Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control Project by BiUr4Nvg

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									Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control
Project
         Monitoring and Laboratory Division
                   June 28, 1999




        California Environmental Protection Agency

                  Air Resources Board
Portable Fuel Container Spillage Control
Workshop
   Changes in the Proposed Regulations
   Proposed Test Methods for Spill-Proof Systems
   Draft Refueling Spillage Test Data
   Permeation and Barrier Feasibility Test Data
   Estimated Effectiveness of Spill-Proof Systems
   Population/Activity/Emissions Inventory
   Estimated Price Increases for Spill-Proof Systems
   Regulatory Process
   More Information
Proposed Portable Fuel Container Spillage
Control Regulations
    Proposed Regulations apply to both portable fuel
     containers and spouts
    Section 2472. Performance Standards for Spill-
     Proof Systems and Spill-Proof Spouts
    Section 2472 (a)&(b). Three flow rate standards
     based on container size (e.g., 1/2 gallon/minute for
     containers 1.25 gallons)
    Section 2472. Permeation Standard of 0.4
     grams/gallon/day
Proposed Portable Fuel Container Spillage
Control Regulations (continued)
    Section 2473. Exemptions, rapid refueling
     devices for off-road motorcycle competitions &
     portable fuel tanks for outboards
    Section 2475. Flow rate labeling requirement
    Section 2477. Test Methods for determining
     compliance with Performance Standards
Section 2477. Test Methods
    Test Method 510 - Automatic Shut-Off Test
     Procedure
    Test Method 511 - Automatic Closure Test
     Procedure
    Test Method 512 - Flow Rate Test Procedure
    Test Method 513 - Permeation Test Procedure
Test Method 510 - Automatic Shut-Off

   Fill container with water and invert for 5 minutes
    to check for leaks
   Dispense contents into a 1/2 gallon test fixture
   Fill test fixture to at least 1 inch from the top of
    the opening (± 1/8”) without overflowing
   Repeat the process 3 times
Test Method 511 - Automatic Closure

   Apply Test Method 510 protocol except fill the test fixture
    to approximately 50% of capacity
   Hold the inverted container over the test fixture for 30
    seconds to check for leaks and proper function of
    automatic closure
   Pressurize container to 10 psig with the spout installed,
    leave undisturbed for 24-hours and record any pressure
    loss
   Maximum allowable 24-hour pressure loss is 1 psig
Test Method 512 - Flow Rate Test
Procedure
    Fill container to its nominal capacity with water
     and invert for 5 minutes to check for leaks
    Determine the amount of time to dispense all but
     approximately 1 pint of the liquid
    Determine the mass of liquid dispensed by pre
     and post weighing the container
    Calculate a flow rate in gallons/minute using the
     density of water at 25°C
    Test each container 3 times to determine the
     average flow rate
Test Method 513 - Determination of
Permeation Rates
    Precondition containers with gasoline for a
     minimum of 4 weeks
    Empty and re-fill containers with CERT fuel, seal,
     leak test, then expose to a 24-hour variable
     temperature profile
    Weigh containers every 24-hours to determine
     the permeation rate gravimetrically
    Must verify weight loss is linear (steady state)
    Average of 5 consecutive 24-hour diurnal cycles
     used to determine the final rate
Refueling Spillage Test Procedure

   Randomly selected ARB employees using conventional
    containers and spouts fill a 2400 ml fuel tank
   Each participant performs several trials with randomly
    selected containers
   Mass of the fuel dispensed is determined by pre and
    post weighing the containers
Refueling Emissions Test Bench
Refueling Emissions Test Bench
Draft Refueling Spillage Test Data
    Out of 56 events, 25 included refueling spillage
     (45%)
    Average per spillage event (less displaced vapor)
     =16.4 grams
    Total fuel dispensed - 51.1 gallons
    Testing will continue through July 2nd, final results
     will be posted on our web site
Permeation and Barrier Feasibility Tests
   Average permeation rates determined from testing
    untreated HDPE containers
   Treated containers also tested to determine the
    effectiveness of barrier surface treatments
   Containers ranged in size from 1.25 gallons to 6.6 gallons
    and included products from 5 different manufacturers
   Containers were tested with Phase II California
    Reformulated Certification (CERT) fuel
   Select containers were also tested with a blend of Carbob
    and fuel grade ethanol (5.7% mass)
   Barrier surface treatments included Sulfonation & 2 levels
    of Fluorination (levels 3 & 5)
Permeation and Barrier
Feasibility Tests
Permeation and Barrier Surface
Treatment Feasibility Test Data
Average Permeation Rates for Untreated
Containers
    1.25 gallons - 1.52 g/gal/day
    2.06 gallons - 1.88 g/gal/day
    2.5 gallons - 1.46 g/gal/day
    5 gallons - 1.43 g/gal/day
    6.6* gallons - 1.09 g/gal/day
    Average Permeation Rate - 1.57
     grams/gallon/day
Average Permeation Rates for Treated
Containers
    Container           Test #1           Tests #2           Test #3           Average          Control
      Type            (g/gal/day)        (g/gal/day)       (g/gal/day)        (g/gal/day)   Efficiency (%)
   Fluorinated          0.24*              0.43*              0.16               0.28           82.2
     Level 5

