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									U.S. ARMY SIGNAL CENTER AND FORT GORDON                                           Worldwide web homepage address http://                     PB 11-08-2
                                                                                  www.gordon.army.mil/ocos/AC/                              Spring 2008
                 COMMAND
                                                            Army
                                                                                  E-mail ACeditor@conus.army.mil                           Vol. 33 No. 2




                                                           Communicator
Commander/Commandant
BG Jeffrey W. Foley
Command Sergeant Major                                                                                                f the Signal Voice
CSM Thomas J. Clark
                                                           Voice of the Signal Regiment
                                                           Table of Contents
         EDITORIAL STAFF
                                                           Features
Editor-in-Chief/Graphic Designer                           3    Thoughts from a division G6
Janet A. McElmurray                                             LTC Jonathon R. Moelter
Senior Adviser                                             7    CSSAMO 101: A brief guide and experiences from a signal Soldier in a
Susan Wood                                                      logistical world
                                                                CW2 Aaron G. Tyler
llustrators
Billy Cheney, 2LT Karen Derrickson                         11   Innovation, flexibility remain keys to communications success in Iraq
                                                                MAJ Mike Brown
Photography                                                17   Supporting OIF Mobile regional hub node delivers network-enabling
SGT Michael Taylor, Charmain Z. Brackett,                       capabilities to lowest tactical echelon
MSG Sheila Sango, Stephen Larsen, Cory                          MAJ Jacqueline D. Brown, MAJ Phillippe R. Persaud, and CPT Jackie
Hanes, CPL Jessica Graham, MAJ Jeff Etienne,                    A.Williams
Brian Heaton, Donald Cook
                                                           21   Canadian Army transformation
                                                                MAJ Neil McKenna, Canadian Liaison Officer
                       Cover: Focus for this               25   Digitization of the French Army
                       edition is the G6/S6                     LTC Vincent Bajon, French Liaison Officer
                       business. “G6/S6 is
                                                           30   Signal Regiment Soldiers on point with NATO High Readiness Force
                       one of the most                          LTC Mark Rosentein
                       important jobs in the
                       Army.” Cover by Billy               33   Integrating a modular tactical signal company into the world of trans
                                                                formed Army sustainment
                       Cheney
                                                                CPT Jason Daugherty
     Army Communicator (ISSN 0362-5745) (USPS
305-470) is an authorized, official quarterly              38   RTO’s Academy uses signal community e-University resources to train
professional bulletin of the U.S. Army Signal Center,           Soldiers on the Iraqi battlefield
Fort Gordon, Ga. 30905-5301. Second-class official              Author
mail postage paid by Department of the Army (DOD
314) at Augusta, Ga. 30901 and additional mailing          45   Recommended changes to signal structure of the BCT
offices.                                                        MAJ Tom Schwab
     POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Army
Communicator, U.S. Army Signal Center, Fort                53   Tail of the surge -- tip of the spear
Gordon, Ga. 30905-5301.                                         MAJ Gina Thomas and Ron Cohen
     OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION: Army Communica-
tor is available to all Signal and Signal-related units,   56   Overcoming communications challenges of 07 surge
including staff agencies and service schools. Written
requests for the magazine should be submitted to                MAJ Mitchell McKinney
Editor, Army Communicator, U.S. Army Signal
Center, Fort Gordon, Ga. 30905-5301.                       60   C4 support in Afghanistan OEF VIII
     This publication presents professional                     LTC Patrick Dedham and CJ6 staff
information, but the views expressed herein are
those of the authors, not the Department of Defense        64   A tale of two admins
or its elements. The content does not necessarily               Bennett Hayth
reflect the official U.S. Army position and does not
change or supersede any information in other official      77   Army Forefathers lessons help shape organization’s future
U.S. Army publications. Use of news items                       Josh Davidson
constitutes neither affirmation of their accuracy nor
product endorsement.
     Army Communicator reserves the right to edit          79   Sel-development professional reading
material.                                                       LTC Kristin A. Ellis
     CORRESPONDENCE: Address all correspon-
dence to Army Communicator, U.S. Army Signal               81   The unseen warriors Army’s Combat Camera
Center and Fort Gordon, Signal Towers (Building                 Gordon Van Fleet
29808), Room 713, Fort Gordon, Ga. 30905-5301.
Telephone DSN 780-7204 or commercial (706) 791-            83   Baghdad Signal University graduates Iraqi army Soldiers
7204. Fax number (706) 791-3917.
     Unless otherwise stated, material does not
                                                                SGT Lewis M. Hilburn
represent official policy, thinking, or endorsement by
an agency of the U.S. Army. This publication
                                                                                                        By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
contains no advertising.
     U.S. Government Printing Office: 1984-746-045/
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1429-S.                                                                                                             GEORGE W. CASEY JR.
