Tutoring: After School Style

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					                    Tutor Handbook
                      2007-2008

Table of Contents

Introduction…………………………………………………………………...pg. 2
Table of Contents

Introduction………………………………………………………………...pg. 3

Program Overview/Structure………………………………………pg. 4

Project: a safe space…………………………………………………...pg. 5

Ensuring Emotional Growth…………………………………………pg. 7

Looking Forward….………………………………………………………pg. 9

Literacy and Learning………………………………………………….pg. 9

Literacy Tutoring 101……………………………………………………pg. 10

Math Support……………………………………………………………....pg. 11

Surviving Homework…………………………………………………….pg. 12

Staff………………………………………………………………… ……………pg. 14

Calendar ……………………………………………………………………..…pg. 15

End Notes…………………………………………………….………………..pg. 19




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                              Tutoring: Afterschool Style
       The best afterschool programs do two things: they engage students in fun activities that
       create a desire to learn, and they build on what students are learning during the school
       day to extend the knowledge they already have. But with large groups and varied ages,
       accomplishing both of these things is often easier said than done.1

       The field of afterschool education is one that has grown tremendously from those of its
humble origins. Afterschool programs have served a variety of purposes and reflected societal
concerns of their respective eras relating especially to youth. In the last ten years, ―inadequate
academic achievement levels among low-and moderate-income children has stood out, and come
to influence key dimensions of the afterschool field‖.2       ____________has a large low-and
moderate-income population to serve. The demographics (as of June 2007) of the four schools
we serve in ___________ are as follows:
       School          Enrollment             Free           Reduced              F/R %
                       307                    230 (75%)      35 (11%)             86%
                       345                    209 (61%)      34 (10%)             70%
                       508                    201 (40%)      49 (9%)              49%
                       428                    233 (54%)      50 (12%)             66%
       In addition to providing an enriching space, after-school programs also function as safe
spaces. The Afterschool Alliance reports that, ―As many as 15 million kids have no place to go
after school‖.3 Thus afterschool programs fill in a key component towards ensuring that children
have a safe space to learn and grow. It is no mistake that the amount of money set aside to fund
after school programs has grown ―exponentially‖ from one million in 1997 to one billion in
2002.4 Afterschool programs are here to stay and there are a lot of hopes and expectations riding
on them. The purpose of this handbook is not to go into the history of afterschool programs but
rather serve as a compass to orient you in this ever-changing terrain.
       As the passage suggested, there are best practices of how to operate an afterschool
program but in practice it can be much more difficult. There are many variables that influence
and determine a program’s effectiveness. Among those are: funding, adequate space, materials,
curriculum, leadership, support from school staff; the list can go on. Of these factors, one vital
piece that has the opportunity to make the greatest impact is staff. In other words, you the
teacher! In _____________, our afterschool teaching staff is composed of work-study students,



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community volunteers, professional artists, classified and certified day school staff. And even
though we come from different social locations, we all share the same sense of purpose:
       The project serves as a community hub and provides a safe haven for all students;
       especially those at risk of academic failure____________ children and their families are
       enriched through a collaboration of community efforts. ___________ encourages the
       community to reach its full potential by meeting the social, emotional, physical, and
       academic needs of its families.

These declarations are the pillars that hold up our program. You, as an afterschool teacher are the
front line in ensuring that we uphold these values. We cannot be an effective and successful
program without your critical contribution. We welcome your decision to be a part of our team,
Thank You!


Program Structure
       Afterschool programs are a particularly flexible institution, filling gaps, providing a safe
       place for students after school, complementing the primary institutions of family and
       school, and, notably, providing opportunities, supports and resources that these other
       institutions cannot or will not provide, especially to low-and moderate-income children.5

       As a program of the ____________________, we serve the communities of
___________and _________. Our afterschool program operates at four different sites
____________with roughly sixty students at each location. The program runs from Monday thru
Thursday from 2:45 p.m. to 5:15 p.m. at the elementary schools and at the intermediate school
(5th and 6th grades) from 2:55 p.m. to 5:15 p.m. The program is broken up into three quarters
(fall, winter, spring) with different enrichment classes every session.
       Keep in mind that every site’s schedules and procedures are slightly different. It is
important to check in with your supervisor to get updated with the latest information. To further
clarify the program, let’s continue with some definitions.
What is Tutor Academy or Action Academy?
        During this time, each student will receive help in their academic assignments and
interests. This is not a forced homework time, but a time to expand academic interests in fun
ways. This means that the site coordinator will have other activities for those students who do
not have homework. The focus of this activity is tutoring in the content areas of math and




