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Comments #1    Key ideas
               Economic and social impact




               Infrastructure


               Finance

               National and international policies


               Which research and policies are
               needed?
               Economic and social impact


               Infrastructure


               Finance


               National and international policies




Comments #2    Key ideas
               Economic and social impact



               Infrastructure




               Finance

               National and international policies




               Which research and policies are
               needed?
               Economic and social impact

               Infrastructure

               Finance

               National and international policies


Comments #3    Key ideas
              Economic and social impact




              Infrastructure


              Finance




              National and international policies


              Which research and policies are
              needed?
              Economic and social impact




              Infrastructure




              Finance


              National and international policies




Comments #4   Key ideas
              Economic and social impact

              Infrastructure


              Finance

              National and international policies




              Which research and policies are
              needed?
              Economic and social impact

              Infrastructure

              Finance

              National and international policies


Comments #5   Key ideas
              Economic and social impact
              Infrastructure


              Finance


              National and international policies


              Which research and policies are
              needed?
              Economic and social impact


              Infrastructure


              Finance

              National and international policies




Comments #6   Key ideas
              Economic and social impact

              Infrastructure

              Finance


              National and international policies


              Which research and policies are
              needed?
              Economic and social impact

              Infrastructure

              Finance

              National and international policies




Comments #7   Key ideas
              Economic and social impact


              Infrastructure



              Finance

              National and international policies

              Which research and policies are
              needed?
              Economic and social impact




              Infrastructure


              Finance

              National and international policies


Comments #8   Key ideas
              Economic and social impact




              Infrastructure


              Finance


              National and international policies


              Which research and policies are
              needed?
              Economic and social impact




              Infrastructure


              Finance

              National and international policies


Comments #9   Key ideas
              Economic and social impact




              Infrastructure




              Finance




              National and international policies


              Which research and policies are
              needed?
               Economic and social impact


               Infrastructure

               Finance

               National and international policies




Comments #10   Key ideas
               Economic and social impact




               Infrastructure




               Finance




               National and international policies

               Which research and policies are
               needed?
               Economic and social impact


               Infrastructure


               Finance


               National and international policies


Comments #11   Key ideas
               Economic and social impact


               Infrastructure


               Finance

               National and international policies


               Which research and policies are
               needed?
               Economic and social impact


               Infrastructure
               Finance

               National and international policies


Comments #12   Key ideas
               Economic and social impact


               Infrastructure

               Finance

               National and international policies


               Which research and policies are
               needed?
               Economic and social impact




               Infrastructure

               Finance

               National and international policies


Comments #13   Key ideas
               Economic and social impact


               Infrastructure


               Finance

               National and international policies




               Which research and policies are
               needed?
               Economic and social impact




               Infrastructure

               Finance

               National and international policies


Comments #14   Key ideas
               Economic and social impact




               Infrastructure
Finance

National and international policies


Which research and policies are
needed?
Economic and social impact

Infrastructure

Finance

National and international policies
1) Too many stakeholders and no decision-makers
2) Have not successfully engaged political decision-makers to make policies and
take actions that move system forward

1) Infrastructure will not support future requirements for growth (that contribute to
economic development and costs of infrastructure must be reduced




1) Costs can only be reduced by completely interoperable systems worldwide
2) This will also support safety improvements




1) What strategies can be developed to influence stakeholders to move system in a
direction that will provide greatest benefit to economy?

1) What steps can be taken to reduce current infrastructure costs: eliminate it,
consolidate it, out-source it, reduce unit costs?




1) How can multi-lateral development banks be persuaded (through political
leadership, etc) to support and finance aviation improvements?




1) Importance of air travel and internet: global convergence
2) Social importance of air transport to "thin" communities isolated from modern
infrastructure (e.g. hospitals)

1) Importance of air traffic management (ATM) as a key component of entire aviation
infrastructure
2) Need to examine multi-modal/intermodal interfaces (e.g., air cargo to land
shipment)
3) Need to examine privatization/outsourcing or some mechanism to finance ATM
needs




1) Deregulation
2) Less interference from governments into aviation market
3) Possible/probable need for demand management at congested US airports
4) "Best" way to do demand management; tie to US ATO/FAA funding
1) Need a way to communicate economic and social value of air transport to
developing countries and the role of government institutions in making system work
2) Development banks: require countries to fix institutions as a condition on
multilateral aid

1) Cost of infrastructure is becoming critical
2) Neet to think about efficiency in production and consumption

1) No way to know if you have the right quantity/quality of infrastructure without "real
prices"
2) Do not know willingness to pay (allocative efficiency)
3) Probably need to get prices to figure out if there is a congestion problem

1) Too many airlines, too small to be competitive in international markets being
protected by economic and safety regulations




1) Need to understand how infrastructure costs are affecting demand: as more amd
more low fare carriers enter and gain market share, ATM and airport costs are
becoming a larger part of the air fare. Carriers of all types are cutting costs. Why not
infrastructure provisions?

1) No one is doing fundamental work on economics/cost of producing ATM services --
cannot understand how we can plan or invest in a system with little or no knowledge
of economic structure of ATM

1) Need to understand production economics of ATM (more that just costs). Cannot
fix system unless you understand!

