yet, despite all of these, the KMT was defeated by the CCP within three years.


What are the Real Secrets of the CCP’s Victory?
   Rural China?
      Unequal distribution of land
      Poverty
   Urban China?
    Hyperinflation
     
   Corruption
   The presence of foreign power
Land Distribution before the Land Reform
Land Distribution after the Land Reform
Struggle against Landlord
Joining PLA 1948
Hyperinflation
   In Shanghai, prices increased by 28 China went through the worst inflation 1948-49.
   In 1947, the highest denomination was 50,000 Yuan.
   By mid-1948, the highest denomination was 180,000,000 Yuan.
   The 1948 currency reform replaced the Yuan by the Gold Yuan at an exchange rate of 1 Gold
    Yuan = 3,000,000 Yuan.
   In less than 1 year, the highest denomination was 10,000,000 Gold Yuan.
   The highest denomination by a regional bank was 6,000,000,000 Yuan issued by Sinkiang
    Provincial Bank in 1949.
Hyperinflation 1945-1949
   上海的物价指数,1945年9月为346,1946年12月为9713。一年零四个月的时间内,物价上涨了28倍。
   此后的物价更如脱缰的野马,越发不可收拾。以战前的1937年6月为标准,截至1948年8月,法币贬值400万倍,物价
    上涨近500万倍
   1948年8月的金圆券改革,虽然以1元金圆券兑换300万法币重新调整了物价,但仅仅70天后,物价又以更加迅雷不及
    掩耳的速度飞涨。
   顾颉刚在日记中对金圆券贬值的过程进行了记述。仅以银圆与金圆券的兑换比例来说,在最初的时候,¡°银圆二合
    金圆券一,未及二月,而金圆券七合银圆一¡±。
        1949年1月18日,¡°一切物价比刚发金圆券时加一百倍¡±。
        3月3日,¡°近日银圆二千七百元¡±。
        3月31日,¡°上午银圆价一万三千元,下午即达一万七千元¡±。
        银圆与金圆券的比价,4月5日为二万八九千,10日六万,15日13万,16日18万,22日46-49万,27日130万,30日400万。
        到了5月19日,¡°国行挂牌为九百六十万,然实际之价已为一千四百万¡±。
        翌日¡°下午升至二千三百万,及傍晚则升至三千万矣¡±。
   仅仅半年多的时间,金圆券竟贬值6000万倍,国民政府的经济已完全崩溃。
Hyperinflation, 1948-49
Impact of Hyperinflation 1948
Urban Uprising
Beijing, June 1949
Shanghai, June, 1949
January 22, 1950
Mao’s China and After
                                                                                                                      Mao’s Era
Mao’s Ideal World
   The Military
        In the absence of a world war, our army should be a big school. Even under conditions of the third world war, it can still
         serve as a big school. In addition to fighting the war, it must do other work…In this big school, the army should learn
         politics, military affairs, and culture, and engage in agricultural production. It can build up its own middle- and small-size
         workshops to produce goods for its own use and the exchange of other goods of equal value.
   Factory
        Likewise, workers should, in addition to their main industrial work, learn military affairs, politics, and culture, and take
         part in the socialist educational movement and in criticizing the capitalist class. Under adequate conditions, they should
         also engage in agricultural production, following the example of the Daqing Oilfield.

Mao’s Ideal World, Cont’
   The Commune
        The communes do their main agricultural work (including forestry, fishing, animal husbandry, and subsidiary trades), but they must also
         learn military affairs, politics, and culture. When circumstances allow, they should collectively set up small-scale factories and take part
         in criticizing the capitalist class.
   School
        The students are in a similar position. Their studies are their chief work; they must also learn other things. In other words, they ought to
         learn industrial, agricultural, and military work in addition to class work. The school years should be shortened, education should be
         revolutionized, and the domination of our schools by bourgeois intellectuals should by no means be allowed to continue.
   Other sectors
        Under favorable conditions, people in commerce, service trades, and party and government offices should do likewise.
   Government
        “May 7 Cadre Schools”
   Mao’s Ideal World
        Less rigid division of labor
        Less hierarchical structure

Mao’s Three Experiments, 1957-1976
  Hundred Flower Movement/Anti-rightist Campaign, 1957
 The Great Leap Forward, 1958-1961
 The Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976
I. Hundred Flower Movement/Anti-rightist Campaign
   What was Mao's original target?
        Bureaucratic tendency in the party
   Who made harsh criticism?
        Old elite: the social class represented by the CCP could not rule the country.
        They considered only themselves being competent for the job.
   Counter-attack
        550,000 rightist were discovered, who were charged with plotting to overthrow socialism and the CCP
         leadership and to restore capitalism
   Mao's distrust of intellectuals was deepened.
II. The GLF, 1958-1961
   What were the purposes?
     Fastest possible growth
     Bridge three major gaps (urban vs. rural, workers vs. peasants, mental vs. manual labor)
   Departure from the Soviet model
     The Soviet model gave high priority to nation-wide economic planning.
        • Mao abolished state planning mechanism and statistical bureau
     The Soviet model relied heavily on centralized administration
        • Mao: decentralization
     The Soviet model stressed the use of advanced technology
        • Mao trusted the energy of the masses rather than the energy of machine