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reading. Your primary role as a tutor is to work with students in small groups or give one-on-one
assistance.
What is Enrichment?
       This component is the hallmark of our afterschool program. Enrichment classes fuel and
expand the creativity of our children’s imagination. These classes cover a broad range of topics
including art, cooking, dance, sports, theater, and other offerings that they may not have outside
of this program. In this setting, our students extend their knowledge by learning informally,
through the hands-on experience. As a tutor you may be asked occasionally to assist the
instructors of these courses.
Safe Space
               NRC [National Research Council] researchers say, the programs should provide
               safe places for kids to interact with friends; give kids trusting, supportive
               relationships that make them feel accepted and included.6

       _____________ has taken on a tremendous responsibility. We are tasked with providing
a warm and enriching space for children in grades 1-6. We now turn our attention from providing
an enriching environment to one that is safe. Safety in the school is first and foremost to the
learning process. Our students cannot grow if they do not feel safe. As a tutor, you are their
pillar of stability and discipline. Students need to know that you can ―make things better,‖ that
they can trust you. Thus, safety is one of our primary concerns. It cannot be stressed enough that
school rules extend into the afterschool program and that students know this. In _________ there
is zero tolerance for any type of violent behavior or the use of derogatory language. Below is a
copy of the agreement students and parents sign, acknowledging their understanding of the rules:




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                              ___________Agreement

 As part of ____________ I agree:

     o To follow the same safety rules that I follow during school hours.
     o To follow the instruction given by the _________ Staff. (That includes
       the tutors & volunteers.)
     o To keep my hands and hurting words to myself.
     o To enjoy the privilege of being in ________.

 I agree that if I am not able to follow these rules I will give up the privilege
 of being in __________.

 1st time – Time out for the rest of the day.
 2nd time – Contact parent or guardian.
 3rd time – Suspended from __________ for 1-2 days.
 4th time – Suspended from __________ for session.

 __________________________                                   __________
 Student’s Name                                                   Date
 __________________________                                   __________
 Parent’s or Guardian signature                                   Date



       This agreement is the foundation of discipline and provides a safe and enriching
environment for our youth. However, students have a tendency to forget that they signed this
document and will attempt to ―bend‖ the rules at their convenience. Moreover, as a new staff
member, students also have a tendency to test the limits of your response. Knowing beforehand
the expectations and responsibilities will greatly aid with student management. It is to your
advantage to become familiar with program rules. With discipline, like a trapeze artist, you have
to walk a fine line. There are many approaches to discipline, but at _________ we emphasize a
more professional line of action.




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Ensuring Emotional Growth
        We want our students to grow and explore, learn values that can help them make healthy
         choices and develop strong relationships with each other and with staff members.

        Put students first: Students are the primary focus of all we do. We are here to serve
         students. We work hard to create a positive experience for every child in our care. We
         are dedicated and passionate about the job that we do.

        When you are here, remember: you are the adult! Remember to turn off your cell.
         Phones, blackberries, other electronic devices and be in the moment with the students.

        We are honest with each other and communicate in respectful ways. We strive to be
         good listeners. We utilize constructive and effective methods to deal with conflict.

        Help others and ask for help: We reach out to others who may need us and sincerely do
         our best to help them. We are honest with ourselves when we need help. We ask for
         assistance and utilize the site coordinator whose position exists to support us.

        Have a positive attitude: we choose how to handle difficult situations. We realize that
         we are growing and learning and will make mistakes from time to time. We learn from
         our mistakes and focus on solutions. We recognize our weaknesses and accept
         constructive criticism. We forgive those who hurt us. We recognize and praise others.

        Be prepared! If ________ starts at 2:45 for students, you are late if you are not here by
         2:30. Remember, you are setting an example for the students.

        Remember to always dress and act professionally. This position should be treated as a
         career position. You must always keep in mind that you are to act as a role model for
         the students you serve.