1) Need policies that allow efficient provision of air transportation.
2) People need air service; not sure every country needs an ailine
3) Encourage multilateral airlines that can compete with mega-carriers




1) The importance of aviation to further political, heald and economic development

1) Investments in infrastructure are required to start the development, but are not
large enough with respect to the industry

1) The ideas Logan airport is using

1) Amazing amount of effect that controls/regulations cause in the economic picture
of the airlines
2) How badly the developing world lacks air transport and how it would help




1) Big impact estimates are not necessarily good or useful for justifying government
investments
2) Economic value better than economic impact
1) No common definition used at this symposium. Sometimes they did not even
overlap

1) Pretty clear that our understanding of finance in this sector, both public and
private, is in its infancy

1) Nob obvious what the relevant policies are -- someone should identify and
categorize them




1) Need to develop improved and more persuasive measures of economic and social
impact of aviation

1) How do we measure performanc and viability of government-run enterprises, such
as the FAA or airports?

1) What really drives airlines performance and success?

1) What policies provide the appropriate incentives to each stakeholder to behave in
ways cosnsistent with system performance goals?




1) Need to better recognize different levels of good and how to fund.

1) Political problem

1) Can the present structure work?
2) can the model be changed before meltdown?

1) Nationalistic interets -- what should be a driver?
2) Again, some change but others won't until metldown, if then.




1) A model of analysis for identifying the key facilitators or impediments to change in
a particular social, economic and political context
2) Point would be to create a tool for development agencies and technical agencies
to work in a more coherent way for change
3) Cell phone paradigm for safety?




1) Business bottom line should not be only consideration for aviation investment by
government for infrastructure

1) We are falling behind in our ATC. Aaron Gellman was right on the mark. Most of
the technology needed is available now, we just need to connect the pieces.

1) Regardless of impediments to growth, air transport demand will exist. Therefore, it
will always be sustainable at some level. The question is, at what level?

1) Harmonize
see above

1) Strong leadership is needed to force a paradigm change regarding "how ATC is
done."
2) Lacking this, someone will eventually design and sell a better system, after we
have stymied growth in aviation

1) Adequate investment must be made in infrastructure to go with leadership
mentioned above

1) Increased harmonization will likely raise world economy to everyone's benefit




1) The social impact discussion was good, but should have been said what it really
is. Definition and more examples would help greatly.

1) I agree entirely with George Donohue's definition of air transportation
infrastructure

1) The financial health of the US airline industry was good, but it still left open the
question: is the airline industry financially sustainable?

1) While a few policy issues were discussed, none pertained to any "Environmental
Issues." More discussion is needed on "Environmental Policy Issues."




1) Would like to see more studies on the social impact of aviation on the US the
global economy. Would like to see extensive work done on the "price elasticity of
demand for aviation."

1) More should be done to figure out how FAA's enviromental design space falls
within the NAS

1) Financial stability of the airline industry would be critical in adapting environmental
aviation emissions' policy issues

1) National and int'l policies related to environmental aviation emission's issues




1) Both fields are interdependent
2) Productive society is only possible with a stable community
3) Government responsibility may/must include a balance of policies to ensure both




1) Air transport is just as important a mode as highways or transit
2) Their interaction in terms of meeting travel demand must be well understood
1) Social measurement is lacking. Specifically that aspect related to direct
connection to air transportation. Trip purpose for personal reasons.




1) Peak pricing strategies for trust fund taxes.

1) Relative trade-offs of system delay tampering strategies. Given high delays and
their impacts, how will the system adjust?
2) Auction of airspace slots, flights during off-peak, tec.
3) Dampening strategies may then become motivation for policies




1) We had no discussionof the costs of serving to remote areas. Generally it is
subsidized. Should we discuss/study cost of subsidy for economic/social services?
What should fare levels cover?
2) Study of deregulation and market forces (most studies have major flaws)


1) What additional resources will be required to handle increases in RJ's?
2) What are the enroute effects as opposed to terminal?

1) Mainline, hub and spoke carriers in poor financial shape. Reduction of labor
expenses is necessary but is it sufficient?
2) Excessive competition has always impacted air carriers.




1) If air transport is a public good, then air service needs to reach marginal points.
This does not inlcue all cities/towns.

1) We have sufficient concrete. Traffic control, basic FAA equipment need to be
upgraded. How will this occur?

1) There does not seem to be a shortage of capital. Actions and policies should be
directed to reducing NAS, airport costs.




1) No technique exists to truly relate air transport and economic development. This is
an area for research.

1) Infrastructure in air transportation is borad (runways and ATC are the tip of the
iceberg)

1) Airline models require a lot more work

1) ICAO and the World Bank should play a more prominent role to provide incentives
across the world to develop ties between air transport and economic development.




1) Have models that can clearly tie air transport and social impact. Multipliers have
been abused

1) Need better models that can explain the impact of technology into a complex
adaptive system
1) Better models to explain financing mechanisms for service providers

1) Develop better ties between international agencies and policy models




1) Transport as a social good -- governance, health
2) Transport as an enabling technology for trade and, thus, wealth




1) Transport value as an enabling strategy for international trade in undeveloped
countries -- test hypothesis
2) Counter-factual analysis as a method for valuing the "necessary"




1) Aviation can be a key driver in economic development in emerging economies
2) Economic impact worldwide is very substantial




1) International institutions do not routinely think about air transportation as an
economic driver

1) Need better models for revenues generated by air traffic service providers: these
should also provide right market incentives
2) Many governments have placed sever impediments to the development of aviation




1) Transport value as an enabling strategy for international trade in undeveloped
countries -- test hypothesis
2) Counter-factual analysis as a method for valuing the "necessary"




1) Need to know what are the factors that contribute to the economic and social
value of aviation
1) Incentives and subsidization need more study and thought
2) Penalties for non-compliance of equippage, etc.

				
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