Mao’s China and After
Summary of the Last Session
Searching for way to make China wealthy and powerful.
Technical solution 坚船利炮、洋务运动
• Reformist 改良
• Revolution 革命
Cultural solution 五四运动
• The KMT: fascism + state capitalism 国民党
• The CCP: state socialism: wealthy, powerful, and equal， 共产党
The KMT solution
The CCP solution
China under Reform
Warlordism & Disintegration
People died by millions.
The Chinese were deeply dissatisfied with this kinds of "competitive
KMT in Guangdong
Northern Expedition 北伐
Celebration of the Victory of the Northern
The April 12 Incident: “四一二政变”
The April 12 Incident was a large-scale purge of Communists from the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) in Shanghai, ordered by
Chiang Kai-shek on 12 April 1927, during the Northern Expedition against the warlords.
In Shanghai, over a thousand Communists were arrested, some 300 were executed, and more than 5,000 were missing.
Communists in Canton, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Changsha were also arrested or killed.
In Beijing on April 28, warlord Zhang Zuolin killed 20 Communists who had taken up refuge at the Soviet embassy, including Li Dazhao,
co-founder of Chinese Communist Party.
Purge & Massacre
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek)
Jiang was educated in military academies first in China and then in Japan.
While in Japan, he was influenced by his compatriots to support the revolutionary movement to overthrow the
In 1911 he returned to China to join the revolution as an artillery officer.
Jiang assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang, the Nationalist Party, after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925.
He commanded the Northern Expedition to unify China against the warlords and emerged victorious in 1928 as the
overall leader of the Republic of China.
Fascism: The Chinese Style
Jiang title, "Generalissimo", was used only by one other major world leader, Francisco Franco
of Spain, who also had close ties with the Nazi military in the 1930s.
Such were Jiang’s ties to the Axis powers that he sent his son to train in the Nazi military and
take part in the Austrian annexation of 1938.
Jiang’s Son In Nazi Uniform
Jiang’s son, Jiang Weiguo (Chiang Weikuo), joined the Nazi Army for the 1938 Austrian
Anschluss, was later Secretary General of the Council of National Security of Taiwan.
After Nazi connections publicized in recent years, suddenly he is "not really Jiang's son" and
disowned post-mortem to "save a face".
Jiang Weiguo (Chiang Weikuo)
Military Advisers from Nazi Germany
The Nanjing Government : 1928-1937
The Five-Power Constitutional Framework
立法院 Legislative Yuan
行政院 Administrative Yuan
司法院 Judicial Yuan
监察院 Censorate Yuan
考试院 Examination Yuan
The five-power constitution fared poorly under the Nanjing
The Performance of the System
The legislative yuan was overshadowed by the executive yuan
The executive yuan was rivaled by party ministries not unlike the executive yuan ministries.
The examination yuan really did not function.
By 1935, for example, only 1585 candidates have successfully completed the Civil Service Examinations"
Many did not receive official positions at all."
The Censorate yuan almost entirely ineffectual.
From 1931 to 1937, it was presented with cases of alleged corruption involving 69,500 officials.
Of these, the yuan returned indictments on only 1,800 persons.
Of the 1,800 officials indicted for corruption, only 268 were actually found guilty by the legal system.
Of the 268 found guilty, 214 received no punishment, and 41 received light punishment, yet only 13 were actually
dismissed from office.
Crisis in the countryside
From 1928-1937, Jiang and the KMT achieved the high point of their rule (Golden 10 years) of China. However, at no time,
were they in full command.
In 1928, the KMT controlled only a small area in parts of Zhejiang and Jiangsu.
In nearly every year, the Nanjing government had some war with remaining warlords.
By about 1934, Jiang had nearly complete control over 6 provinces, partial control over 3 more.
The Nanjing government also had considerable influence in 6 additional provinces.
Fighting against the Communists in 1934-35 enabled KMT power to extend to other 4 provinces, and during the period, three
more moved closer to the KMT government.
The outlook of war against Japan in 1937 produced a new surge of patrotism, of which Jiang was the major symbol. The war
thus had its positive side for KMT rule: it offered Jiang the best chance to unify the country.
The proportion of revenue at all levels of government to GNP in 1936 was about 5%, about
twice the figure for 1931.
This proportion was low for the period compared with other countries.
Military costs and costs of maintaining a civil administrative bureaucracy absorbed almost half
of total revenue throughout the period.
The government devoted only a small portion of its revenue to such items as education, cultural
activities, transportation, rural reconstruction, public health, and industry.
Jiang said in 1928: "Party members no longer strive either for principles or for the masses.
They struggled for power and profit, no longer willing to sacrifice.“
Jiang said in 1930: "Not only is it impossible to find a single party headquarter which
administers to and works for the welfare of the people, but all are stigmatized by the most
reprehensible practices, such as corruption, bribery, and scrambling.“
Jiang said in 1936: "If we do not weed the present body of corruption, bribery, perfunctoriness,
and ignorance, and establish instead a clean and efficient administration, the day will soon come
when the revolution will be started against us as we did against the Manchus.”