Give children a sense of safe boundaries by being authoritative.
       Be firm and consistent. Start the year firm, if you must. You can always ease up. It is
harder to regain control from students if you never had control in the first place. Let students
know that you will do everything you can within your limits to make sure that they have fun and
are safe. Emphasize that _________ is a community and rules are meant to keep everyone safe.
Students need to know that their choices, actions, and behaviors will have consequences, some
are good and some are bad.


Actively listen and respond to students.
       Listen to student’s feelings. Kids value each and every conversation they have with a
staff member. If there are issues that you feel are serious, let the site coordinator know.


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Praise positive behavior.
        Be very specific. For instance ―I really enjoy how Kristen came and sat down in the
library in a quiet and respectful manner.‖ Instead of ―I like how Kristen entered the library.‖ This
provides verbal cues to other students about which behavior is desired. Praise frequently and
consistently with all students. Compliment students four times as often as you correct. Focus on
the positive.


Steps to positive praise:
   -   Show your approval
   -   Describe the positive behavior
   -   Give a reason


Lead by example
Your most powerful leadership tool is your behavior.


Common mistakes
  1. Failing to respond the first time and every time to observed undesired behavior
  2. Yelling or ―barking‖ orders in an attempt to appear in control. The students will
     understand the rules just as well if they are given in a calm, even voice.
  3. Not thinking in advance about what is and what is not acceptable behavior.
  4. Using embarrassment as pressure to change behavior.
  5. Failing to admit personal error.
  6. Letting off steam in front of or directed at students.
  7. Failing to outline positive behavior and positive consequences of good behavior in
     advance, outlining instead only the anticipated horrors and negative consequences of bad
     behavior.
  8. Failure to outline signals, expectations, and consequences early on.
  9. Setting a positive example by doing what you expect of students.

Myths of being a tutor:
  1. Everyone knows how to do this job except me.
  2. I’m expected to be perfect; if I’m not, I’ll lose my job.
  3. If students don’t like activities, my job is to convince them that they should.
  4. If students are not having a good time, it’s my fault.
  5. You cannot admit that you’re wrong in front of the students or they will use it against
      you.
  6. The job of a tutor is to teach math and reading only.
  7. If kids misbehave occasionally, it is my fault.




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Looking Forward
   We realize that there is much to learn. As a tutor, you are not expected to do everything right
on the first try. You have to be reasonable with your students and yourself. However, it is
important to deal with discipline and students in the most professional manner. They are
counting on you to supply academic and emotional support that for some students may be
lacking or nonexistent. Do not be afraid to ask questions; do not be afraid to make mistakes or
try new things. Thus far we have covered the role of ____________ at community level and the
role of a tutor in terms of assisting with the emotional and academic growth of our students. To
further expand your tutor tool kit we are now going to cover some literacy and math tips.
Literacy and Learning
       Literacy is arguably the most essential skill children acquire in school. Regardless of
       profession or lifestyle, everyone reads, writes, speaks, and listens for a variety of
       purposes every day…To be successful, children and adults need the ability to
       communicate and think critically in all aspects of their lives. 7

 In other words, literacy is the ability to read and write effectively. Afterschool programs are an
excellent venue to reinforce or expand literacy. As a tutor in ________, literacy support will be a
primary task. The Banks Street College of Education offers the potential role of the tutor:
      Offering individual or small group attention where that may not be available.
      Engaging children in enjoyable experiences with literature—writing, reading and
       listening.
      Helping children feel successful by giving positive feedback and support.
      Helping with homework in ways that extend children’s understanding and interest.
      Modeling through your own actions that reading and writing are pleasurable and valuable
       activities.
      Sometimes, a ―fat‖ question (i.e. how did you like this book) will help a student think
       about an assignment more in depth.
      Your role is not to replace the work of teacher. Instead, you can extend or support the
       literacy learning that is going on in and out of the classroom. 8
      Breaking the ice:




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           1) A successful Tutor/child relationship begins with trust. Introduce yourself to the
               child; become acquainted by talking about your background and what your
               purpose is in the program.
           2) Build your relationship by being respectful, flexible, and patient towards the
               students. However, it is important to remind the students of your purpose—to help
               them read and write. Rules and discipline are in place to ensure students grow.