     Army Communicator is not a copyrighted                69  LandWarNet update                                   General, United States Army
publication. Individual author’s copyrights can be         72  Doctrine update                                            Chief of Staff
protected by special arrangement. Acceptance by
Army Communicator conveys the right for                    73  TCM update
subsequent reproduction and use of published                   Circuit check (Pease check our
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                                                                                                                                                 0805802
        Chief of Signal’s Comments
G6/S6 – a most important job in the Army                                             Hohenfels, Germany. Units in rotation
Regiment,
       First I want to update you on the                                             will interact with the best and most
“health of the regiment” – the Signal                                                experienced observer/controllers to
Regiment – you out there everyday –                                                  increase deployment readiness. HRC
are doing more and providing greater                                                 will assign experienced brigade S6
capabilities than ever before. We must                                               officers as the senior signal O/C; a
embrace the culture change of trans-                                                 seasoned warrant officer from each of
formation. We are now organized in                                                   our warrant military occupational
effective modular formations, with the                                               specialties, and will ensure that the
handpicked people in key positions,                                                  senior 25U assigned is handpicked for
and now we’re focused on getting                                                     this critical job.
future capabilities synchronized with                                                        S6 Officer Course. We are
our doctrine, training, organization, and                                            revising our battalion S6 course to
leader development. No where is this                                                 provide training for our officers who will
more important than in the G6/S6                                                     assume key brigade S6 positions. Along
world. We’ve dedicated this special                                                  with this capability, we are working to
edition to G6/S6 business because it is                                              ensure that these same officers attend
one of the most important jobs in the                                                the course en route to their new
Army. We must get this right. Thanks                                                 assignment. We have acquired Head-
for the overwhelming feedback and                                                    quarters Department of the Army
contributions to this edition.                                                       approval which will allow HRC to do
       As we explore all ways to help
                                                    BG Jeffrey W. Foley              exactly that. We are also executing Pre-
better prepare G6 and brigade S6s for                 Chief of Signal                Deployment Assistance Team or Mobile
these assignments, we are increasing                                                 Training Team visits. Our team of
training, providing greater access to                                                experienced officers and noncommis-
resources such as equipment simula-                                                  sioned officers has already made
tions, and conducting mobile training       To enhance G6/S6                         several trips to deploying units to help
                                                                                     them plan, organize, and employ all
team visits to deploying units. We’re
working hard to create a more collabo-
                                            support to the                           signal assets to successfully support
rative environment in which we share        Warfighter, we have                      the warfighting mission.
experience and collective knowledge                                                          S6 section training. A review of
better across the Signal Regiment.          improved manning at                      all training provided to our Soldiers and
There is great synergy in our shared        the CTCs; we are now                     leaders who serve in the S6 section is
                                                                                     also underway. I want to ensure that
experience.
       We have just published the           training Brigade S6s;                    what we teach the officers in the S6
                                                                                     course dovetails with what we teach our
Signal Center of Excellence Campaign
Plan that will cover the next six years,
                                            and we are executing                     warrants in the Warrant Officer Basic
and we’ve focused on those priorities       Pre-deployment                           Course and the same with our enlisted
we can achieve in 500 days.                                                          Soldiers in Basic Noncommissioned
       The 500 Day Plan is the action       Assistance Team visits                   Officer Course, and Advanced Noncom-
portion of the campaign plan. I’ve          to S6 sections as they                   missioned Officer Course. We’re also
                                                                                     realigning by unit type all of the
established eight critical priorities:
                                            prepare, plan, and                       downloadable equipment simulations on
                                                                                     LandWarNet eU to improve available
Campaign Plan Priorities
    Enhance G6/S6 Support to the
                                            organize signal assets                   resources to S6 personnel.
Warfighter                                  for deployment ...                               I have mentioned only a few of
  Support the development of the in-                                                 the initiatives we have underway here.
cremental Warfighter Information Net-       tension Capabilities                     There’s lots more going on. We have
work-Tactical Program                             Below are some specific action     included articles in this edition that
  Support the Development of the Fu-        items supporting the priority Enhance    highlight the challenges and successes
ture Combat System Program                  G6/S6 support to the Warfighter:         of our fellow signaleers in the field —
                                                                                     you are making it happen!
  Develop and Integrate NetOps Ca-
                                                  CTCs. In order to share our                If you haven’t been forwarded the
pabilities                                                                           “Chief of Signal Sends” emails with
  Expand Training Support to the Force      collective knowledge across the
                                            regiment, we will improve signal         news and our regular updates you can
throughout the ARFORGEN cycle                                                        catch up on our revamped Signal
                                            manning at the training centers. Soon
  Integrate Installation LandWarNet         Human Resources Command will             Center community page on AKO https://
Support to the Force                        assign additional signal personnel to    www.us.army.mil/suite/page/273
  Lead the delivery of incremental Joint    the Joint Readiness Training Center at
Tactical Radio System capabilities to       Fort Polk; to the National Training                   BG Jeff Foley
the force                                   Center at Fort Irwin; and to the Joint                Army Strong!
