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					Chapter 20
The Growth of Nationalism



NAME: _____________________________________________________________________                      /50
                            Chapter 20: The Growth of Nationalism, 1800-1900
I. New Ideas, New Directions
    A. Changes in Political Thinking
         1. _______________________________________________________
              a. 1789-1815 many changes in Europe (French Revolution, Napoleonic Wars)
              b. new _________________________ – beliefs and plans for social and political change – were forming
              c. __________-__________ – self governing land in which most of the people have the same cultural background,
                  language, & history
              d. _____________ – loyalty to one’s country – also increasing in Europe and parts of the world Europe had settled
         2. _______________________________________________________
              a. September 1814 – leaders of European countries met in ______________, Austria to undo changes made by Napoleon
              b. Prince Klemens von ___________________ – represented Austria, lead the meeting
              c. Charles _____________________ – represented France, speaking for King Louis XVIII
              d. Duke of Wellington – represented ____________________
              e. Prince Karl August von Hardenberg – represented ____________________
              f. Czar Alexander I – represented ____________________
              g. _______________________– things should return to the way they were (before French Revolution & Napoleon)
              h. Three main ideas guided decisions at the ___________ ___ _________ (1) all countries suffered from Napoleon
                    be paid back for what they lost (2) __________ ___ ________ needed to be restored (3) all royal families that
                   ruled form before Napoleon to be put back on their throne
         3. _______________________________________________________
              a. redrew map of Europe (1) Belgium & Luxemburg aged to Holland to form the _________________ (2) ____________
                   given lands along _____________ River (3) parts of N. Italy given to ________________
              b. ___________________ surrounded by strong nations so it could not threaten Europe again
              c. German states organized into the ______________ ____________________, headed by Austria
              d. _____________ ___ ___________, an organization of leaders of major European nations to maintain balance of power
         4. _______________________________________________________
              a. ___________ ___ _________ felt nationalism and liberalism were dangerous
              b. ____________________ made people want independence and self-government (bad for empires)
              c. ____________________ promoted change and individual freedoms (bad for empires & monarchies), supported
                  freedom of speech, freedom f the press, and religious freedom
              d. 1830 & 1831 – uprisings in France, Belgium, Poland, & Italy
              e. France – old king fled – new liberal king came to power (see 20.I.B.1)
              f. 1831 – _____________________ gained independence from the Netherlands
              g. nationalist rebellions in ________________ and Italy were crushed by ________________ and Austrians
              h. 1848- ___________________ overthrew king and established a republic
              i. 1848 – Austrians forced ______________ to leave the country, Czechs & Hungarians rebelled against ___________
              j. 1848 – revolts in Germany & Italy quickly crushed
              k. ___________ ___ _________ overlooked national cultures when redrawing map of Europe
Chapter 20
The Growth of Nationalism

    B. France after Napoleon
         1. _______________________________________________________
              a. Louis XVIII returned to power by ___________ ___ _________
              b. ultraroyalists, aka “Ultras,” led by king’s brother Charles, wanted property & power they had before 1789
              c. 1824 – ______________ ____ becomes king, believe king held all power, constitution didn’t limit him, increased
                  power of Roman Catholic Church
              d. 1830 – Charles X dissolved the legislature & limited the right to vote – Paris revolted, Charles X fled
              e. Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, becomes “Citizen King” with liberal views, accepted Constitution of 1814
         2. _______________________________________________________
              a. upper & middle classes like _____________ _________________, working-class wanted change
              b. between 1846-1848 food shortages & _____________________ angered workers
              c. 1847 – banquets criticized the _____________ – riots broke out – troops sent to stop riots joined protestors
              d. Louis Philippe abdicated and fled to ___________________, like his brother Charles X
              e. Second ______________ established in Paris – all Frenchmen allowed to vote in new election which elected
                  moderates and conservatives – ended national workshops which provided jobs for the unemployed
              f. “__________ ____________” – 4 day revolt in Paris, leaders were imprisoned, exiled, or executed
              g. fall 1847 – elected __________ _________________, Napoleon’s nephew, as president – revised constitution
              h. 1852 – dropped title of “president” and became _______________ Napoleon III & strictly controlled legislature
         3. _______________________________________________________
             a. 1854 – with England an Ottoman Empire as allies, attacked ___________ in Crimean War ((see 20.II.B.1)
              b. supported construction of Suez Canal in ___________
              c. established French control over ___________________ in Asia
              d. unsuccessfully tried to control _________________________
              e. 1870 – declared war on ___________________, disastrous for France, Napoleon III captured & died in exile
              f. 1871 – forced to negotiate peace when ___________________ captured Paris
         4. _______________________________________________________
              a. March 1871 – uprising in ___________________ over terms of peace treaty, ended by May
              b. 1871 – France became the Third ___________________ with new constitution in 1875
              c. 1894 – ___________ ____________, Jewish captain in French army accused of selling military secrets to Germany –
                  convicted & sentenced to life in prison – evidence then came out he was innocent
              d. French people divided over the case: ______________ thought he was innocent, _____________ thought he was guilty
              e. real traitor found, Dreyfus was _______________ – supporters wanted him declared innocent
              f. 1906 – Dreyfus’ name was cleared


