benson by panniuniu

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									 Combining Electric Power Generation
   and Water Quality Enhancement
                  to
Grow the Southwest Missouri Economy
             Verel W. Benson
             D. Todd Farrand

       Agriculture as a Producer and
           Consumer of Energy
      June 24-25, 2004 Arlington, VA
Current Energy Reserves and
Consumption
                                                                   Natural
                                     Coal        Petroleum          Gas
                                   (million       (billion         (trillion
                                  short tons)     barrels)          cu.ft.)


       Reserves January 1, 2003      273,656                 23          187

     Conversions to quadrillion
     Btu                               0.025                 5.8               1
     Reserves January 1, 2003
     (quadrillion Btu)                 6,841             132               187

     Consumption 2003
     (quadrilion Btu)                       23               39                22


     Years of supply                    300                   3                8
                            Trillions of BTU's




                  0
                      100
                             200
                                   300
                                         400
                                               500
                                                     600
                                                                  700

     Field
   Operations


Transportation



     Irrigation



     Livestock



  Crop Drying



         Misc.
                                                                                         US Agricultural Energy Use in 1974
                                                           A Little Energy Use History




     Fertilizer



    Pesticides
Objectives

   estimate the poultry litter produced
   estimate the amount of litter safely
       recycled as fertilizer
   determine the feasibility of generating
       power from biomass
   estimate the likely economic and
       environmental impacts
  Balancing Phosphorus Needs and Sources
            For Crop Production
                               Potential Phosphorus Available from Confined Animal Manures
                                                                                            Manure P (tons)
                                                                                                0 - 250
                                                                                                250 - 500
                                                                                                500 - 1000
                                                                                                1000 - 2500
                                                                                                > 2500



Phosphorus in Harvested CropsCrop P (tons)                                                           Commercial Phosphorus Sold
                                         0 - 250                                                                                   Commercial P (tons)
                                                                                                                                       0 - 250
                                         250 - 500                                                                                     250 - 500
                                         500 - 1000                                                                                    500 - 1000
                                         1000 - 2500                                                                                   1000 - 2500
                                         > 2500                                                                                        > 2500




                                                       Source: 1997 Census of Agriculture


    Source: 1997 Census of Agriculture                                                                        Source: MU Agricultural
                                                                                                                Experiment Station
Litter Supply - Purdy



                                           #




          #




                          #   Purdy
                              50-mi Transport Zones
                        Poultry Litter Supply (T/sq mi)
                                 0
                                 1 - 50
                               51 - 100
                              101 - 200
                                > 200
    Poultry Byproducts
    Field Demonstrations
Litter                          Litter
Hauling                         Spreading




                  Nutrient Testing
Second Litter Demonstration


 Litter Demonstration Area


                                           Dale Norwood
                                               Farm


                                                           First Litter
                                                          Demonstration




                     Lamar about 5 miles
Demonstration Harvesting
                                        Lbs/Acre

                                                                                              Bushels/acre




                                   0
                                  50
                                 100
                                 150
                                 200
                                 250
                                 300
                                 350
                                 400




                                  0.0
                                 10.0
                                         20.0
                                         30.0
                                                                                         40.0
                                                                                         50.0
                                                                                                                   60.0
                                                                                                                   70.0
                                                                                                                                                   80.0
                                                                                                                                                   90.0
                                                                                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                                                                                          110.0
                                                                                                                                                                      120.0
                       Broiler
                       Litter
           Fresh Broiler
                   Value-
               Litter
         Added
         Litter
         Value-
         Added
 Honey Crest
         Litter
Farms Pelleted
         Value-
   Microbial
         Added
         Litter
                  EM Turkey
 Turkey Litter
        Litter
 with Effective
Microorganisms
                  EM Turkey
                    Litter




 Type of Litter
 Turkey Litter
     EM Turkey
 with Effective
        Litter
Microorganisms
                       Layer
                      Manure

       Layer
 MOARK Layer
   Manure
      Manure

                  Commercial
                                          Poultry Litter N-P-K Applications by Strip




                   Fertilizer
                                                                                       N


                                        K2O
                                                                 P2O5
                                                                                                                              Corn Yield (bu/ac)
                                                                                                      Soybean Yield (bu/ac)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Demonstration Yield Comparison

                                                                                                                                                                 Corn Year 1




                                                                                Soybeans Year 2
                                                                              Commercial Fertilizer
                                                                                                                                                              Commercial Fertilizer
Second Litter Demonstration
                 Commercial Fertilizer
                 Organic-Gro Pearlized litter
                 Treated Litter Pellets
                 Thermal Depolymerization
                  Fertilizer Byproduct
Potential Energy from Biomass

     Burn poultry litter
      • On farm furnace to heat houses
      • Power plant
         • Co-fire with coal
         • Co-fire with wood byproducts
     Thermal Conversion Process
      (Depolymerization)
Heating

with
Poultry Litter
   Poultry House Heating can be a
   Complex Issue
                  Energy Loss from
                    Roof & Walls        85°F Air holds
                                        twice as much
            Recommendation
                 Early 1970’s the        moisture as
                  recommended              65°F air
              was changed
Ventilation broiler house temperature to
   Loss              was 65°F           Ventilation
                      75-80°F needs cut in half
                                            at 85°F
 Energy is required to evaporate moisture from litter
Poultry Litter Furnace
  Advanced Biomass Carbon, LLC, Owensville, MO
Considerations for
On-farm Litter Burning



 Heating demands are seasonal

 Heating demands concentrated
 in the first two weeks of growth
Producing Energy from

Poultry & Forestry
Byproducts
How Much Poultry Litter would It take
to Fuel a Power Plant?




