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History of Ancient Middle East

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					History of Ancient Middle East
             Who lives here?


Share common history, but not a
common culture
Majority practice Islam:
  Sunni (followed grandson of Muhammad)
  Shiite (followed Ali, cousin of Muhammad)
(Israel is the exception – What do they
practice?)
There are also Christian communities
Religious identity is closely tied to social
status
Geography
 DRY – mostly desert
 Mountain valley, river valleys and
 oases
Landforms

 Sahara desert – world’s largest hot
 desert
 Atlas mountains in North-west Africa
Desertification
-Process by which arable
land becomes desert
-Overgrazing strips land of
plant life and exposes soil
Mountains
 Often they block moisture coming in
 off of the Mediterranean, Black and
 Caspian Seas
Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles
have strategic importance… can you guess
why?
Irrigation
 Not much arable land –
 Irrigation needed to
 sustain agriculture and
 life in many areas in the
 Middle East
 Problem: Too much salt
 in the soil is drawn up
 with water, when water
 evaporates it destroys
 soil
Rivers

Nile – the lifeline
of Egypt
  96% of Egypt is
  desert,
  practically
  unlivable
  Floods regularly

Tigris &
Euphrates
  River valley
  formed basis for
  first civilization
Industry
 Cash crops – ie: cotton, tobacco on coastal
 regions
 Traditional rug making
 Illiteracy stands in the way of wide-spread
 industrial success
 Service Industry – banking, tourism, and
 communications
 Desalination – trying to solve water
 shortage
 OIL
OPEC
Venezuela joined with several Middle
Eastern states to form the Organization
of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Operates as a cartel – members work
together to limit competition and maintain
prices
Fertile Crescent
Heavier rainfall and
access to water

Extends along
Mediterranean Coastal
plain in Israel, through
Lebanon and Syria, down
into northern Iraq

Ancient civilizations began
here – Mesopotamia in
4,000B.C.
Civilizations of the Middle East
 In the following slides, you will see some of the
 civilizations that have occupied portions of the
 Middle East through time. Accomplishments are
 listed with each civilization.

 After looking at the civilizations and reading the
 text book pages, come up with one question
 concerning the History of the Middle East that you
 think should appear on a future test. Also, choose
 which civilization you believe had the most impact
 on this region and why
Egyptians
            5,000 BC

            Developed
            trade of crafts

            Pharaoh – ruled
            as god-king

            Hieroglyphics

            Amazing
            architecture,
            result of
            concern with life
            after death
Sumerians
Polytheistic, built Ziggurats
as temples to the gods, as
well as administrative
centers

Developed Cuneiform to
keep records

Warfare broke out over
control of land and water
Babylonians

Empire in T&E river valley

Hammurabi – 1st ever public
law code, didn’t create equality
but prevented the strong from
destroying the weak
  This is where the saying “an eye
  for an eye comes from”…literally
Hittites, Lydians, Phoenicians
        Hittites used iron – (stronger
        metal than what they had
        before, but brittle)
        Lydians 1st to use coined $
        Phoenicians lived in Lebanon,
        traders and navigators,
        developed alphabet
Hebrews

 Adopted idea of
 monotheism
 One God - Yaweh
 Old Testament
 10 commandments
 God demands
 obedience and in
 turn, protects his
 people
Diaspora – the forced removal of
Jews from their homeland
 Hebrews migrated from Palestine due to
 famine and were enslaved in Egypt – freed
 by Moses according to Bible

 Settled in Canaan and set up kingdom of
 Israel

 Israel split up by Assyrians and
 Babylonians – many Jews were exiled, this
 was the first Diaspora (586 BC)
Persians

 Conquered huge empire by 500 BC
 Built roads, “pony express”
 communication system
 Lots of cultural diffusion
Greeks and Romans
  Alexander conquers
  Persia, tried to unite the
  Greek and Middle Eastern
  worlds
  Greek education and
  culture is spread through
  the Middle East – more
  cultural diffusion
  Romans exerted control
  over Egypt, Syria and
  Turkey
Byzantine

 Rome divided, Constantinople
 became center of Christianity in
 Byzantine Empire (Eastern Rome)
 Fell to Ottoman Turks
Crusades

200 years of warfare
Fought for control of
the Holy Land
(Palestine)
Crusaders robbed
land and goods, killed
Muslims and Jews
Ottomans
Suleiman the Magnificent
Ruled from 15th to 18th century
        Turks from Turkey
  Good soldiers and administrators,
unified most of the Middle East, North
Africa and Southeastern Europe
under their control
    Ghazis – warriors who defended
    Islam in the region
  Built mosques, created literature, became
  powerful empire
    Ruled by a Sultan
    Education, religious matters and laws controlled by
    mullahs
    18th century corruption in govt. and loss of trade routes
    lead to decline in empire’s land and power
Napoleon, the Brits and the
Russians
Beginning of European infiltration into
M.E.
After he defeated Egypt, the British
came to the defense of Ottomans –
shows them as superior and gave them
voice in M.E. affairs
Brits also defend Turkey from Russia
Nationalism on the Arabian
Peninsula
 Wahhabis – Anti-Turkish, Anti-
 Western Muslim movement
   Angry @ corruption of Ottoman govt.
   and western reforms
   Urged strict puritanical devotion to Islam
 Helped to establish Saudi Arabia
WWI
France and Britain take parts of the M.E. in
the 1800s.
British occupy Egypt and control canal
Broken promises of Europeans after the war
is won create bitterness
  Brits had promised M.E. countries independence
  if they helped
  After victory, Lebanon and Syria went to France
  while the British took over Iraq, Palestine, and
  Transjordan, (as mandates)

Growth of nationalism results from resentment of
 European rule and manipulation – demands for
 independence grow
Nationalism
Mass rallies, strikes and
boycotts
Arabs engaged in guerilla
warfare in Palestine and
violent outbursts occur in
occupied countries
Saudi Arabia and Iraq gain
independence, Syria and
Lebanon controlled by
French until WWII
Opportunity Knocks

 Britain defends its interests
 in Egypt in WWII from
 Italian dictator Mussolini

 Arabs in the rest of
 occupied countries try to
 ally with Axis powers
   Try to seize opportunity to be
   rid of European domination
Map of History of Empires
 http://www.mapsofwar.com/images/E
 MPIRE17.swf

				
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posted:12/11/2011
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