Crisis in the Countryside
The Chinese economy was overwhelmingly agrarian and traditional.
In 1933, for example, the modern sector of manufacturing, mining, and utilities accounted for only about 3.4% of the net
GDP. 80% of population were living in the countryside.
The farmers lived in appalling poverty.
In 1930, China's death rate was about the highest in the world, two and a half times higher than that of the US, and markedly
higher than that of India.
According to a 1936 field study by China's leading anthropologist, the villagers' income was insufficient to secure the
minimum requirement of livelihood. He concluded: "It is the hunger of the people that is the real issue in China.“
The basic cause of this rural poverty was the unequal distribution of land.
A small number of landlord owned a disproportionate share of the farmlands, and rented these to tenants at very high rates
The peasants therefore felt no identification with the government.
The Rise of the Chinese Communist Party
Founded in 1921with 57 members
United Front with the KMT: 1923-27
The break-up with the KMT: 1927
Two-lines within the CCP (1927-1935)
Land Reform in the Base Areas
The Long March
The Sino-Japanese War
Chen Duxiu 陈独秀
The Society of New People 新民学会
The Chinese Version of Communist Manifesto, 1920
The Founding of the CCP, 1921
The Rise of the Chinese Communist Party
The Massacre of 1927
310,000 were killed, among them 26,000 were CCP members
The CCP’s Road to Power
The Secret of the CCP's Success
Jiang Jieshi: Support by the Soviet Union
The nationalist theory
Chalmers Johnson: The Sino-Japanese War weakened the KMT and allowed
the CCP to grow.
Comments on the Conspiracy Theory
Stalin did not trust Mao
Stalin did not supply a large amount of weapons to the CCP
The Soviet returned the areas they had helped to liberate to the KMT
rather than the CCP forces after the war.
Comments on the Nationalist Theory: Balance of Power in the Eve
of Civil War, June 1946
After the war, Jiang was regarded as the national hero, the symbol of the country's unity.
Before the breakout of the civil war in June 1946, the KMT occupied all major cities, entire industrial base, all main transportation lines, and
three-fourths of the population.
The KMT's armed force were consisted of had 90 divisions (about 4.5 million)
The KMT had clear superiority of arms, equipment, transport capability. The best-equipped army at the time in the world.
The KMT was supported by the US
At the beginning of the civil war, Jiang was so confident that he required his army to wipe out the entire CCP forces within 3-6 months.
Only 95 million Chinese lived under Communist control in territories scattered across north China.
The CCP force only 18 divisions (about 900,000).
The CCP had no experience other than guerrilla warfare, no air force, no navy.
The CCP did not receive supplies from the Soviet Union.
Yet, despite all of these, the KMT was defeated by the CCP within three years.
What are the Real Secrets of the CCP’s Victory?
Unequal distribution of land
The presence of foreign power
Land Distribution before the Land Reform
Land Distribution after the Land Reform
Struggle against Landlord
Joining PLA 1948
In Shanghai, prices increased by 28 China went through the worst inflation 1948-49.
In 1947, the highest denomination was 50,000 Yuan.
By mid-1948, the highest denomination was 180,000,000 Yuan.
The 1948 currency reform replaced the Yuan by the Gold Yuan at an exchange rate of 1 Gold
Yuan = 3,000,000 Yuan.
In less than 1 year, the highest denomination was 10,000,000 Gold Yuan.
The highest denomination by a regional bank was 6,000,000,000 Yuan issued by Sinkiang
Provincial Bank in 1949.
Impact of Hyperinflation 1948
Beijing, June 1949
Shanghai, June, 1949
January 22, 1950
Mao’s China and After
Mao’s Ideal World
In the absence of a world war, our army should be a big school. Even under conditions of the third world war, it can still
serve as a big school. In addition to fighting the war, it must do other work…In this big school, the army should learn
politics, military affairs, and culture, and engage in agricultural production. It can build up its own middle- and small-size
workshops to produce goods for its own use and the exchange of other goods of equal value.
Likewise, workers should, in addition to their main industrial work, learn military affairs, politics, and culture, and take
part in the socialist educational movement and in criticizing the capitalist class. Under adequate conditions, they should
also engage in agricultural production, following the example of the Daqing Oilfield.
Mao’s Ideal World, Cont’
The communes do their main agricultural work (including forestry, fishing, animal husbandry, and subsidiary trades), but they must also
learn military affairs, politics, and culture. When circumstances allow, they should collectively set up small-scale factories and take part
in criticizing the capitalist class.
The students are in a similar position. Their studies are their chief work; they must also learn other things. In other words, they ought to
learn industrial, agricultural, and military work in addition to class work. The school years should be shortened, education should be
revolutionized, and the domination of our schools by bourgeois intellectuals should by no means be allowed to continue.
Under favorable conditions, people in commerce, service trades, and party and government offices should do likewise.
“May 7 Cadre Schools”
Mao’s Ideal World
Less rigid division of labor
Less hierarchical structure
Mao’s Three Experiments, 1957-1976
Hundred Flower Movement/Anti-rightist Campaign, 1957
The Great Leap Forward, 1958-1961
The Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976
I. Hundred Flower Movement/Anti-rightist Campaign
What was Mao's original target?