II. Change in Eastern Europe
    A. Nationalism Leads to Revolt
         1. _______________________________________________________
              a. Self-determination – belief that people have the right to decide their own form of ________________________
              b. 1800s – _________________ Empire included parts of Egypt, N Africa, and SE Europe on the Balkan Peninsula
                   (aka “the Balkans”)


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              c. two problems threatened unity & strength (1) sultan’s decreasing influence over the provinces (2) rise
                   of __________________________, especially in the Balkans
              d. the Balkans, many nation-states including ___________, Albania, ___________, Serbia, ___________, and Bulgaria
                   each had separate language, culture, and history from Ottoman rulers
              e. many people of the Balkans were ________________________ – Ottomans were Muslim
         2. _______________________________________________________
              a. 1804 & again in 1817 _____________________ rebel with massive defeats
              b. 1829 – Serbians granted limited _____________--_______________ with the Ottoman Empire
              c. fighting against Ottomans helped to create a national identity
         3. _______________________________________________________
              a. 1821 – Greece rebelled under leader _________________ ______________________
              b. 1825 – _________________, ____________________, and Great Britain supported Greek rebellion
              c. 1830 – Greece formally declared _______________________
              d. Europeans described Ottoman Empire as “the _________ _____________ of Europe”
              e. Russia wanted to control Istanbul (they still called it _______________); Austria took Bosnia and Herzegovinian;
                   _________________ & __________ ____________ also looked to control Ottoman lands
    B. Russia’s Involvement Grows
         1. _______________________________________________________
              a. Russia fought Ottomans to gain lands along _______________ River to gain access to __________________ Sea
              b. 1853 – Crimean War: ________ __________, ___________, Sardinia sided with Ottoman Empire against the Russians
              c. temporary hospitals set up near battle field known as “field hospitals” and tended by nurse like British
                   woman ____________ ____________________
              d. 1856 – war ends with _____________________’s defeat
         2. _______________________________________________________
              a. 1876 – _________________ and other Balkans revolted against Ottomans; Russia declared war: Russo-Turkish War
              b. rest of Europe was ___________________ – did not take sides – _______________ lost without aid
              c. ___________, ______________, & _________________ gained full independence – Russia took other Balkan states
              d. France, Germany, & Austria-Hungary organized the ______________ ____ __________ to talk about Russia
                  taking too much land
              e. Congress of Berlin, 1878, set up independence nations of _____________, ________________, &
                   ____________________; distribute other Balkans to Great Britain, & Austria – Russia left with little power
    C. Russia Faces Other Problems
         1. _______________________________________________________
              a. ____________________ ___, czar of Russia from 1801-1825 with absolute power
              b. Alexander’s brothers ___________________ and ___________________ both claimed to be new czar in 1825
              c. December 14, 1825 “__________________” marched on Senate Square in Saint Petersburg demanding a constitution
              d. Russian officials pledged loyalty to Czar ____________________ ___ who dealt with rebellion harshly
              e. Nicholas I was a _______________________ – opposed to change – used secret police to spy on his people,
                   censored _________________, limited university attendance and class subjects, refused to listen to complains

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         2. _______________________________________________________
              a. 1855 – Nicholas I died and his son __________________ ____ became czar
              b. believed in reform: introduced ____________ to Russia & expanded ____________________ system
              c. 1861 – ended serfdom with the __________ ___ _____________________________
              d. 1881 – revolutionary group assassinated Alexander II, son ________________ ___ was new czar, another
                  reactionary who made new restrictions
              e. 1894 – ________________ ___, another autocrat, becomes the last czar of Russia

