Precision Agriculture an Overview by Denl1h


									Precision Agriculture
    an Overview
Need for Precision Agriculture (1)

   In 1970, 190,500,000 ha classified as arable
    and permanent cropland in the USA
   Decreased to 187,776,000 ha by 1991.
   Irrigated land in the USA peaked at
    20,582,000 hectares in 1980 and has been
    stable at 18,771,000 hectares since 1989.
   Trends suggest that cropland in the USA will
    not expand beyond the present
    190,000,000 ha
       Need for Precision Agriculture (2)
   Developing world: 760,000,000 hectares
    classified as cropland and could theoretically
    increase to 850,000,000 hectares.
   World population increases by 86 million people
    per year (235,000/day, World Resources, 1996).
   33,000 people die each day due to
   Cropland needed to feed the human population, if
    population growth stops and land is preserved,
    will be roughly 3.3 billion hectares, and likely to
    become limiting near the year 2050
      Need for Precision Agriculture (3)

   Probability of bringing 3.3 billion hectares
    into production from the current 1.4 billion
    hectares is small (
   A large portion of the lands considered as
    'potentially arable' (e.g., increase from 1.4 to
    3.3 billion hectares) include tropical
    rainforests and other lands that would
    require massive inputs for any kind of
    sustained crop production.
    Need for Precision Agriculture (4)

   Unlikely that the total arable world land
    will increase beyond its present level
   Increased production per unit area will be
   Applied precision agricultural production
    practices are timely and required within
    the developed and developing agricultural
      Precision Agriculture?
• Human need
• Environment
  – Hypoxia
  – $750,000,000 (excess N flowing down the
    Mississippi river/yr)
• Developed vs Developing Countries
• High vs Low yielding environments
 Many research & development practices
 are not designed to foster site-specific
• Continued success in wheat germplasm and
  technology dissemination worldwide depends on
  the free and uninhibited flow of genetic materials
  and information. Restrictions imposed on such
  movement due to intellectual property protection
  could have serious consequences on the ability
  of developing countries to sustain wheat
  productivity growth.
• …. further gains would have to come from
  specifically targeting breeding efforts to the
  unique characteristics of marginal environments
What is Precision Agriculture?

          • Treating small areas
            of a field as separate
            management units
            for the purpose of
            optimizing crop
            production based on
            in-field variability
    Site Specific Management
• The application of an input to a specific
  area based on the evaluation of variability
  of the need for that input. Richardson, 1996.
• Recognition of site-specific differences
  within fields and tailoring management
  accordingly, instead of managing an entire
  field based on some hypothetical average.
  Emmert, 1995.
     Definitions of Precision
• Using information to better manage farms
  at the field level or finer resolution.
• Optimizing inputs to produce the largest
  net income.
• Combine yield monitors, GPS, Grid Soil
    What is Precision Farming?
•   Management by the Field
•   Management by the foot
•   Global Positioning Systems
•   Yield Monitors
•   Sensor Based Weed Control
•   Grid Sampling
•   Variable Rate Fertilizer Application
  Oklahoma State University’s
    Definition of Precision
• Variable rate application of fertilizers,
  pesticides or other materials based on the
  sensed needs of the crop within the
  following constraints:
  – Available Technology
  – Agronomic
  – Economic
  Large Scale
Variability Within
      a Field
Intermediate Scale Variability Within a Field

                                IKONI Imagery
                                4 m Resolution
  Small Scale (Micro)
Variability Within a Field
Variability in Weed Populations
Variability in Grain Yield
Klinsick; 98 (186.0 ac.)
 97 Yield Poly                                                          98 Yield Poly

                                          500        0       500 Feet

Date: Sep 25, 1999
Field Name: Klinsick; 98
Location: Texas Co., Oklahoma, Unite d States   97 Yield Poly
Far m Name: Klinsic k                                18.261 - 27.86
Clie nt Name : Long Bros.                                                               98 Yi eld P oly
                                                     27.86 - 38.23                            22.99 - 41.1 52     (1.0 a c.)
Total Acr es: 186.0
                                                     38.23 - 47.49                            41.15 2 - 59 .314    ( 14.5 a c .)
Field Boundary Start Loc ation:                                                               59.31 4 - 77 .476    ( 100 .9 ac . )
 Latitude : 36.80187915                              47.49 - 53.46                            77.47 6 - 95 .638    ( 62.9 a c .)
 Longitude: -101.41159014                            53.46 - 65.425                           95.63 8 - 11 3.8    (6.8 a c.)
                Map Based - Precision
                      Aerial and
                      Satellite                        GPS Constellations
    Computer                       Yield Map

    GIS - Precision        GPS Referenced Soil
      Software             Samples

                             Fertilizer Prescription

Soils Maps, Elevation Maps,
   On-the- Go Sensing of Plant
    Needs and Variable Rate
                              Variable Rate
Decision Making               Spray Nozzle
And Agronomic Strategy

Computer and
                          of Travel


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