Bureaucratic tendency in the party
Who made harsh criticism?
Old elite: the social class represented by the CCP could not rule the country.
They considered only themselves being competent for the job.
550,000 rightist were discovered, who were charged with plotting to overthrow socialism and the CCP
leadership and to restore capitalism
Mao's distrust of intellectuals was deepened.
II. The GLF, 1958-1961
What were the purposes?
Fastest possible growth
Bridge three major gaps (urban vs. rural, workers vs. peasants, mental vs. manual labor)
Departure from the Soviet model
The Soviet model gave high priority to nation-wide economic planning.
• Mao abolished state planning mechanism and statistical bureau
The Soviet model relied heavily on centralized administration
• Mao: decentralization
The Soviet model stressed the use of advanced technology
• Mao trusted the energy of the masses rather than the energy of machine
Why did the GLF Fail?
"The GLF was based on a sound diagnosis of the basic weakness of the Chinese economy, but a serious
misconception of the proper way to deal with it."
What went wrong?
No coordinating mechanism for allocation of resources
Localized planning led to chaos
Were There Positive Aspects of the GLF?
Women's social status
• Kimberley Ens Manning, “Marxist Maternalism, Memory, and the Mobilization of
Women in the Great Leap Forward,” The China Review, Vol. 5, No.1, Spring 2005
III. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976
"What is unique about the CR is that this political crisis was deliberately induced by the leader of the regime itself.“
Mao’s theory of continuous revolution
• Permanent revolution
• Struggle philosophy
• Faith in the mass of the people
Mao vs. Liu and Deng
• The conservatives vs. the radicals
• Conflict within the rank of the radical
See my Failure of Charisma: The Chinese Cultural Revolution in Wuhan (Oxford, 1995)
Mass Movement 不破不立
May 7 Cadre Schools 五七干校
The May 7 Cadre Schools were established in the People's Republic of China during the Cultural Revolution.
Their function was to train cadres to follow the "mass line, " which was the communist equivalent of the formula, "Of the people, by the people,
and for the people. "
The principal method of training in these schools was hard manual labor, which had been the Chinese peasants' way of life.
It was hoped that through such training, civil servants would be one with the masses.
This emphasis on mass line has been abandoned since Mao's death.
Go Up to the Mountains and Down to the Villages
Barefoot Doctors 赤脚医生
Education Reform 工农兵上大学
Workers and Peasants as Teachers 工人、农民上
Arts Revolution 文艺革命
Consequences of the Cultural Revolution
Disruption of the political system
Disruption of normal social life
Crisis of faith
Growth with big fluctuations
No pay rise
No material incentives
Average Annual Growth Rate
• 钢铁 12.9 6.40
• 煤炭 8.98 4.04
• 粮食 3.69 2.25
• 棉花 1.97 4.17
• 肉类 3.63 8.98
• 石油 23.4 2.07
• 工农业产值 8.21 8.80
GDP Index, 1913-1978
Fluctuations of Growth Rates
Human Development before 1949
Over 80% of the population were illiterate
Average year of schooling was barely 1.5
Life expectancy was around 35 years old
Infant Mortality rate was as high as 200‰
Enrollment of School Students
Human Development Indicator (1950-99)
The Balance Sheet of Mao's Era
Amartya Sen, the Nobel laureate points out: "China's relative advantage over
India is a product of its pre-reform (pre 1979) groundwork rather than its
Comparing India with China, Sen said that the widespread literacy coupled with
extensive land reforms in China enabled it to gain a widely shared economic
expansion. But India was not in a position to reap such benefits as it lags behind
in social development.
Changes during the Reform Era
Why was Reform Necessary?
Economic development is impossible unless the following three
problems can be solved.
Investment problem--dynamic development
Coordination problem--allocative efficiency
Moral incentive: Political education
Stagnation in consumption
Gross Capital Formation
Problems in 1976
At individual level
At firm or team level: soft budget constraints
At the local government levels
Deng's Solutions to the Three Problems
At the individual level
At the firm level
At the local government levels
At the national level
From planning to market
Transition Strategy: Mechanism of Resource
From central planning to indicative planning
From indicative planning to market allocation of goods and services
``Grow out of the plan” instead of ``shock therapy”
Transition & growth at the same time
Transition Strategy: Ownership Structure
Developing non-state enterprises without massive privatization
Self-employed individuals or households
Bulk of urban private enterprise activity is concentrated in commerce and services
Firms established with Asian capital
Firms established with Western capital
Chinese Model vs. Russian Model?
Capitalist vs. "market socialism”
Learning by doing vs. learning from textbook
Political reform vs. economic reform
Shock Therapy vs. gradualism
Destruction first vs. construction first
A positive-sum game vs. a zero-sum game
The Achievements of Economic Reform: GDP Indices,
Per Capita Income, 1978-2003
Real Economic Miracle
Per Capita Living Space (M ) 2
The proportion of private housing reached 80.2% in urban China in 2003
Private Ownership of Automobiles
Growth with Less Fluctuation