                       40MW
  150,000 tons                     250,000 tons
Forestry biomass                  poultry litter/year

                   Fibrowatt Option
SW Missouri Growers

produce 250,000 tons
of litter per year
Litter Supply – Springfield Site

                                                       of Poultry
                                                  Tons Springfield Litter
                                                    149,195

                                   #




     #
                                        451,883

                                                                               894,970
                #   Springfield
                    50-mi Transport Zones
              Poultry Litter Supply (T/sq mi)
                       0
                       1 - 50
                     51 - 100                     150 mile    100 mile   50 mile
                    101 - 200
                      > 200
 Arkansas and Virginia
       Studies

Estimate litter hauling costs to be

       10 to 12 cents

           per ton/mile
Estimated Cost per Btu from
Coal & Poultry Litter Springfield, MO



     Poultry Litter by    Tons        Cost per
    Distance from Site   Available    Million Btu
        0-50 miles       150,000       <$1.20
       51-100 miles      450,000     $1.21-$1.80
      101-150 miles      900,000     $1.81-$2.40

          Coal             n/a         $1.43
Thermal Conversion Process
(Depolymerization)

•   Current inputs- offal (bird processing wastes), and dead birds
•   Future inputs- dead animals, poultry litter, and other biological
    byproducts
•   Outputs                                 Carthage Animal Byproduct
     •   Fuel oil                              Processing Plant
     •   Liquid nitrogen fertilizer
     •   Solid organic fertilizer
           •   Phosphorus
           •   Potassium
           •   Calcium
           •   Micronutrients
     •   Water


•    BSE proteins denatured
Economic and Environmental
Impacts


         Consumer impacts
         Farm impacts
         Watershed impacts
         Regional impacts
                                     POULTRY HISTORY
              Prior to
              Vertical                                           Now Chicken
            Integration Farm Level Prices (1982-84=100 CPI)        is in pots,
           180                Vertical                            sandwiches,
           160                Integration                          hot dogs,
           140                                                     sausage,
           120                                                        fried,
cents/lb




           100                                                       baked,
            80                                                       grilled,
            60
                                                                 ???????????
            40
            20
             0
             35
             39
             43
             47
             51
             55
             59
             63
             67
             71
             75
             79
             83
             87
             91
             95
             99
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
           19
  A Chicken                                  Year
 in every pot
                                    Cattle    Hogs     Chicken
meant wealth
                  Source:USDA, ERS
Consumer Savings

                          Farm Level Prices (1982-84=100 CPI)

              180
              160
              140
              120
   cents/lb




              100                   Potential Consumer Savings/lb
               80
               60
               40
               20
                0
                35
                39
                43
                47
                51
                55
                59
                63
                67
                71
                75
                79
                83
                87
                91
                95
                99
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
              19
                                             Year

                                   Cattle     Hogs      Chicken


                    Source:USDA, ERS
Farm Impacts


   Poultry production
    impacts nearby grain
    producers

   Nearby grain producers
    have greatest potential to
    recycle poultry litter
    fertilizer byproducts
Corn Price Effect of
Poultry Feed Demand
Watershed Impacts


        Reduce fecal Coliform
         load

        Reduce phosphorus load

        Biomass production
     Shoal Creek
                                 How
                             Contaminated
                                is it ?

                             Where Does it
                             Come From ?


On 303d List for Fecal Coliform Impairment
Where is Shoal Creek?

                   Shoal Creek
                   WhiteRiver Basin
                   WRB & Border
                      Counties



         N

     W       E

         S
         Model results for Shoal Creek Watershed
Fecal Coliform Load Contributions by
Source
90%
80%      Stream cattle
70%      Sanitary sewage
60%      Grazing cattle
50%      Poultry litter
40%
30%
20%
10%
 0%
      Baseflow    Medium flow     Storm flow       Total
Riparian Buffers
          Buffers trap
           Sediment
          Phosphorus
         Fecal coliform

       Buffers Produce
            Biomass
Potential Biomass Buffers- Springfield Site
               Biomass
                Production
              expected to be
              5-10 tons/acre
                                                            Springfield
                 per year                         Potential Acres of Buffers
                                                  91,387




                                                                                      169,333




                         #    Springfield           140,771
       #
                              50-mi Transport Zones   150-mile   100-mile   50-mile
                        Buffer Density (ac/sq mi)
                               0- 5
                               5 - 10
                              10 - 15
                              15 - 20
                               > 20
Biomass Compressed to Less than
50 % of Original Volume




•Methodology developed by University of Missouri-Columbia
      Capsule Pipeline Research Center to compress coal
•Compressed biomass is easier to transport and store
•Cost is estimated to be $5 to $8 per ton
•Prototype machine for compressing forest byproducts and
       poultry litter will be designed next year with plans to
       construct and test a prototype with the next 2 years
      Develop an Integrated Agroforestry/ Poultry
        Litter Economic Impacts
  Regional Recycling Industry that Produces         of
  Choices
       Renewable Energy and Fertilizer Products
                        $?,??? Million
                          ?,??? jobs

      Loss of                                 Loss of
Recreation Industries                    Poultry Industry
    -$1.4 Billion                          -$1.8 Billion
    -34,000 Jobs         Develop           -16,000 Jobs
                     A Litter Hauling
                    Recycling Industry
                       $15.9 million
                         182 jobs
Thank You

								
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