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Ch02_Biological_Organization

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					 Bio 100


                        Chapter 2: Levels of Biological Organization
 Why organize life in levels?                               Organisms interact with other organisms
     Life is very complex. Organizing the                       Every organism interacts with members of its
 earth and the life that inhabits it into levels            own type or species. Organisms may live in a
 of complexity, known as the levels of                      group of their own kind such as a flock or herd
 biological organization, helps us to study                 (Fig. 2). This is called a population. Others come
 and understand living things and their                     together only for reproduction. Organisms also
 environment.                                               come in contact with many other species in
                                                            addition to their own. For example, humans
 There are many types of living things
                                                            interact with other people as well as their pets, all
     About two million different types of                   the plants and animals they eat, and the many
 organisms have been named. Millions more                   organisms (mostly bacteria) that live on the inside
 (mostly microscopic organisms) have yet to                 and outside of our bodies. Many types of
 be discovered and described.                               interacting organisms are called a community.
 All life is cellular
     Each living thing, as small as a
 bacterium or as big as an elephant, is made
 of increasingly smaller parts. The basic unit
 of all living things is the cell (Fig.1). Cells
 have all the characteristics that define life.
 Some organisms are as small as a single cell.
 One of us is made of some 80 trillion cells.
                                                                Figure 2 – Herd of zebra

                                                            Organisms interact with the physical
                                                            environment
                                                                Living things interact with the non-living
                                                            or abiotic part of the world too. The soil or
                                                            rock that plants grow in, the air we breathe,
                                                            and the water all living things require are part
                                                            of the physical environment that make up an
                                                            ecosystem (Fig. 3).
Figure 1 – Plant cell under the microscope.                      In this section we will explore each of
                                                            these levels of biological organization and
     Cells in turn are made up of even smaller              their characteristics.
 functional units called organelles. And these
 in turn are made up of molecules and atoms
 that function together in specific ways.
     Cells also form groups in multicellular
 organisms that have specific functions such
 as your heart which is an organ in your
 circulatory system.




 DC – CB/ST                                   Chapter 2-1       Figure 3 – Cactus in their physical
                                                                                                  9/15/2009
                                                                environment of rock and air.
                                                 BIOSPHERE
                                                      ↓
                                                                                Biosphere               BIOSPHERE
                                                                                                               ↓

                Chapter 2:                         BIOME
                                                      ↓
                                                                                                            BIOME
                                                                                                               ↓
                                                ECOSYSTEM                •The regions of the earth’s    ECOSYSTEM

                 Levels of                            ↓
                                                COMMUNITY
                                                      ↓
                                                                           surface, atmosphere,
                                                                                                               ↓
                                                                                                        COMMUNITY
                                                                                                               ↓
                                                POPULATION               water, soil and rock where     POPULATION
          Biological Organization                     ↓
                                                 ORGANISM
                                                      ↓
                                                                            living things can exist
                                                                                                               ↓
                                                                                                         ORGANISM
                                                                                                               ↓
                                               ORGAN SYSTEM                                            ORGAN SYSTEM
                                                      ↓                                                        ↓
         •Life’s complexity can be broken          ORGAN                  Example:
                                                                          E    l                           ORGAN
                                                      ↓                                                        ↓
          down into levels of organization         TISSUE
                                                      ↓
                                                                                                            TISSUE
                                                                                                               ↓
                                                    CELL                  1.                                 CELL
                                                      ↓                                                        ↓
                                                ORGANELLE                                                ORGANELLE
                                                      ↓                                                        ↓
                                                 MOLECULE
                                                      ↓
                                                                          2.                             MOLECULE
                                                                                                               ↓
                                                    ATOM                                                    ATOM
                                                      ↓                                                        ↓

                              Bio 100
                                                SUBATOMIC
                                                 PARTICLES
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                                                                          3.            Bio 100
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                                                                                                          PARTICLES
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                        Biome                    BIOSPHERE
                                                      ↓                        Ecosystem                 BIOSPHERE
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                  BIOME                                                   BIOME
             A broad region characterized             ↓
                                                ECOSYSTEM
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                                                                       ECOSYSTEM
                 by vegetation types.                 ↓                 A group of populations                ↓
                                                COMMUNITY                                               COMMUNITY
                                                      ↓              interacting with each other              ↓
                                                POPULATION                                              POPULATION
                                                      ↓             and the physical part of the              ↓
                       shaped by:                ORGANISM
                                                      ↓             environment where they live.
                                                                                                         ORGANISM
                                                                                                              ↓
                                               ORGAN SYSTEM                                            ORGAN SYSTEM
                 climate and topography               ↓
                                                   ORGAN
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                                                                           ORGAN
                                                      ↓                                                       ↓