Strategies to assist learners with reading and writing
Teacher, Katy Riordan, offered the following concrete reading strategies to help tutors with after
school students:
       Look at the picture. Think about the story. Say the beginning sound of the word.
       Sound it out. Ask, ―Do I know a word like that?‖
       Chunk the word. th br oo ing ch ight tion ed
       Go back and reread. Ask, ―Does it make sense?‖ ―Does it match the letter?‖
       Skip it and go on. Read to the end, go back, and try again.
       Ask someone. This is the last thing you do to solve a reading challenge.


 Literacy Tutoring 101
        Students that are able to read successfully have certain skills they do automatically.
Students struggling to read are unable to perform one or more of the following skills
consistently. The lack of these important strategies greatly effects how much the student
understands while reading and therefore creates more frustration rather than enjoyment. Who
wants to spend time reading when you don’t understand what you are reading? Take some time
to think about these important skills. Ask yourself, how well do you use these skills when you
read?
       Activate prior knowledge
       Analyze formats
       Visualize
       Form predictions
       Make inferences



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      Generate questions
      Monitor understanding
      Fix confusion
      Synthesize content
It is the role of the tutor to create an environment where these skills can be practiced. The best
way to coach a student is through ―think-alouds‖. Begin by modeling for the student what you
think about while reading. Think-alouds are used as a way of scaffolding the strategies
necessary for solid reading comprehension.


Math Support
       In today's world, we are bombarded with data that must be absorbed, sorted, organized,
       and used to make decisions. The underpinnings of everyday life, such as making
       purchases, choosing insurance or health plans, and planning for retirement, all require
       mathematical competence. (http://www.nctm.org/titlei/familyguidep2.asp#why)

       Math is everywhere: on road signs, pay stubs, cost of gasoline, sales etc. It is important to
be able to decode and understand math concepts because they surround us like the oxygen we
breathe. Once again the after-school setting provides an excellent time to support mathematical
learning. Like literacy tutoring, it is important to build trust and a healthy relationship with the
students. We encourage you to develop and take on the mentor role for the students. This is just
as important as providing the math support. Here are some strategies to consider when helping
students during fundamentals.


Strategies to assist learners in Math
The National Partnership for Quality Afterschool Learning offers three key suggestions for math
support:
      Encourage Problem Solving—Problem solving involves engaging students, and helping
       them use what they know about math facts, skills, and strategies to figure out the solution
       to a given problem.
      Develop and Support Math Talk—In math, the process of finding the answer is more
       important than the answer itself. Ask questions out loud like, ―What is this problem




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       asking me?‖ ―Show me your thinking or how did you find the answer?‖ Talking out loud
       when trying to solve a math problem greatly aids the students when giving math support.
      Emphasize Working Together—Group work in combination with the other two
       strategies helps students work out a problem and find the solution. Organize students in
       groups of two, three, or four in a setting that encourages collaboration. As a tutor then,
       your priority is to facilitate the process using questions to allow students to arrive at their
       own answers. (http://www.sedl.org/afterschool/toolkits/math/tk_key_ideas.html)
      Find real world applications for math wherever possible – At one time or another, we
       have all wondered why we take math class. It may not be as obvious as why we take PE
       or reading to your group. Find a way to connect the dots for the students.
  These reading and math strategies only scratch the surface. They do, however, offer a starting
point that with time and experience will make you comfortable supporting math, literacy, and
learning in the after-school setting. Learning how to become a successful tutor in literacy and
math support will initially be a process of trial and error. You will find that what works with one
student may not with another. Flexibility and knowing your students will help minimize the
errors and make your trials more successful.
Assisting with homework
  Every school conducting Prime Time will devote time to supporting homework. This time
builds the connection between the after school program and the regular school day. Spending
time on homework will also help the students with responsibility, independent learning and
building organization skills.
  Your job as the tutor is to empower the students to do the homework independently, not to give
out the answers. The time should be spent with you asking questions and providing support to
keep the student on task. Praise often, being specific to how the completion of the assignment
will help the student.
  For both you and the student to feel successful please follow these steps when assisting with
homework.
   1. Ask the student what they need to accomplish. Be sure to ask if they have listed
       everything.
   2. Decide together how to best prioritize the work. Ask when the assignment needs to be
       turned in.


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   3. Praise the student for what they accomplish. Make a list of any unfinished work.
   4. If necessary, fill out any assignment form or homework log for the student. Some
      schools will require a signature that the student read and/or completed the homework.
   5. Learning does not stop when students leave the classroom doors. Use things they
      understand outside the class to assist their knowledge in the class.
   6. Add activities, plays, and projects that will help a student learn the material at hand.




