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					  Uses of Minerals

Beauty, Industry, and Health
• Gems are valuable because they are rare
  and beautiful.
• Most gems are a special variety of a
  particular mineral, but they are clearer,
  brighter, or more colorful than the common
    TOPAZ – Rough
 direct from mine and
professionally cut and
  “heated treated” by
  jeweler to bring out
     the blue color.

 direct from mine
and professionally
  cut by jeweler.
• Gems (like the ruby and sapphire) and the
  common form (corundum) of the same mineral
  may have only small chemical differences.

• Traces of iron in quartz (left) give amethyst
  (right) its valuable purple color.
  Corundum is a very
hard mineral (hardness
9); In its rare pure form,
 corundum is colorless
     and called white
     sapphire. Rubies
contain chromic oxide,
blue sapphires contain
   titanium along with
    ferrous oxide, and
     yellow sapphires
  contain ferric oxide.
                                     Famous Gems

  The intense orange phosphorescence of the Hope Diamond is only
  visible in a dark room after exposure to ultraviolet light. One of the
diamonds surrounding the Hope is phosphorescing blue. Photograph
                        by John Nels Hatleberg.
530 carat “Star of Africa” diamond

312.24 carat black diamond
726 carats (rough) Jonker diamond

   125 carats (cut)
      The Black Star Sapphire of
        Queensland Australia
• 733 carats of black
  sapphire, 35
• Was for sale in 2002
  for $100 million dollars
• Was found by a 14
  year old and originally
  used as a doorstop
      Gems are valued based on the 4 C’s: Color,
               Cut, Clarity, and Carats



 •Smithsonian recent acquisitions
  Color can range
 from light to dark.
    A gem is more
valuable the closer
  its color is to the
true color (not pale
    or so dark it is

                           Some gems will even
                            have different color
                             saturation levels
                               within them.
Natural Diamond Colors

     This poorly-cut lemon citrine is windowed.
Notice you can read the underlying text through the
                   gem's centre.
• The cut can greatly enhance a gem’s

                    The lime citrine (left) is slightly
                    windowed and very poorly cut.
                    The same gemstone has been
                         recut (right) Notice the
                     ‘fogginess’ of the gem before
                    recut, the small window in the
                     middle and lack of symmetry.
The best cut is selected for each
gem based on its starting shape.

Skilled gem cutters will follow
       specific patterns
Clarity-how clear it is
  This emerald–cut quartz
    from Brazil has a blue
anatase crystal inclusion as
well as needle-like inclusions
 of rutile. In this specimen,      Diamond with
  we can see the anatase                Garnet
inclusion seemingly floating     Solid inclusions may
  in this clear quartz gem.       be the same gem
Anatase is a form of titanium    type as the host, or
dioxide and is usually found       different like the
   as small, isolated, well-         garnet in this
      developed crystals.              diamond.
Thousands of needlelike mineral
  inclusions create a star-like
  pattern or cat’s eye pattern
(asterism) when the stone is cut
Rounds            Squares                Ovals
Size     Weight   Size      Weight       Size        Weight
1.6 mm   .02 carat 5 mm     .75 carat    5 x 3 mm    .25 carat
2 mm     .03 carat 6 mm     1.3 carat    6 x 4 mm    .5 carat
2.5 mm   .06 carat 7 mm     2.05 carat   7 x 5 mm    1.0 carat
3 mm     .10 carat 8 mm     2.9 carat    8 x 6 mm    1.5 carat
3.5 mm   .16 carat 9 mm     4.4 carat    9 x 7 mm    2.5 carat
4 mm     .25 carat 10 mm    6.0 carat    10 x 8 mm   3.0 carat
4.5 mm   .33 carat 11 mm    8.0 carat    11 x 9 mm   4.0 carat
5 mm     .50 carat 12 mm    10.35 carat 12 x 10 mm 5.0 carat
5.5 mm   .65 carat 13 mm    13.2 carat   14 x 10 mm 6.0 carat
6 mm     .75 carat 14 mm    16.5 carat   14 x 12 mm 8.0 carat
6.5 mm   1.0 carat 15 mm    20.25 carat 16 x 12 mm 10.5 carat
 Cool Gypsum Crystals-Mexico,1,Slide 1
               Useful Minerals
• Gemstones are the most popular minerals,
  but not the most important.
• Many everyday objects are made from
  useful minerals.
       Useful Gems Include:
• Diamonds are used in cutting tools
• Rubies help produce laser light
• A mineral or rock is an ORE if it contains a
  useful substance that can be mined at a

   Bauxite – An aluminum ore          aluminum
          Mineral Refining
1. Original materials are crushed
2. The crushed rocks are heated or
treated with a chemical to separate
      the waste from the ore
3. Different materials melt at different
    temperatures or react to chemicals
4. Useful minerals are then separated from
    the waste rock and are removed.
Some valuable mineral ores
bauxite (aluminium oxide, Al2O3):
Mining for ores is
  hard on the

haematite (iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3):
 rutile (titanium dioxide, TiO2) and
           ilmenite (FeTiO3) :
Ore of Titanium-light weight and durable

        Titanium golf
        clubs can be       Raw titanium
       several hundred

               Titanium frames are
               usually over $1000

                            Titanium body
    Minerals and Your Health
• Many minerals play an important role in
  maintaining the health of your body.
• There are over 14 minerals our body must
  have to function properly.
Minerals in our body come from the
            food we eat

Our food absorbs the minerals from
             the soil
• Helps strengthen our bones and circulate
  our blood.
• Helps our body break down proteins and
  helps our red blood cells function
• Helps produce red blood cells, helps
  prevent fatigue and protects us from
• Helps keep our skin, hair, and nails
  healthy and maintains healthy oxygen
  levels in our brain.
• Helps with DNA production, converting
  protein into energy, and helps fight colds
Supplement Facts
Serving Size 1 Tablet

Each Tablet Contains                       % Daily Value

Vitamin A 3500 IU (29% as Beta-Carotene)            70%

Vitamin C 60 mg                                    100%

Vitamin D 400 IU                                   100%

Vitamin E 30 IU                                    100%

Vitamin K 25 mcg                                    31%

Thiamin 1.5 mg                                     100%

Riboflavin 1.7 mg                                  100%

Niacin 20 mg                                       100%

Vitamin B6 2 mg                                    100%

Folic Acid 400 mcg                                 100%

Vitamin B12 6 mcg                                  100%

Biotin 30 mcg                                       10%

Pantothenic Acid 10 mg                             100%

Calcium 200 mg                                      20%

Iron 18 mg                                         100%

Phosphorus 20 mg                                     2%

Iodine 150 mcg                                     100%

Magnesium 50 mg                                     13%

Zinc 11 mg                                          73%

Selenium 55 mcg                                     79%

Copper 0.5 mg                                       25%

Manganese 2.3 mg                                   115%

Chromium 35 mcg                                     29%

Molybdenum 45 mcg                                   60%

Chloride 72 mg                                       2%

Potassium 80 mg                                      2%

Boron 75 mcg                                           *

Nickel 5 mcg                                           *

Silicon 2 mg                                           *

Tin 10 mcg                                             *

Vanadium 10 mcg                                        *

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