  Develop SATCOM and Network Ex-            Multinational Readiness Center at
                                                           CSM’s Comments
G6/S6 – checklists, SOPs improve skills to “fight the network”
Regiment,                                                                    G6/S6 support to the Warfighter. We will
    My name is Clark and I’m a Soldier!                                      increase the capabilities of your G6/S6
    In my opinion, “Soldier,” is one of the                                  section in the near term as we ramp up
most honored titles anywhere in the world                                    additional training opportunities, both vir-
today.                                                                       tual and on site, and as we work with
    I am proud to be your Signal Regimen-                                    deploying units to assist with G6/S6 sec-
tal Command Sergeant Major.                                                  tion checklists and standard operating pro-
    This is the third longest war in our                                     cedures to improve those skills necessary
Nation’s history, behind only the Revolu-                                    to command and control, or “fight the net-
tionary War and Vietnam. It is the only                                      work.”
conflict since the Revolutionary War that                                        In the near future, your units will re-
we have fought with an all volunteer force.                                  ceive copies of our Signal Center of Excel-
You and your extraordinary Soldiers re-                                      lence Campaign Plan with an embedded
flect the very best of our Nation during a                                   action plan for the next 500 days — please
time when the demands on our force are                                       read and share this with your fellow Sol-
significant. Seldom in our history have                                      diers.
Soldiers, leaders, and our Families faced                                        Please keep sending us your ques-
greater challenges.                                                          tions, ideas, and feedback. It’s important
    We know you are giving 100 percent to                                    that we work together closely as a regi-
your missions, while also living the Warrior                                 mental team.
                                                   CSM Thomas J.Clark
Ethos everyday. That’s why we are com-
                                               Regimental Command Sergeant
mitted to supporting the regiment across
the operational force with initiatives that                Major                           CSM Tom Clark
positively impact you and your Soldiers.                                                   Army Strong and Signal
    One example is our priority to enhance                                                 Proud!




             Editor’s Note: The Joint Network Node program is now called Increment 1 of Warfighter
             Information Network-Tactical. This change occurred in June 2007 as a result of the
             Department of Defense restructuring of the WIN-T program. There are now four
             Increments of WIN-T. Increment 1 (former JNN) is structured to support the maturing
             technology insertions from the WIN-T program.
                            WIN-T Increment 1 and JNN can be used interchangably.


2   Spring 2008
Thoughts from a division G6
By LTC Jonathon R. Moelter                                                                    The first step for any new G6 is
                                                                                        to understand the G6 mission. This
       In the past four or five years, the   Additionally, the G6 has                   should be defined as providing
Signal Regiment has seen more                to understand person-                      communications support for the
change in how we do business than I
                                             nel availability and                       division commander and his staff;
have seen in my entire military career.
                                                                                        ultimately enabling the commander to
I believe we have accelerated change         know there will likely be                  command and control the division
at a rate never before seen in the
Army. Today, signaleers are operat-          some positions Human                       through all phases of the deployment
                                                                                        cycle. The implied task of this
ing at the very front of communica-          Resources Command                          mission is to ensure the signal ele-
tions technologies. This article             will not be able to fill. In               ments of the division are trained and
discusses how changes in technology
and organization have affected the           these cases, tough calls                   equipped to accomplish their mission
                                                                                        and integrate into the division’s
way we do business today, how we             must be made as to fill                    network.
support deployed operations, and
what this means to a division assistant
                                             the division headquar-                           The challenge here is that the
                                                                                        division’s organic brigades are all at
chief of staff G6.                           ters or any specific                       different stages of their deployment
       Growing up in the Regiment I          brigade. As an ex-                         cycle. It is not unusual to have one
served four-and-a-half years as a
platoon leader and sixteen months as         ample, the Army is short                   unit resetting, one conducting home
                                                                                        station training, one at the NTC, one
a company commander in the 63rd              Functional Area 53 cap-                    preparing their equipment for
Signal Battalion. I have spent three
years in a joint assignment and two
                                             tains.                                     shipment to theater. The next chal-
                                                                                        lenge is that the units the division will
years as a signal trainer at the Na-
                                                                                        operate with are likely not the organic
tional Training Center. Never did I          Luckily for Huber and the Signal           brigades they know and have trained
think of being, or hoped to be, a            Regiment, the Joint Network Trans-         with. The following five topics are
division G6.                                 port Capability Center equipment           presented not as answers to the test
       Four years ago I was assigned as      was highly reliable and the 3rd            but to generate discussion and share
the first Division Special Troops            Infantry Division Signal Team              thoughts throughout our community.