                                                                    Example:
                                                   TISSUE                                                  TISSUE
                                                      ↓                                                       ↓
                                                    CELL                                                    CELL
                 Example:                             ↓                                                       ↓
                                                ORGANELLE                                               ORGANELLE
                                                      ↓             1.                                        ↓
                                                 MOLECULE                                                MOLECULE
                 1.                                   ↓                                                       ↓
                                                    ATOM                                                    ATOM
                                                      ↓             2.                                        ↓
                                                SUBATOMIC                                               SUBATOMIC
                 2.           Bio 100            PARTICLES
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                      Community                     BIOSPHERE
                                                         ↓
                                                      BIOME
                                                                               Population                BIOSPHERE
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                                                                           BIOME
                                                         ↓                                                    ↓
                                                   ECOSYSTEM                                            ECOSYSTEM
                                                         ↓                                                    ↓
               A group of interacting             COMMUNITY
                                                         ↓                  Group of individuals
                                                                                                        COMMUNITY
                                                                                                              ↓
            populations of different species       POPULATION
                                                         ↓               of the same kind (species)
                                                                                                       POPULATION
                                                                                                              ↓
             which inhabit a given area.            ORGANISM
                                                         ↓                  occupying an area.
                                                                                                         ORGANISM
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                  ORGAN SYSTEM                                         ORGAN SYSTEM
                                                         ↓                                                    ↓
                                                      ORGAN                                                ORGAN
                                                         ↓                                                    ↓

            Example:                                                     Example:
                                                      TISSUE                                               TISSUE
                                                         ↓                                                    ↓
                                                       CELL                                                 CELL
                                                         ↓                                                    ↓
                                                   ORGANELLE                                            ORGANELLE
            1.                                           ↓               1.                                   ↓
                                                    MOLECULE                                             MOLECULE
                                                         ↓                                                    ↓
                                                       ATOM                                                 ATOM
            2.                                           ↓               2.                                   ↓
                                               SUBATOMIC PARTICLE                                       SUBATOMIC
                              Bio 100                    5                              Bio 100          PARTICLES
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Bio 100, Chapter 2                                                                                                    1
                      Organism                       BIOSPHERE
                                                          ↓
                                                       BIOME
                                                                            Organ System                 BIOSPHERE
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                                                                           BIOME
                                                          ↓                                                   ↓
                                                    ECOSYSTEM                                           ECOSYSTEM
               An individual of any species               ↓                                                   ↓

                                                                      A group of organs whose
                                                    COMMUNITY                                           COMMUNITY
                   that carries out all life              ↓                                                   ↓

                                                                  separate functions work together
                                                    POPULATION                                          POPULATION
                  functions; they can be                  ↓                                                   ↓

                                                                     to perform a specific task.
                                                    ORGANISM                                            ORGANISM
               single-celled or multicellular             ↓                                                   ↓
                                                   ORGAN SYSTEM                                       ORGAN SYSTEM
                                                          ↓                                                   ↓
                                                       ORGAN                                               ORGAN
                                                          ↓                                                   ↓

         Example:                                                 Example:
                                                       TISSUE                                              TISSUE
                                                          ↓                                                   ↓
                                                        CELL                                                CELL
                                                          ↓                                                   ↓
                                                    ORGANELLE                                           ORGANELLE
         1. Multicellular:                                ↓       1.                                          ↓
                                                     MOLECULE                                            MOLECULE
                                                          ↓                                                   ↓
                                                        ATOM                                                ATOM
         2. Single-celled:                                ↓       2.                                          ↓
                                                    SUBATOMIC                                           SUBATOMIC
                                 Bio 100             PARTICLES
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                         Organ                       BIOSPHERE
                                                          ↓
                                                       BIOME
                                                                                  Tissue
                                                                                                        BIOSPHERE
                                                                                                             ↓
                                                                                                          BIOME
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓
                                                    ECOSYSTEM                                          ECOSYSTEM

                   A body part usually
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓
                                                    COMMUNITY          A group of cells of one type    COMMUNITY

               composed of several tissues                ↓
                                                    POPULATION         that function together in a
                                                                                                             ↓
                                                                                                       POPULATION

               grouped together that carry
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓
                                                     ORGANISM              specialized activity.        ORGANISM

                   out a specific task.
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓
                                                   ORGAN SYSTEM                                       ORGAN SYSTEM
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓
                                                      ORGAN                                              ORGAN
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓

               Example:                                                Example:
                                                       TISSUE                                            TISSUE
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓
                                                        CELL                                               CELL
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓
                                                    ORGANELLE                                          ORGANELLE
               1.                                         ↓            1.                                    ↓
                                                     MOLECULE                                           MOLECULE
                                                          ↓                                                  ↓
                                                       ATOM                                                ATOM
               2.                                         ↓            2.                                    ↓
                                                    SUBATOMIC                                          SUBATOMIC
                                 Bio 100             PARTICLES
                                                            9                          Bio 100          PARTICLES
                                                                                                               10