Who to contact:

Questions about _________

Questions about time cards
Questions about district
employment (getting paid)
Questions about ___________
Questions about general
program information


Calendar
Fall Session
Monday, September                                 First day of
Monday, October                                   Training for NEW Tutors (M/W group)
Tuesday, October                                  Training for NEW Tutors (Tu/Th group)
Monday, November                                  Conference Day, No _______(field trip option)
Monday, November                                  Holiday, No School, No ________



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Thursday, November                                 Holiday, No School, No _________
Thursday, December                                 Last day of _________ for Fall Session

Winter Session
Tuesday, January                                   First day of __________
TBD                                                Training for NEW Tutors (M/W group)
TBD                                                Training for NEW Tutors (Tu/Th group)
Friday, January                                    Friday - No __________ (field trip option)
Monday, January                                    Holiday, No School, No _________
Thursday, February                                 Regular (field trip option)
Monday, February                                   Holiday, No School, No _________
Friday, March                                      Friday – No ________ (field trip option)
Thursday, March                                    Last day of _________ for Winter Session


Spring Session
Tuesday, April                                       First day of _________
TBD                                                  Training for NEW Tutors (M/W group)
TBD                                                  Training for NEW Tutors (Tu/Th group)
Friday, April                                        Friday – No __________ (field trip option)
Monday, May                                          Holiday, No School, ____________
Thursday, June                                       Last Day of ________ for Spring Session
Please call the Site Coordinator of your assigned building if you are unable to tutor for any given
reason. It is critical that the Site Coordinator have as much time as possible to locate a substitute
for you or make other arrangements.

The second session ________ tutors participate will be a paid position. To become a paid
district employee you will need to contact ______________, to complete the necessary
paperwork.

_________ and ________________
__________________ and _____________ have agreed to work together in establishing a
process that will foster the professional growth of potential educators. ___________ staff will
allow ________________ to participate in the afterschool tutoring program, evaluating the job
performance of each tutor. This evaluation is an important step to being admitted to
the_________________. As you begin or continue your work experience as a tutor please keep
in mind the evaluation forms on the following pages.




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                                            Tutor Academy Self-Evaluation
         Tutor’s Name:                                 Supervisor:                                   Date:

                                             Completion Deadline:
                      Return to: ____________________________________ upon completion.

         Please rate yourself using the scale below in specific areas of your performance as a Tutor.
         Utilize the comments area to explain your rating.
0 = Serious Concerns              1 = Needs Improvement                 2 = Emerging                      3 = Acceptable
The student displays behaviors    Occasionally but not                  The student is at an emergent     The student consistently
contrary to those expected.       consistently, the student             level; the behaviors may not be   displays the desired behavior.
                                  displays desired behavior.            consistent.


                             CATEGORY                                             Rating                     COMMENTS
Timeliness: Arrives on time; informs supervisor when necessary
to be late or absent.                                                    O    1     2      3
Dependability: Works on days scheduled to work, consistently
finishes assigned tasks in a timely manner.                              O    1     2      3
Appearance: Appropriate to the school setting. Demonstrates
professional judgment toward appearance.                                 O    1     2      3
Relationships with students & families: Sensitive to students’
academic and personal needs; has a positive attitude towards
students and families and is a role model for them.                      O    1     2      3
Quality of Tutoring: Understands the philosophy and
characteristics of tutoring, uses appropriate tutoring methods,
prepares for tutoring sessions as needed, understands the structure      O    1     2      3
of a tutoring session and practices that structure whenever possible.
Attitude: Accepts assigned tasks and displays a positive attitude.
                                                                         O    1     2      3
Availability/Willingness: Actively checks with students to see if
they need help. Willingly assists students or staff as needed.           O    1     2      3
Tutoring Skills: Displays good listening and comprehension
skills, motivates the students and explains the material.                O    1     2      3
Tutoring Knowledge: Has good subject area knowledge and
knows types of reference materials available.                            O    1     2      3
Growth on the Job: Shows improvement in the quality of
tutoring, in the knowledge of subject matter, familiarity with           O    1     2      3
materials, and areas of weakness.
Reaction to Supervisor: Discusses problems/questions with
supervisor and looks for guidance when necessary. Open to                O    1     2      3
supervisor’s suggestions and makes an effort to follow them.
Follows tutoring handbook.
Interest: Demonstrate a sincere interest in tutoring; treating the
tutoring position equally with other responsibilities.                   O    1     2      3




                                                                                                                              15
                                       Tutor Academy Supervisor Evaluation
         Supervisor:                                            Tutor’s Name:                             Date:

                                           Completion Deadline:
                   Return to: _______________________________________, upon completion.