Battalion signal company com-                accomplished the mission, setting the
mander. I was loving life — three            path for future change as we continue      Personnel
detachments supporting thirteen              to improve the organizations and                  As the senior signal officer of the
battalion headquarters, three brigade        equipment of the Signal Regiment.          division, one responsibility of the G6
headquarters, and the division’s                    After a successful year in Iraq     is to train and mentor the signal
command posts. More than 400                 and redeployment, I soon found             officers, noncommissioned officers,
Soldiers deployed to ten locations           myself on my way to Fort Hood to           and enlisted Soldiers of the division.
throughout the Baghdad area of               join the 4th Infantry Division. Today I    He must ensure signal leaders are put
operations.                                  am again at Camp Liberty, Iraq, but        in the right jobs at the right time in
       On the other side of Camp             this time as the division’s G6. With       their career to support the division
Liberty was the Army’s first centrally       the job has come a much greater            mission and the professional develop-
selected G6, LTC Frank Huber.                respect for the position and responsi-     ment of the Soldier.
Huber came to the Marne division             bility to the division and the Signal             In today’s deployment cycle, the
just in time to field the first set of       Regiment.                                  G6 doesn’t have much more than one
Warfighter Information Network-                     I joined the division four months   chance at getting this right. Once the
Tactical equipment, deploy it to the         after it returned from OIF 2005-06 and     slate is set, brigades will be rotating in
field in support of the Division             as it began the last training event        and out of theater at different times so
Mission Rehearsal Exercise, and then         prior to executing the mission re-         moving leaders between brigades or
deploy in support of Operation Iraqi         hearsal exercise for OIF 2007-09. My       the division headquarters will only be
Freedom III. He led an organization          story is no different than any other G6    possible in unique situations, not the
that wasn’t manned quite right, relied       in today’s deployed, modular Army.         norm.
on a set of equipment that had never         We all join our divisions usually at the          Additionally, the G6 has to
been tested, and was responsible for         end of resetting the unit and at the       understand personnel availability and
the division’s networks without              beginning of the cycle of receiving        know there will likely be some
command authority; quite a way to            troops and equipment in preparation        positions Human Resources Com-
welcome in the future modular Army.          for deployment.                            mand will not be able to fill. In these

                                                                                        Army Communicator                       3
cases, tough calls must be made as to                                                   the capabilities of their signal units
fill the division headquarters or any                                                   and how to best enable their units to
specific brigade. As an example, the         As the G6, Huber took the                  conduct their communications
Army is short Functional Area 53             lead on making recom-                      mission. STB commanders and staff
captains. Each brigade is authorized
one and there are two in the division
                                             mendations back to the                     must understand the requirements of
                                                                                        their signal units, what to check, what
headquarters. We made the call to            PM that quickly spiraled                   questions to ask, and how best to
send the three we had to the brigades        into future fieldings of                   assist their companies.
where they lacked the expertise the                                                            Commanders will take owner-
most and where the skills of the 53s         JNN equipment.                             ship of their signal companies but
will best support the mission.                                                          they must understand how actions at
       Finally, while deployed, there        bilities.                                  their level affect the overall division
will be a number of non-modified                    The division G6 must be             network.
table of equipment personnel require-        prepared to deploy small teams of
ments that must be filled. Teams such        experts to assist brigade S6s during       Equipping
as military training teams, reconcilia-      both home station train-ups and CTC               The WIN-T equipment fielded
tion cells, Joint Visitors Bureau, etc...    rotations. We must also look at wide       to 3rd Infantry Division in support of
are all division out-of-hide require-        ranging deficiencies across the            Operation Iraqi Freedom III proved to
ments. The G6 must fully understand          division and then coordinate for           be exceptional. In my years working
his organization’s strengths and             training opportunities to solve these      with both Digital Group Multiplexer
weaknesses so as to be in the best           deficiencies. Examples are frequency       and Mobile Subscriber Equipment,
position to support a fair-share of the      management, communications                 never before had I seen equipment as
extra requirements or justify the            security, fiber optic installation, and    reliable as the Hub, Joint Network
inability to accept additional taskings.     network operations and management          Nodes, and CPNs. Having the
       One area that requires much           to name a few.                             equipment support 12 months of
thought is the signal support at the                Additionally, G6s must look at      deployed operations in the harsh
company level. Many leaders in               how to assist and guide S6s in train-      environment of Iraq, not once did I
today’s Army agree secure Internet           ing their signal Soldiers within the       see a system fail.
Protocol router at the battalion level is    brigades. Because of the increased                We had more than our share of
insufficient for the current and future      numbers of FA53 officers and warrant       generator and air conditioner prob-
fight. SIPR must be taken to the             officers at the brigade level and in the   lems but the communications equip-
company and probably platoon levels.         G6 section, we are seeing fewer NCOs       ment held strong. As the G6, Huber
We must start the process now in             and Soldiers being offered the             took the lead on making recommen-
identifying how the Regiment will            opportunity to take on the higher          dations back to the PM that quickly
support S6s at the company level.            level network management and               spiraled into future fieldings of JNN
                                             planning tasks.                            equipment. Improvements were
Training                                            Many Soldiers and non-commis-       made and on the assembly line in less
      There are many aspects of              sioned officers are used in help desk      than 12 months, in time for the next
training that must be thought                operations and network monitoring          division’s fielding, and the division
through, planned, and executed.              but are limited in opportunities to        after that.