                                                     BIOSPHERE                                              BIOSPHERE

                          Cell                            ↓
                                                       BIOME
                                                                             Organelle                           ↓
                                                                                                              BIOME
                                                          ↓                                                      ↓
                                                    ECOSYSTEM                                              ECOSYSTEM
                                                                                                                 ↓
         The smallest unit of living things that
                                                          ↓
                                                    COMMUNITY       A well-defined part of a cell,         COMMUNITY
                                                                                                                 ↓
          carries out the basic functions of              ↓
                                                    POPULATION    often bounded by a membrane,             POPULATION
                                                                                                                 ↓
             life, consisting of cytoplasm
                                                          ↓
                                                     ORGANISM       that carry out a specific task.         ORGANISM
                                                                                                                 ↓
            surrounded by a membrane.
                                                          ↓
                                                   ORGAN SYSTEM                                           ORGAN SYSTEM
                                                          ↓                                                      ↓
                                                       ORGAN                                                  ORGAN
                                                          ↓                                                      ↓
                                                                                                              TISSUE
          Example:                                                Example:
                                                       TISSUE
                                                          ↓                                                      ↓
                                                       CELL                                                   CELL
                                                          ↓                                                      ↓
                                                    ORGANELLE                                             ORGANELLE
          1.                                              ↓       1.                                             ↓
                                                                                                         MACROMOLECUL
                                                     MOLECULE
                                                          ↓                                                      ↓
                                                        ATOM                                                MOLECULE
          2.                                              ↓       2.                                             ↓
                                                                                                               ATOM
                                                    SUBATOMIC
                                                     PARTICLES                                                   ↓
                                 Bio 100                    11                         Bio 100               12
                                                                                                           SUBATOMIC
                                                                                                            PARTICLES




Bio 100, Chapter 2                                                                                                       2
                                                                                                          BIOSPHERE
                                                BIOSPHERE                                                      ↓
                 Macromolecule                       ↓
                                                  BIOME
                                                                         Molecule                           BIOME
                                                                                                               ↓
                                                     ↓                                                   ECOSYSTEM
                                               ECOSYSTEM                                                       ↓
                                                                                                         COMMUNITY
              A very large molecule
                                                     ↓
                                               COMMUNITY           Two or more atoms joined                    ↓
                                                                                                         POPULATION
               consisting of many                    ↓
                                               POPULATION        together by chemical bonds.                   ↓
                                                                                                          ORGANISM
           repeating smaller molecules.
                                                     ↓
                                                ORGANISM                                                       ↓
                                                     ↓                                                  ORGAN SYSTEM
                                              ORGAN SYSTEM                                                     ↓
                                                     ↓                                                      ORGAN
                                                  ORGAN                                                        ↓
                                                     ↓                                                      TISSUE
                                                                                                               ↓
            Example:                                             Example:
                                                  TISSUE
                                                     ↓                                                       CELL
                                                   CELL                                                        ↓
                                                     ↓                                                    ORGANELLE
                                               ORGANELLE                                                       ↓
            1.                                       ↓           1.                                    MACROMOLECULE
                                            MACROMOLECUL                                                      ↓
                                                     ↓                                                   MOLECULE
                                                MOLECULE                                                       ↓
            2.                                       ↓           2.                                          ATOM
                                                                                                               ↓
                                                   ATOM
                               Bio 100               ↓
                                                    13                             Bio 100           SUBATOMIC PARTICLE
                                                                                                              14
                                           SUBATOMIC PARTICLE




                                                                                                         BIOSPHERE
                                                BIOSPHERE                                                     ↓
                     Atom                            ↓
                                                  BIOME
                                                                                                           BIOME
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                     ↓                                                  ECOSYSTEM
                                               ECOSYSTEM
                                                     ↓
                                                                  Subatomic Particles                         ↓
                                                                                                        COMMUNITY
            The smallest unit of matter,       COMMUNITY
                                                     ↓
                                                                                                              ↓

             characterized by certain          POPULATION       the small units making up an atom.      POPULATION
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                     ↓                                                   ORGANISM
                   properties.                  ORGANISM
                                                     ↓
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                                                                       ORGAN SYSTEM
                                              ORGAN SYSTEM                                                    ↓
                                                     ↓
                                                  ORGAN              p
                                                                 Example:                                  ORGAN
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                     ↓                                                     TISSUE
                                                  TISSUE                                                      ↓
            Example:
                                                     ↓
                                                   CELL          1.                                         CELL
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                     ↓                                                  ORGANELLE
                                               ORGANELLE                                                      ↓
                                                                 2.
                                                     ↓
            1.                               MACROMOLECULE
                                                                                                      MACROMOLECULE
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                     ↓                                                   MOLECULE
                                                MOLECULE                                                      ↓
                                                     ↓
            2.                                   ATOM           3.                                         ATOM
                                                                                                              ↓
                                                     ↓                                                 SUBATOMIC
                               Bio 100     SUBATOMIC PARTICLE
                                                    15                             Bio 100                   16
                                                                                                         PARTICLES




Bio 100, Chapter 2                                                                                                        3

				
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