         Please rate the tutor using the scale below in specific areas of his/her performance as a Tutor.
         Utilize the comments area to explain your rating.

0 = Serious Concerns             1 = Needs Improvement                  2 = Emerging                        3 = Acceptable
The student displays             Occasionally but not                   The student is at an emergent       The student consistently displays
behaviors contrary to those      consistently, the student              level; the behaviors may not be     the desired behavior.
expected.                        displays desired behavior.             consistent.


                             CATEGORY                                              Rating                         COMMENTS
Timeliness: Arrives on time; informs supervisor when necessary
to be late or absent.                                                     O    1     2      3
Dependability: Works on days scheduled to work, consistently
finishes assigned tasks in a timely manner.                               O    1     2      3
Appearance: Appropriate to the school setting. Demonstrates
professional judgment toward appearance.                                  O    1     2      3
Relationships with students & families: Sensitive to students’
academic and personal needs; has a positive attitude towards
students and families and is a role model for them.                       O    1     2      3
Quality of Tutoring: Understands the philosophy and
characteristics of tutoring, uses appropriate tutoring methods,
prepares for tutoring sessions as needed, understands the structure       O    1     2      3
of a tutoring session and practices that structure whenever possible.
Attitude: Accepts assigned tasks and displays a positive attitude.
                                                                          O    1     2      3
Availability/Willingness: Actively checks with students to see if
they need help. Willingly assists students or staff as needed.            O    1     2      3
Tutoring Skills: Displays good listening and comprehension
skills, motivates the students and explains the material.                 O    1     2      3
Tutoring Knowledge: Has good subject area knowledge and
knows types of reference materials available.                             O    1     2      3
Growth on the Job: Shows improvement in the quality of
tutoring, in the knowledge of subject matter, familiarity with            O    1     2      3
materials, and areas of weakness.
Reaction to Supervisor: Discusses problems/questions with
supervisor and looks for guidance when necessary. Open to                 O    1     2      3
supervisor’s suggestions and makes an effort to follow them.
Follows tutoring handbook.
Interest: Demonstrate a sincere interest in tutoring; treating the
tutoring position equally with other responsibilities.                    O    1     2      3




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End Notes
1
  Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. ―Afterschool Training Tool Kit.‖ Downloaded 1/26/06
http://www.sedl.org/afterschool/toolkits/about.html
2
 Halpern, Robert. ―Confronting the Big Lie: The Need to Reframe Expectations of Afterschool
PASE Downloaded 1/26/06
http://www.pasesetter.org/publicationResources/Publications/PDF/halpern.pdf
3
    Afterschool Aliance. ―Afterschool Resources.‖ Downloaded 1/26/06 http://afterschoolnow.org/
4
    Noam, Gil G.; Biancarosa, Gina; Dechausay Nadine. Afterschool Education: Approaches to an
    Emerging Field. Harvard Education Press, Cambridge, Ma; 2003.
5
 Halpern, Robert. ―Confronting the Big Lie: The Need to Reframe Expectations of Afterschool
PASE Downloaded 1/26/06
http://www.pasesetter.org/publicationResources/Publications/PDF/halpern.pdf
6
 Black, Susan. ―Learning After Hours.‖ American School Board Journal, June 2004: Vol 191,
No. 06. Downloaded 10/11/05. http://www.asbj.com/2004/06/0604research.html
7
    http://www.sedl.org/afterschool/toolkits/literacy/tk_introduction.html
8
    Grose, Claudia; Rupert, Naomi; Garro Costa, Luisa; Romero, Olga. ―Banks Street’s Guide to
    Literacy for Volunteers and Tutors.‖ Downloaded 1/26/06
    http://www.bankstreet.edu/literacyguide/pdfs/Bank%20Street%20Guide%20to%20Lit.pdf




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