Because most brigades are at different       learn or put into practice the more               The capabilities found in the
points in their own deployment               technical skills of server management      first set of JNN equipment were
cycles, it is virtually impossible for the   or network planning. The draw down         cutting edge technologies that are
G6 to execute a single integrated            and subsequent rebuilding of person-       only today being seen in the civilian
training plan. You just won’t see the        nel strength in a unit also has a lot to   and commercial networks. We
division in the field with all its           do with the level of training achieved     continue to see improvements to our
brigades, supported by its organic           before deployment.                         capabilities and the future capabilities
signal assets as part of a larger                   Receiving Soldiers after the        that will keep us on the front edge of
division training exercise.                  units MRX and just before deploy-          technology for years to come. How-
      Even the division’s mission            ment often put Soldiers behind the         ever with that being said, it is not
rehearsal exercise was planned with          learning curve to take on the more         enough.
the majority of the network support          technical challenges and are therefore            As stated above, there is an
provided by the Army’s simulation            relegated to help desk functions until     increasing requirement to get SIPR
network, not the Warfighter Informa-         a concerted effort is made to put them     and NIPR to the company level. I am
tion Network-Tactical equipment.             in positions of greater responsibility.    in awe at the level of ingenuity signal
Small unit training up to brigade                   Finally, the G6 also has a          leaders have used in meeting this
training events are likely the best          responsibility to train the senior         requirement today. We find Redline
opportunity a G6 will have at validat-       leaders of the division and the brigade    AN-30 and AN-50 radios, VSAT,
ing the units communications capa-           Special Troops Battalion leaders on
4   Spring 2008
SPOP satellite systems, Coalition                                                        both red and green CAT5 cable as an
Military Nodes, HCLOS, Harris 7800                                                       initial stock.
radio systems, and data packages
                                            The G6s of tomorrow will                            In Iraq, there are vendors
throughout the Iraq network, in every       be the most influential                      available to purchase more as the
configuration imaginable.                                                                need arises but everything takes time.
       Our cable Soldiers are installing    leaders in our Regiment;                     You don’t want to begin behind.
fiber optic cable networks and              the leaders who shape our                           Another item along these same
commercial switches everywhere                                                           lines are Cisco switches. Switches
possible to free up tactical assets to be   future organizations; pro-                   must be life cycled just as we life
used at remote sites. Any and every         vide critical input to how                   cycle computers. We came to theater
idea is being tested and put to use in                                                   with 100 switches and fell in on a
solving the increasing challenge in         we equip our Army; de-                       number of spare TPE switches, but
getting acceptable communications                                                        today with 90 days into the deploy-
capabilities at both company and
                                            velop the concepts of how                    ment, we are down to less than half
platoon levels. Push-to-talk radio and      we operate today and in                      of our starting quantity.
blue force tracking is not good                                                                 There are, of course, many
enough in a digital world where small       the future; and teach,                       other small items like connectors, fan
level units require up-to-date intelli-     coach, and mentor our jun-                   out kits, wire ties, etc... which are
gence in order to out smart the                                                          required but, are too many to list
thinking enemy. With this comes just        ior leaders.                                 here.
one of the many financial costs of                                                              With installing the network
doing business.                             need in theater.                            comes protecting it.
       There are many communica-                   The next requirement is the                 A few additional items we
tions capabilities that divisions must      need for telephones. No longer do we        found not on the MTOE but required
purchase in order to support combat         rely on the Army green, fielded             to purchase were Yellow Jacket
operations that are not provided            telephones. Cisco VoIP phones are           wireless detection devices to identify
through the many Army programs of           also not fielded in sufficient quantities   unauthorized emitters and spectrum
record. It all starts at home station       with our Warfighter Information             analyzers to support our frequency
during reset and preparation for            Network-Tactical equipment.                 managers’ mission of identifying
deployment. The first required                     Divisions must do an analysis of     sources of frequency interference or
purchase is for automation equip-           what the requirement is to plus up on       jamming.
ment. If your division doesn’t have a       hand instruments to support the                    Additionally, our information
base line Computer Table of Equip-          division training requirements and          assurance Soldiers required specific
ment developing one is a necessary          then again, rely on TPE to meet all the     sets of software to conduct forensic
place to start. Sure, we get some           extra requirements we only see in           analysis on systems found to be
computers through Program Manager           theater.                                    infected with new viruses or to
funded Army Battle Command                         With telephones and computers        investigate misuse of government
Systems but, these machines do not          comes the capability to install them.       systems.