   Fluorinated           0.42               0.93              0.57               0.64           59.0
     Level 3

    Sulfonated             **               N/A               0.07               0.07           95.5
 * 2 sets of Level 5 containers treated incorrectly and were removed from the data set
 ** Sulfonated containers treated incorrectly and were removed from the data set
Average Permeation Rates
 1.6
 1.4
 1.2
  1
 0.8                                           Permeation Rates
 0.6                                           (g/gal/day)
 0.4                                                          Proposed
                                                              Standard
 0.2
  0
       Untreated   Fluorinated   Fluorinated   Sulfonated
                     Level 3       Level 5
Estimated Effectiveness of Spill-Proof
Systems
    Reduce diurnal emissions by 75%
    Eliminate refueling spillage - 100%
    Eliminate transport and storage losses - 100%
    Reduce average permeation rates by 75%
    Collects 45% of displaced vapors
Portable Fuel Container (Gas Cans)
Population/Activity/Emissions Inventory

         Mobile Source Control Division
                 June 28, 1999




      California Environmental Protection Agency

                Air Resources Board
Statewide Population and Activity of Gas
Cans

    Determined through surveys
    Residential Survey
    Commercial Survey
Residential Population/Activity Parameters

     % of households with gas cans - 46%
     # of gas cans per household - 0.8
     % of gas cans stored empty - 30%
     Average gas can capacity - 3.0 gallons
     Average age of gas can - 5.5 years
     Plastic and metal gas cans ratio - 76:24
Residential Population/Activity Parameters
(Continued)
     % Plastic cans with closed system - 53%
     % Plastic cans with open system - 23%
     % Metal cans with closed system - 13%
     % Metal cans with open system - 11%
Commercial Population/Activity Parameters

    # of gas cans per business - 6.9
    Average gas can capacity - 3.4 gallons
    Average age of gas cans - 1.34 years
    Plastic and metal gas cans ratio - 72:28
Commercial Population/Activity Parameters
(Continued)

    % Plastic cans with closed system - 33%
    % Plastic cans with open system - 39%
    % Metal cans with closed system - 18%
    % Metal cans with open system - 10%
Gas Can Population Estimates
    Residential gas can population - 9 million
    Expansion Factor - # of housing units by county
     obtained from California State Department of Finance
    Commercial gas can population - 400,000
    Expansion Factor - # of businesses which may have
     gas cans from InfoUSA database
Various Emissions Related Processes
Associated with Gas Cans
    Diurnal Loss - Ambient Temperature
    Permeation Loss - Pressure and gas can material
    Spillage - During refueling of equipment
    Vapor Displacement - During refueling of equipment
Permeation Emission Rates
    1.57 grams per gallon per day
    Obtained through gravimetric
     testing of several gas cans
Diurnal Emission Rates (Draft)
    Several cans under different conditions
     were tested using Sealed Housing
     Evaporative Determination method.
    Plastic/closed system - 2.15 g/gal/day
    Plastic/open system - 21.76 g/day
    Metal/closed system - 2.15 g/gal/day
    Metal/open system - 21.76 g/gal/day
Spillage and Vapor Displacement
Emission Rate
    17.3 g/refueling - obtained from
     USEPA’s NEVES report
    Vapor displacement - 4.52 g/gal
    Waiting for Data
Estimated Prices of Spill-Proof Systems
   Average price increase per Spill-Proof System
    estimated between $5.50 - $8.00 per container
   Estimate compares retail prices of similarly constructed
    containers
   Breaks containers into 3 size categories, 1-1.5 , 2-2.5,
    5-6 gallons
   Pre-Regulation retail estimates of fuel containers are:
      1-1.5 gallon - $3.24

      2-2.5 gallon - $4.69

      5-6 gallon - $9.99
Regulatory Process
    Workshop June 28, 1999
       Consider all comments received by July 9, 1999

    Staff Report - August 6, 1999
       Start of 45 day public comment period

    Board Hearing - September 23, 1999
More Information On The Emissions
Inventory
    www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/spillcon/inventor.htm
    Archana Agrawal, Manager, Inventory Assessments
     Section (626) 450-6136
    aagrawal@arb.ca.gov
More Information On The Regulation
    www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/spillcon/spillcon.htm
    Workshop presentation will be posted on the web
     site
    Dean Bloudoff (916) 263-2070
    dbloudof@arb.ca.gov

								
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