A Guide to Oratory by 4B75f1


									A Guide to Oratory
                 Speech Making
Overview of the five stages of speech making:

•   inventio – coming up with ideas
•   dispositio – arranging the ideas
•   elocutio – the use of words appropriate to the ideas
•   memoria – learning the words and ideas by heart
•   pronuntiatio - using body and voice to effectively
    convey the speech
                 Speech Making
Structuring the speech:
• exordium – a speech preparing the listener for what is
  to come
• narratio – recounting the deeds done
• partitio – the division into topics
• confirmatio – the part of the speech which adds
  plausibility, authority and confirmation
• reprehensio - the refutation of the opponent’s
• conclusio – drawing threads together, rousing hatred,
  making a complaint
         Some stylistic features
asyndeton – lack of conjunctions
In Verrem II.1.56
  ‘Olympum vi, copiis, consilio, virtute cepit’

  The asyndeton here serves to suggest an
  exhaustive list of Servilius’ qualities and
  resources, as opposed to Verres
        Some stylistic features
hyperbole – exaggeration
In Verrem II.1.53
  ‘Aspendum vetus oppidum et nobile in
  Pamphylia scitis esse, plenissimum signorum

 The description of the town’s excellent
 qualities is exaggerated to make the impact of
 Verres’ crimes all the more severe.
         Some stylistic features
tricolon – delivering ideas in threes
In Verrem II.1.55
  ‘pulcherrimam atque ornatissimam,
  Corinthum, plenissimam rerum omnium’

  Notice the tricolon of superlatives which
  signify what a great haul of treasure
  Mummius carried off from Corinth and
  subsequently bestowed on Rome
         Some stylistic features
exclamatio – an exclamation
In Verrem II.1.54
  ‘quae, malum, est ista tanta audacia atque

  Cicero’s exclamation at the mindlessness of
  the act is designed to display moral outrage.
         Some stylistic features
argument by precedent
In Verrem II.1.55

  The entirety of chapter 55 lists a series of
  former generals who gave their spoils to the
  city of Rome rather than hording them at
         Some stylistic features
pleonasm – the use of superfluous words
In Verrem II.1.57

  ‘tu quae ex fanis religiosissimis per scelus et
  latrocinium abstulisti’

  Robbery is a crime or wicked act, hence scelus
  here is essentially superfluous and is added by
  Cicero to emphasise Verres’ character
         Some stylistic features
praeteritio - saying you will not mention something
and in so doing mentioning it
In Verrem II.1.62

 ‘sed ego omnia quae negari poterunt praetermittam’

 Cicero has just alleged several acts of bad behaviour,
 only to say that he will pass over these things which
 can be denied
          Some stylistic features
polysyndeton – use of many conjunctions
In Verrem II.1.66

  ‘homo, qui et summa gravitate et iam id aetatis
  et parens esset, obstipuit’

  The list of Philodamus’ defining characteristics in
  polysyndeton serves to comprehensively
  demonstrate why Rubrius request is so offensive
         Some stylistic features
These specific literary devices as well as a host
of other rhetorically effective turns of phrase,
choices of vocabulary and rhetorical
commonplaces can be found throughout the
Credit will be given for use of the technical
vocabulary but only when you can explain its
effect. This is the most important skill.

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