come close to the automation require-       What is needed here is cable, wire,                Finally, there are things such as:
ments of the division.                      and the necessary tools to complete         hand-held radio ancillaries like
       If you don’t have an approved        the installation. None of our current       batteries, headsets, holsters, and
CTOE that is used as an approval            MTOEs provide the tools necessary to        hands-free push to talk devices;
document you will never come close          install commercial fiber optic cable or     maintenance equipment like air
to controlling the number of systems        even CAT5 cable. The latter are             compressors and static-free vacuums;
in your network.                            inexpensive crimpers and cutters but        solar shades, and many other items
       Without a CTOE you will not          for fiber optics we need fusion             necessary to support the day-to-day
have the tool necessary to control the      splicers, termination kits, and many        operations of our Soldiers – all items
appetites of your BCTs. It is my belief     other specialized tools not found on        not found on the MTOE.
that if we don’t control the sheer          our MTOEs.
numbers of computers purchased at                  Every year, our cable Soldiers       Maintenance
home station we will never be able to       are installing miles of locally pur-               Maintenance is an area that we
afford the millions of dollars it will      chased fiber optics to support com-         still don’t have quite right. Brigades
cost every year for life cycle replace-     mercialization efforts throughout the       are not yet manned or equipped to
ment.                                       many forward operating bases.               conduct signal maintenance on their
       Every unit appears to have           Where the Army used to provide              own. We haven’t trained any future
accepted the fact that Theater Pro-         WD-1 or WF-16 wire, there is no             planned system or organization to
vided Equipment has got to be the           CAT5 on the MTOE.                           accomplish the mission. Many
means of filling the delta between                 A typical division headquarters      divisions are still relying on the
what we use at home and what we             must deploy with at least 300 boxes of      division STB as the direct support

                                                                                        Army Communicator                        5
maintenance for all units. The next        are collocated and working together to          and in the future; and teach, coach,
MTOE we organize to eliminates the         manage their part of the network.               and mentor our junior leaders.
division STB Communications and            Unfortunately, this is not necessarily the
Electronics facility and builds a          norm. I have seen where the NETOPS is                   LTC Moelter’s last duty assignments
maintenance oversight capability in        not located anywhere near the S6 and            were with 3rd Infantry Division, Fort
the G6.                                    where the JNN supporting the BCT CP             Stewart, Ga., as deputy G6 and then as 1st
       We cannot move to this concept      is not attached to the CP. This creates         Division STB Signal Company commander.
until the logistics community is           barriers in information flow and                He then served six months as an integrations
trained and online to accept the           management of the network.                      officer in the Training and Doctrine
responsibility. Until then we will                 The challenge G6s face is when to       Command Program Integration Office for
continue to survive with the reduced       let the brigades manage their portion of        Networks, U.S. Army Signal Center, Fort
C&E capability within the G6 and           the network and when to step in. In the         Gordon. Moelter now serves as the division
STB with a heavy reliance on field         old days of Digital Group Multiplexer           G6 for 4th ID and Multinational Division-
service reps and Civilian contractors.     and Mobile Subscriber Equipment,                Baghdad.
       What this means in the de-          when there was a problem in a shelter,
ployed environment is extra down           first the platoon leadership got involved.
time while we wait to deploy techni-       After a sufficient amount of time, if the           ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
cians from the division headquarters       problem wasn’t solved, then the
to the location with the problem.          company got involved until finally the            BCT CP – Brigade Combat Team
       Another issue we found was in       battalion sent its high speed warrants            Command Post
accountability of Warfighter Informa-      out and the issue was solved.                     C&E – Communications and Electron-
tion Network-Tactical repair parts                                                           ics
                                                   Today, brigades have their own            COMSEC – communications security
that have been pushed down to the          warrants and other experts but we must            CONUS – Continental United States
brigade or battalion level. We have        better define when it is beyond their             CP – command post
made great progress through the            capability to solve a problem and when            CPN – command post node
division G4 in tracking precscribed        the division must take over in leading            CTC – Combat Training Center
load list parts within the units Stan-     the trouble shooting effort. Given the            CTOE – Computer Table of Equip-
dard Army Management Information           limited quantities of JNNs and CPNs,              ment
Systems. There is no other way of                                                            DGM – Digital Mulitiplexer Group
                                           we also have to look at when the                  HCLOS – High Capacity Line-of-Sight
ensuring our critical communications       division must step in and dictate where           Radios
systems repair parts are not lost or       network assets are deployed to ensure             HRC – Human Resources Command
forgotten as we conduct change of          network capabilities are spread                   JNTC – Joint Network Transport Ca-
commands and rotate battalion staffs.      throughout the division’s area of                 pability
       Maintenance of all the non-         responsibility, in the most efficient             MiTT – Military Training Teams
organic systems we rely on today is                                                          MSE – mobile subscriber equipment
                                           manner. We are all making it happen
