Africa � North and West by hxtMEE65

VIEWS: 23 PAGES: 14

									Africa – North and West
Chapter 15, Sections 1 & 2
    Section 1- North and Central African
    Societies
   1. What are some characteristics of a hunting-
    gathering society?
       Small Groups
       Somewhat nomadic – their food is not necessarily in the
        same place at all times
       Few possessions, shelters tend to be temporary and
        limited
       Rely on hunting and gathering for survival
       They have some weapons – they are all designed to help
        the group survive.
Section 1- North and Central African
Societies
   2. Why are written laws not necessary in these
    societies?
       Each band or family makes its own rules
       Arguments are settled through long discussions
       Group members can leave if they don’t like it
       Sharing is the norm – especially when talking
        about possessions and food
    Section 1- North and Central African
    Societies
   3. What are some characteristics of a stateless
    society?
       Society divided into lineages – group traces its
        collective ancestry to a common ancestor
       Authority is balanced among the various lineages –
        families. No single group holds a majority of power.
       Operate through sharing of ideas and possessions, and
        cooperation is how they assume that society will
        operate.
Section 1- North and Central African
Societies
   4. What are some advantages of an age-set
    system?
       Each member can help others to pass through the
        various stages of life – they can also help each
        other obtain the specific individual benchmarks
        of each stage.
       Teach discipline, community service, and
        leadership all together
    Section 1- North and Central African
    Societies
   5. What are some characteristics of a Muslim
    theocracy?
       Islamic (Sharia) law is the basis of the legal code
           Everyone, at least to some level, agrees that the basis of the
            Qu’ran is valid
       Religious leaders function as governmental advisors
       Islamic law regulates most areas of human life
           See page 258
Section 1- North and Central African
Societies
   6. How did Muslim law affect individual
    Islamic states?
       Maintained many of their individual national
        characteristics
       Made the laws of the various countries
        compatible – thereby increasing travel and trade
       Helped the region unify and become prosperous
Section 2: West African Empires and
Civilizations
Causes                               Effect

1. Berbers discovered that camels    New trade routes
cover greater distances than other   cris-crossed the
pack animals and could travel up     Sahara and other dry
to ten days without water.           areas of Africa,
                                     spreading both trade
                                     and culture
Section 2: West African Empires and
Civilizations
Causes                               Effects

2. The Muslim Almoravids             Ghana ceased to be a
disrupted the gold-salt trade that   major player in the
Ghana had controlled.                gold-salt trade. The
                                     wealth that had been
                                     there disappeared,
                                     and Ghana lost its
                                     empire.
Section 2: West African Empires and
Civilizations
Causes                               Effects


3. Ghana was a weak nation,          The people of Mali,
allowing the people to seek wealth   who lived in the
and power in new ways, in new        region of the new
places. These new miners found       trade routes, were
gold farther east, allowing the      able to seize power.
people of Mali to dominate the
gold trade and assume power.
Section 2: West African Empires and
Civilizations
Causes                             Effects

4. After a period of prosperity, a   The empire of Mali
series of weak leaders destroyed     weakened.
its political leadership. New gold
fields were discovered farther east,
causing the trade routes to move
again, bypassing Mali.
Section 2: West African Empires and
Civilizations
Causes                            Effects


5. The people of Morocco had      Moroccan troops
better weapons: Gunpowder and     quickly defeated the
cannons were used to destroy      Songhai warriors.
Songhai and capture its wealth.
Section 2: West African Empires and
Civilizations
Causes                           Effects


6. The city-states of Kano and   These “Hausa”
Katsina were located along the   states briefly
route that linked other West     became powerful
African states with the          and wealthy. They
Mediterranean.                   became wealthy by
                                 supplying the needs
                                 of the trading
                                 caravans.
Section 2: West African Empires and
Civilizations
Causes                          Effects

7. The largest Yoruba kingdoms The city-dwellers
produced surplus food, which   became traders and
was sent to the cities.        craftspeople. They
                               specialized in bronze,
                               wood, terracotta,
                               brass, copper, and
                               ivory.

								
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