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MV Modeling

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 40

									MV Modeling

 If the unit operations work (as advertised), does the process
 make money?

 How do project conditions, design criteria, and costs for raw
 material and energy impact operating costs?
MV Modeling

 If the unit operations work (as advertised), does the process
 make money?

 How do project conditions, design criteria, and costs for raw
 material and energy impact operating costs?

 CONSERVATION OF MASS AND ENERGY IMPORTANT
MV Modeling of Carbothermal Mg

 Model is Applied to Magnesium Technology Limited (MTL)
 version of Carbothermal Magnesium Production

 Introduction to That Technology

 MV Modeling Methodology

 Preliminary Results
MV Modeling of Carbothermal Mg
 Work financed in part by Safe Hydrogen, Inc
 the practical route to the Hydrogen Economy
  www.safehydrogen.com.

 This research was supported, in part, by the U.S.
 Department of Energy.

 (Award Number DE-FC36-04GO14011).

 This support does not constitute and endorsement
 by DOE of the views expressed in the report
MV Modeling of Carbothermal Mg
 Safe Hydrogen has demonstrated vehicles powered
 by oil-slurry metal hydrides, see www.safehydrogen.com
            MgH2 + H2O  MgO + 2H2

 For an oil slurry of MgH2 to be the fuel of the future,
 lower cost magnesium from a Western Source is
 needed.

 Safe Hydrogen wanted MV’s opinion on what would
 be the lowest cost method of making magnesium in
 the Western World … answer carbothermal
 magnesium.
MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium

Endothermic reaction ….


                  MgO + C  Mg + CO
Carried out in electric arc furnace, or similar, at 1850 oC
… known technology.
MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium

Achilles heal …. Reverse reaction upon cooling gases from
furnace …

                  Mg + CO  MgO + C
Many schemes to cool Mg and CO rapidly, most famous
was the Permanente Plant that mixed gases with large
quantities of natural gas.
  MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium
Slight positive
                                                     Vacuum
pressure


 Mg (g) + CO                                        Mg(l) or
                                                     Mg(s) and
   Hot
                                                     CO
                                                     Cooler



    Adiabatic Expansion through a lavalle nozzle …
  MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium
Slight positive
                                                         Vacuum
pressure


 Mg (g) + CO                                             Mg(l) or
                                                          Mg(s) and
                                                          CO




    Supersonic velocities, cooling in a fraction of a second ….
  MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium
Slight positive
                                                        Vacuum
pressure


 Mg (g) + CO                                            Mg(l) or
                                                         Mg(s) and
                                                         CO




    Delta pressure determines the amount of cooling that occurs.
  MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium
Slight positive
                                                        Vacuum
pressure


 Mg (g) + CO                                            Mg(l) or
                                                         Mg(s) and
                                                         CO




    Mathematically well defined, used in many industrial applications.
  MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium
Slight positive
                                                      Vacuum
pressure


 Mg (g) + CO                                          Mg(l) or
                                                       Mg(s) and
                                                       CO




SiC or Graphite or Ceramic Material of Choice for High Temperatures
MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium


Solid magnesium produced on lab scale, very high efficiency
approaching 100%.
MTL’s Carbothermal Magnesium
The lab scale reactor without the SiO condenser produced
magnesium metal containing about 700 ppm silicon and 50 ppm
iron. The bench scale reactor with the condenser produced
magnesium metal with the following average impurities (ppm):
Al 110                Ca    21                 Zn 35
P    15               Mn 77                    Na 150
Si   80*              Fe 15                    K   240
Ni < 5 ppm
* Results for Si was only shown for one run.
Meets 9980A ASTM B92M-83 but not 9990A or higher.
MV Model
  Uses Excel Interface
 Visual Basic for Applications (open source code*)
 Subroutine for each unit Operation
 Download from www.metallurgicalviability.com


 *Some confidential information removed from Model
PFD’s for Process
  Calcining Process Flow Diagram
 Furnace PFD
 Utilities PFD
Calcining PFD
Furnace PFD
Utilities PFD
Program
Flowsheet
Flowsheet
Part II
Design
Criteria
Design
Criteria
Raw
Material
Analysis
Raw
Material
Analysis
Costs
Prices
Example
Code
Example
subroutine
MB Check
     Stream                 71                   72                  73                  74                  75              76



                       MgO                 Recycle              Dust to            Feed to             CO after        Steam to
      Name
                      Product               Dust               Disposal            Blender              HX              Ejctrs


   Mass (mtpy)          101,316                 912                 101              152,512             72,761         970,027
     %solids                100                 100                 100                   97                  0               -
     Temp C                 600                 600                 600                   28                 90             167
Pressure (atm-abs)            1   wt.%            1   wt.%            1   wt.%             1   wt.%           0               9