also a significant challenge. We do                                                          MND-B – Multinational Division –
                                           but sometimes at the cost of efficiency           Baghdad
not carry sufficient PLL for the           and time.                                         MTOE – Modified Table of Organiza-
systems like our AN-50s or VSATs so                I never thought I would ever hope         tion and Equipment
most have to be shipped back to            to be a staff officer. However, the time I        MRX -- Mission Rehearsal Exercise
CONUS for repairs and units must           have spent in this outstanding organiza-          NCO – noncommissioned officers
survive without the capability, or shift   tion and the discussions I have had with          NIPR – Non-secure Internet Protocol
assets to continue mission support.                                                          Router
                                           our senior leaders of the Regiment have           NETOPS – network operations
                                           all changed my thoughts. I took the job           NTC – National Training Center
Network management                         because I competed for it and was                 OIF – Operation Iraqi Freedom
       Network operations continues to     selected, and most importantly because            PLL – Prescribed Load List
be a critical area where we need to        I saw the challenges Huber faced and              STB – Special Troops Battalion
implement doctrine and field advanced      the impact he made on the division and            WIN-T – Warfighter Information Net-
tools to simplify the process. Today,      signal community.                                 work-Tactical
every division does it differently.                                                          JNN – Joint Network Nodes
                                                   If there is anything I can pass on to     SIPR – Secure Internet Protocol Router
       Given the concept of how divi-      the next generation of signal lieutenant          SPOP – Sustainable Practices and
sions deploy without their organic         colonels, I hope it is a new desire to be         Opportunities Plan
brigades, not training to a doctrinal      one of the few Army division G6s. The             STAMIS – Standard Army Manage-
standard is problematic. The next set of   G6s of tomorrow will be the most                  ment Information System
MTOEs will help significantly with the     influential leaders in our Regiment;              TPE – Theater Provided Equipment
realignment of NETOPS under the G6                                                           VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol
                                           the leaders who shape our future
and S6 sections.                                                                             Router
                                           organizations; provide critical input to          VSAT – Very Small Aperture Terminal
       The most functional NETOPS are      how we equip our Army; develop the
those where the signal company and S6      concepts of how we operate today


6   Spring 2008
CSSAMO 101:
A brief guide and experiences from a signal
Soldier in a logistical world
By CW2 Aaron G. Tyler                     Standard Army Management               toughest task – ensuring these
                                          System-Enhanced and Property           systems remained connected with
      As signal Soldiers we have all      Book Unit Supply Enhanced, had         the SSA. The Standard Army Retail
worked in or with an S6 during            connectivity with the Standard         Supply System-1 had a dedicated
some point of our career. This            Army Retail Supply System-1 which      CSS VSAT providing connectivity to
experience has molded our opinions        is located in the BCT’s Supply         higher echelons of the Army supply
and beliefs of the S6 tasks and the       Support Activity. These three          system, as well as, all subordinate
support provided to the organic           systems combined to provide the        supply systems. The SSA’s CSS
unit. This same experience cannot be      backbone of the CSS network, which     VSAT also provided NIPR connec-
applied to a similar section, the         allows all classes of supply to flow   tivity for the BCT’s radio frequency
Combat Service Support Automation         into the BCT.                          identification device/in transit
Management Office. Army transfor-                The primary technologies used   visibility system and SAAS-MOD
mation has forced these two, once         to establish the CSS network were      server. In addition, we were respon-
distinct sections, to share similar       CSS very small aperture terminal       sible for maintaining the MC4
information technology disciplines        interfaces, combined-service support   network used within the BCT’s
and skill sets at the same level.         automated system, and other            medical treatment facility, which
Modularity has made the brigade           commercial networking equipment.       had a dedicated commercial VSAT.
combat team the center of gravity for     CSS VSATs provided contracted
all actions and operations, pushing       commercial non-secure Internet              System administration
CSSAMO down to the brigade level.         Protocol router access via a                 Our units were spread across
To better acquaint signal Soldiers        deployable and mobile satellite        the Diyala province; thus making
with the roles of a CSSAMO, I will        communication terminal. CAISI          typical system administration very
highlight my experience during my         provided commercial off-the-shelf      challenging. As in the S6, we were
15 month deployment to Iraq. I will       wireless technologies, which elimi-    responsible for ensuring all sup-
discuss S6 related tasks conducted        nated long cable runs and provided     ported STAMIS met all Army and
by my section, as well as, expound        a greater footprint of NIPR access.    Department of Defense information
on CSSAMO as an emerging area for         Cisco routers and switches are some    assurance policies. Some system
signal Soldiers. Lastly, I will provide   of the commercial equipment we         administration required my section
a few “commandments” for signal           used to make the CSS network more      to travel to outlying forward operat-
Soldiers who may find themselves in       flexible, scalable, and adaptable.     ing bases to provide the necessary
or headed to a CSSAMO.                           PBUSE is a web-based program    services. For certain time sensitive
                                          easily accessed from any computer      tasks, we used remote administra-
S6 related tasks                          with NIPR capabilities. For our        tion software in a limited capacity.