III. Wars of Independence in Latin America
    A. Social Structures in Latin America
         1. _______________________________________________________
              a. _________ _________________ – region including Mexico, Central America, South America, and Caribbean Islands
              b. Peninsulares – top of society, whites born in the ______________ Peninsula, best jobs, made the most money
              c. ___________________ – whites born in Latin America, owned most land and mines, less important jobs and
                   made less money than Peninsulares, tense relationship with Peninsulares
              d. ______________ –Native American/Spanish; ______________ – European/African; both viewed as inferior to whites
              e. lowest classes – Native Americans and Africans; ___________ had limited rights’; ____________ were slaves
         2. _______________________________________________________
              a. monarch of Spain was head of the Church in Spanish colonies – collected & spent _________, chose leaders
              b. the Church in Latin America grew wealthy, owning up to 1/3 of the land paying for ________________,
                   _______________________, & charitable works
              c. the Church did little about mistreatment of _________________________ and even owned slaves
    B. Challenges of the System
         1. _______________________________________________________
              a. young Creoles studies in Europe and applied _________________________ thoughts to their situation at home
              b. admired leaders like George _______________ and Thomas __________ and documents like the Declaration
                   of Independence and the US _________________________
              c. the ________________ Revolution also gave Latin Americans hope, read Declaration of the Rights of Man
              d. talked about liberty & equality – __________________ felt they would gain the most
         2. _______________________________________________________
              a. French Revolution inspired people of West Indies to rebel, especially French colony of ______________
              b. Haiti was on the island of Hispaniola and was known as ________ ____________ – France’s wealthiest colony
              c. there were more ____________ than white people – uprisings usually quickly put down
              d. August 1791 – enslaved Africans revolted following an uprising by free _________________
              e. François Dominique __________________ – slave, learned to read & write, took the name L’Ouverture and
                   devoted himself to freedom
              f. __________________ lead a series of revolts against the French
              g. 1794 – France freed the slaves, made __________________ lieutenant governor – Toussaint took over in 18______
              h. _______________ sent a fleet to retake the island – Toussaint surrendered and died in a French prison in 1803

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              i. Jean Jacques _______________ & Henri ________________ drove out the French, declared independence in
                   September 1804
           j. called the new country _____________
    C. Revolution Spreads
         1. _______________________________________________________
              a. 1807 – Napoleon invaded Portugal, Prince John & his family fled to _______________
              b. 1808 – Napoleon forced out King ___________ ___ of Spain and put his own brother Joseph on the Spanish throne
              c. revolutionary leaders in South America were known as “______________________”
              d. Simón Bolívar – ________________ aristocrat, read Enlightenment works by Voltaire and John Locke
              e. encouraged an independence movement in New Grenada; won back _____________, Venezuela from Spain,
                  named himself dictator in 1814
              f. driven out & went to Haiti, returned to defeat Spanish in _________ _________________ in 1819
              g. 1821 – achieved victory in ____________________; made president of _________________ _____
                   ________ _______________ including Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama
              h. worked with Antonio José de _________ to end colonial rule in ______________ – added it to Gran Columbia
         2. _______________________________________________________
              a. José de ______ ___________ – skilled Creole military leader fighting since 1813
              b. trained in the ____________ Mountains – secured independence for ____________ (declared in 1818)
              c. ________________ _________________ led the new Chilean government
              d. 1821 – captured _______________ & liberated most of Peru
              e. 1822 - José de ______ _______________ & Simón ___________________ met to plan total liberation of Peru
              f. 1824 - Bolívar claimed total liberation of Peru; upper Peru named ____________________ in honor of him
              g. King John VI returned to ______________________ form Brazil, left son _______________ to rule Brazil
              h. 1822 – Pedro declared Brazil’s independence and became a ___________________ ___________________
         3. _______________________________________________________
              a. 1810 – Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla led peasant revolt against Spanish government, ended ________________ in Mexico
              b. ____________ was arrested & executed – revolution continued by another priest José Maria Morelos y Pavón
              c. 1815 - _____________ declared independence, then captured & executed
              d. 1821 – Agustín de ___________________ – Spanish Creole general, declared independence (again)
              e. 1823 – _____________ forced out of office; United Provinces of Central America formed until 1838 then
                   became _______________, El Salvador, _______________, Nicaragua & ___________ ___________

              f. 1825 – still under European control: British, French, and Dutch Guianas, British Honduras, ________,

                   _________ __________, _________________, and a few small Caribbean islands

         4. _______________________________________________________
              a. fighting for independence weakened the __________________ of Latin America – not prepared to govern themselves
              b.1823 – President James Monroe issued the ____________ ___________ saying the US would not interfere in
                   European affairs but warned Europeans not to try to take back colonies
              c. ________________ ______________________ – half of the earth including North and South America


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