    Elements                                                   ELEMENT                                ELEMENT          ELEMEN
                     ELEMENTS             ELEMENTS                                ELEMENTS
                                                                  S                                      S                TS
      Code                    -                   -                   -                    -                  -                -
       Al                    10       0           0        0          0       0           10      0           0    0           0
        B                     0       0           0        0          0       0            0      0           0    0           0
        C                     0       0           0        0          0       0        2,533      2      30,236   41           0
       Ca                     1       0           0        0          0       0            1      0          60    0           0
       Cl                     0       0           0        0          0       0            0      0         418    1           0
       Cr
       Cu
        F
       Fe
                              0
                              4
                              0
                             31
                                      0
                                      0
                                      0
                                      0
                                                  0
                                                  0
                                                  0
                                                  0
                                                           0
                                                           0
                                                           0
                                                           0
                                                                      0
                                                                      0
                                                                      0
                                                                      0
                                                                              0
                                                                              0
                                                                              0
                                                                              0
                                                                                  Elemental MB
                                                                                           0
                                                                                           4
                                                                                           0
                                                                                           0
                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                              4
                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                               0
        H                     0       0           0        0          0       0        5,746      4         741    1     108,537
        K                     0       0           0        0          0       0            0      0           0    0           0
       Mg                60,696      60         546      60          61      60       61,309     40         155    0           0
       Mn                    32       0           0        0          0       0           33      0           0    0           0
        N                     0       0           -       -           -       -            -      -         408    1           0
       Na                     0       0           0        0          0       0            0      0         147    0           0
       Ni                     1       0           0        0          0       0            1      0           0    0           0
        O                40,522      40         365      40          41      40       82,814     54      40,424   55     861,490
        P                     3       0           0        0          0       0            3      0           0    0           0
       Pb                     6       0           0        0          0       0            7      0           0    0           0
        S                     0       0           0        0          0       0            0      0          37    0           0
       Si                     7       0           0        0          0       0            7      0         252    0           0
       Sn                     1       0           0        0          0       0            1      0           0    0           0
       Ti                     0       0           0        0          0       0            0      0           0    0           0
       Zn                    10       0           0        0          0       0           10      0           0    0           0
      Other                   -       -           -       -           -       -            -      -           -    -           -
     TOTAL              101,325                 912                 101              152,480             72,882          970,027
     SOLIDS           SOLIDS               SOLIDS               SOLIDS             SOLIDS              SOLIDS           SOLIDS
Stream              51                 52                 53                54

                 TTL O2               O2 to               Coke            CO from
Name             Supply             Coke Prhtr           Supply           Coke Htr
Mass (mtpy)      56,387               4,988              36,412            8,730
%solids
Temp C               25                 25                25                610
Pressure (atm-abs)   1      wt. %        1       wt. %     1      wt. %      3       wt. %
GASES              GASES     0.0     GASES               GASES     100    GASES      100.0
CH4 (methane)        0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
CO                   0       0.0         0        0.0                      8,730     100.0
CO2                  0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
H2O(gas)             0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
Mg (g)               0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
Mn(g)                0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
N2                  514      0.9         0        0.0                        0        0.0
O2                 55,873   99.1      4,988      100.0                       0        0.0
P(g)                 0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
Pb (g)
SiO (g)
                     0
                     0
                             0.0
                             0.0
                                         0
                                         0
                                                  0.0
                                                  0.0             MB         0
                                                                             0
                                                                                      0.0
                                                                                      0.0
Sn (g)               0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
SO2(g)               0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
Zn (g)               0       0.0         0        0.0                        0        0.0
Heat
Balance
$
Income
Statement
Impact of Costs - Example Energy
                                                    Impact of Energy Costs



                            0.7
Operating Cost $/lb of Mg




                            0.6

                                                                                      $20/tonne coke
                            0.5                                                       $80/tonne coke



                            0.4


                            0.3
                               0.02   0.03   0.04      0.05     0.06    0.07   0.08
                                              Cost of Power $/kwh
Example -Design Criteria impact
                                                      Vacuum Pressure

                            $1.10

                            $1.00
Operating Cost $/lb of Mg




                            $0.90

                            $0.80
                                                                                          0.09 atm
                            $0.70                                                         0.05 atm
                            $0.60                                                         0.03 atm

                            $0.50

                            $0.40

                            $0.30
                                 0.02   0.03   0.04      0.05        0.06   0.07   0.08
                                                  Power Cost $/kwh
Preliminary Lessons Learned
from MV Model
•Cool gases (CO) before pulling the vacuum.
•Process very competitive if magnesium can be condensed and
collected in the liquid phase from the nozzle.
•Two stage steam ejectors are cost effective for collecting
magnesium in the liquid phase.
•Two stage steam ejectors are not cost effective for collecting
magnesium in the solid phase.
•Costs for producing adequate vacuum to collect magnesium in
the liquid phase not yet determined (will probably involved
mechanical pumps and/or condensers between stages).
Preliminary Lessons Learned
from MV Model

•Process sensitive to power costs, less so to coke, methane, and
oxygen.
• With oxygen at $0.06 per NCM, burning coke to make CO to
make steam to drive the ejectors is not cost effective.
•More work needed on impurity distribution.
MV Modeling

 If the unit operations work (as advertised), does the process
 make money?

 How do project conditions, design criteria, and costs for raw
 material and energy impact operating costs?

								
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