Africa – North and West Chapter 15, Sections 1 & 2 Section 1- North and Central African Societies 1. What are some characteristics of a hunting- gathering society? Small Groups Somewhat nomadic – their food is not necessarily in the same place at all times Few possessions, shelters tend to be temporary and limited Rely on hunting and gathering for survival They have some weapons – they are all designed to help the group survive. Section 1- North and Central African Societies 2. Why are written laws not necessary in these societies? Each band or family makes its own rules Arguments are settled through long discussions Group members can leave if they don’t like it Sharing is the norm – especially when talking about possessions and food Section 1- North and Central African Societies 3. What are some characteristics of a stateless society? Society divided into lineages – group traces its collective ancestry to a common ancestor Authority is balanced among the various lineages – families. No single group holds a majority of power. Operate through sharing of ideas and possessions, and cooperation is how they assume that society will operate. Section 1- North and Central African Societies 4. What are some advantages of an age-set system? Each member can help others to pass through the various stages of life – they can also help each other obtain the specific individual benchmarks of each stage. Teach discipline, community service, and leadership all together Section 1- North and Central African Societies 5. What are some characteristics of a Muslim theocracy? Islamic (Sharia) law is the basis of the legal code Everyone, at least to some level, agrees that the basis of the Qu’ran is valid Religious leaders function as governmental advisors Islamic law regulates most areas of human life See page 258 Section 1- North and Central African Societies 6. How did Muslim law affect individual Islamic states? Maintained many of their individual national characteristics Made the laws of the various countries compatible – thereby increasing travel and trade Helped the region unify and become prosperous Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations Causes Effect 1. Berbers discovered that camels New trade routes cover greater distances than other cris-crossed the pack animals and could travel up Sahara and other dry to ten days without water. areas of Africa, spreading both trade and culture Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations Causes Effects 2. The Muslim Almoravids Ghana ceased to be a disrupted the gold-salt trade that major player in the Ghana had controlled. gold-salt trade. The wealth that had been there disappeared, and Ghana lost its empire. Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations Causes Effects 3. Ghana was a weak nation, The people of Mali, allowing the people to seek wealth who lived in the and power in new ways, in new region of the new places. These new miners found trade routes, were gold farther east, allowing the able to seize power. people of Mali to dominate the gold trade and assume power. Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations Causes Effects 4. After a period of prosperity, a The empire of Mali series of weak leaders destroyed weakened. its political leadership. New gold fields were discovered farther east, causing the trade routes to move again, bypassing Mali. Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations Causes Effects 5. The people of Morocco had Moroccan troops better weapons: Gunpowder and quickly defeated the cannons were used to destroy Songhai warriors. Songhai and capture its wealth. Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations Causes Effects 6. The city-states of Kano and These “Hausa” Katsina were located along the states briefly route that linked other West became powerful African states with the and wealthy. They Mediterranean. became wealthy by supplying the needs of the trading caravans. Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations Causes Effects 7. The largest Yoruba kingdoms The city-dwellers produced surplus food, which became traders and was sent to the cities. craftspeople. They specialized in bronze, wood, terracotta, brass, copper, and ivory.
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