Why did the GLF Fail?
   Ta-chung Liu:
      "The GLF was based on a sound diagnosis of the basic weakness of the Chinese economy, but a serious
       misconception of the proper way to deal with it."
   What went wrong?
      No coordinating mechanism for allocation of resources
      Localized planning led to chaos

Were There Positive Aspects of the GLF?
        Women's social status
           • Kimberley Ens Manning, “Marxist Maternalism, Memory, and the Mobilization of
             Women in the Great Leap Forward,” The China Review, Vol. 5, No.1, Spring 2005
      Urban collectives
      Rural industry
III. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976
   Mao's motive
        "What is unique about the CR is that this political crisis was deliberately induced by the leader of the regime itself.“
        Mao’s theory of continuous revolution
           • Permanent revolution
           • Struggle philosophy
           • Faith in the mass of the people
   Power struggle
        Mao vs. Liu and Deng
   Social conflict
        Factionalism
           • The conservatives vs. the radicals
           • Conflict within the rank of the radical
        See my Failure of Charisma: The Chinese Cultural Revolution in Wuhan (Oxford, 1995)

Mass Movement 不破不立
May 7 Cadre Schools 五七干校
   The May 7 Cadre Schools were established in the People's Republic of China during the Cultural Revolution.
   Their function was to train cadres to follow the "mass line, " which was the communist equivalent of the formula, "Of the people, by the people,
    and for the people. "
   The principal method of training in these schools was hard manual labor, which had been the Chinese peasants' way of life.
   It was hoped that through such training, civil servants would be one with the masses.
   This emphasis on mass line has been abandoned since Mao's death.

Go Up to the Mountains and Down to the Villages
上山下乡
Barefoot Doctors 赤脚医生
Education Reform 工农兵上大学
Workers and Peasants as Teachers 工人、农民上
讲台
Arts Revolution 文艺革命
Consequences of the Cultural Revolution
   Political
        Disruption of the political system
   Social
        Disruption of normal social life
        Crisis of faith
   Economic
        Growth with big fluctuations
        Shortage
        No pay rise
        No material incentives
        Closed-door

Mao’s Achievements
 Infrastructure
 Economic growth
 Human development
      Education
      Health
      Life expectancy

Irrigation System
Reservoirs
Grain Production
Average Annual Growth Rate
                                                    1952-78   1978-95
          •   钢铁              12.9            6.40
          •   煤炭              8.98            4.04
          •   粮食              3.69            2.25
          •   棉花              1.97            4.17
          •   肉类              3.63            8.98
          •   石油              23.4            2.07
         • 工农业产值 8.21               8.80
GDP Growth(1914/18-1931/36)
GDP Index, 1913-1978
Fluctuations of Growth Rates
Human Development before 1949
 Over 80% of the population were illiterate
 Average year of schooling was barely 1.5
 Life expectancy was around 35 years old
 Infant Mortality rate was as high as 200‰
1949全国各类教育毕业生数
Enrollment of School Students
Life Expectancy
Human Development Indicator (1950-99)
The Balance Sheet of Mao's Era
   Amartya Sen, the Nobel laureate points out: "China's relative advantage over
    India is a product of its pre-reform (pre 1979) groundwork rather than its
    post-reform redirection."
   Comparing India with China, Sen said that the widespread literacy coupled with
    extensive land reforms in China enabled it to gain a widely shared economic
    expansion. But India was not in a position to reap such benefits as it lags behind
    in social development.
                                      Changes during the Reform Era
Why was Reform Necessary?
Economic development is impossible unless the following three
   problems can be solved.
        Incentive problem--productivity
        Investment problem--dynamic development
        Coordination problem--allocative efficiency
Mao's Solutions
   Incentive: Mobilization
     Moral incentive: Political education
     Narrowing gaps
   Investment: Accumulation
       Stagnation in consumption
       Self-reliance
   Coordination
       Decentralized planning
Gross Capital Formation
Problems in 1976
   Incentive Problems
     At individual level
     At firm or team level: soft budget constraints
     At the local government levels
 Investment Problems
 Coordination Problems

Deng's Solutions to the Three Problems
   Incentive problems
     At the individual level
     At the firm level
     At the local government levels
     At the national level
   Investment problems
       Non-state investment
   Coordination problems
       From planning to market
Transition Strategy: Mechanism of Resource
Allocation
 From central planning to indicative planning
 From indicative planning to market allocation of goods and services
 ``Grow out of the plan” instead of ``shock therapy”
 Transition & growth at the same time

Transition Strategy: Ownership Structure
   Developing non-state enterprises without massive privatization
       Self-employed individuals or households
       Private firms
       Bulk of urban private enterprise activity is concentrated in commerce and services
       Firms established with Asian capital
       Firms established with Western capital
Chinese Model vs. Russian Model?
   Direction
      Capitalist vs. "market socialism”
   Guiding principle
      Learning by doing vs. learning from textbook
   Sequence
      Political reform vs. economic reform
   Speed
      Shock Therapy vs. gradualism
   Method
      Destruction first vs. construction first
   Political basis
      A positive-sum game vs. a zero-sum game

The Achievements of Economic Reform: GDP Indices,
1978-2002
Per Capita Income, 1978-2003
Real Economic Miracle
Per Capita Living Space (M )                                          2
   The proportion of private housing reached 80.2% in urban China in 2003

Private Ownership of Automobiles
Growth with Less Fluctuation
Poverty Reduction
Life Expectancy

				
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