      While my section was de-            PBUSE supported customers, we                The various STAMIS sup-
ployed to Northern Iraq, we were          ensured we had NIPR access, which      ported by my section were based on
responsible for providing network         was provided by the unit’s S6          a variety of commercial operating
administration, system administra-        section the majority of the time. In   systems. Some of the operating
tion, and other IT tasks for all          certain situations where the S6 NIPR   systems included: Microsoft’s 2000,
logistical systems within our BCT’s       network was not accessible to units,   XP, 2003 Server, and SCO Unix. This
area of responsibility.                   my section stepped in and provided     required my section to be well
                                          the connection. This was achieved by   versed in all operating systems to
   Network administration                 using CAISIs providing a wireless      ensure proper administration. It also
      Our most important task was         local area network connection to       required my section be adaptable
establishing the network used within      either the S6 NIPR network or a        and knowledgeable of emerging
our BCT based on the various              CSSAMO supported CSS VSAT.             advances in each particular operat-
logistical standard Army manage-                 The BCT’s infrastructure of     ing system.
ment information systems. Our             SAMS-E systems was entirely                  One of our significant system
BCT’s footprint expanded over             supported by CSS VSATs. SAMS-E         administration tasks was the imple-
seventy-seven thousand square             is a self-sufficient database, where   mentation of Software Change
miles. Our focal point was ensuring       each individual system is a            Packages and Interim Change
that our main supply systems,             standalone. This proved to be our      Packages to all supported STAMIS.

                                                                                 Army Communicator                   7
During the deployment, our sup-                                                   increase of signal Soldiers, in par-
ported STAMIS faced several                                                       ticular 25Bs and 251As, to be as-
upgrades that required my section to
                                         Though my Soldiers                       signed to a CSSAMO. The 25Bs in
physically administer to each            and I belong to the                      my section provided the technical
system; this amounted to more than                                                assistance needed for all STAMIS
150 systems spread across the            Signal Regiment, we                      and networking for supported units.
battlefield. Though there are typi-      found ourselves in a                     They possess the skill set to install,
cally associated obstacles that occur                                             operate, and maintain multi-func-
when upgrades are conducted with         world of logisticians.                   tional/multi-user information
ongoing operations; we ensured the       Our main focus was                       processing systems, peripheral
process was seamless for our sup-                                                 equipment, and associated devices
ported units.                            ensuring the systems                     in mobile and fixed facilities. They
      Another significant task was                                                are responsible for the testing of
the installation of information
                                         our logisticians used                    program software and scripting.
assurance vulnerability alert soft-      were reliable, secure,                   They are also responsible for con-
ware patches. Just as the S6 is                                                   ducting data system studies and
responsible for ensuring all systems     and available when                       preparation of documentation for
are frequently updated with IAVAs,       their mission called for                 proposals.
my section had to ensure all STAMIS                                                     I was the only 251A within the
were in compliance. Installing           them to support the                      CSSAMO of the BCT. I managed all
IAVAs in theater was a difficult         warfighters on the                       personnel and information system
process. STAMIS are not established                                               assets supporting the STAMIS
in a domain structure, so the ability    ground.                                  framework for the BCT and served
to push an IAVA patch down from a                                                 as the brigade liaison officer for all
central server was not possible. A       CSSAMO world, a “STAMIS Gun-             STAMIS issues. I advised the
workaround in theater was created        nery.” We conducted a STAMIS             brigade support operations officer
by the 13th Sustainment Command          Gunnery in Kuwait prior to moving        on all STAMIS related matters. I
(E) and 316th Expeditionary Sustain-     north, which allowed us to ensure        developed and deployed the CSS
ment Command with a Windows              our systems were operational and         network for the BCT. I was also the
Servers Update Services which            able to communicate. Lastly, in          sole Information Assurance Officer
enabled all CSSAMOs in theater to        garrison and in theater we con-          for all STAMIS within the BCT.
redirect their STAMIS to the WSUS        ducted various IT tasks mimicking a            Signal is not the only branch
server to retrieve all IAVAs in a        typical S6, such as recovery of failed   represented in my section. My
timely manner.                           databases, customer site visits, and     section also had personnel from the
                                         refresher training for supported         quartermaster and medical branches.
Additional IT tasks                      systems.                                 Their background and experiences
      My section was also respon-                                                 provided the skill set to support our
sible for other various S6 related       Signal MOSs in a logistical world        customers from a functional aspect.
tasks specifically for logistical              Signal military occupational       This is the underlying difference
automation. One major responsibil-       specialties have always been autho-      between my section and an S6. In
ity was ensuring all supported           rized in a CSSAMO, yet with the          addition to providing technical
equipment, such as laptops, printers,    emergence of the modular BCT the         support, we were responsible for
and networking equipment were            number of authorizations has             providing functional support for
operational. We conducted limited        increased tremendously. In a typical     every STAMIS we supported.
hardware repair and replacement for      heavy division, there was one                  Though my Soldiers and I
certain items. Those items still under   CSSAMO authorized for the entire         belong to the Signal Regiment, we
warranty were evacuated to               division found in the Division           found ourselves in a world of
Tobyhanna-Forward Repair Activity        Support Command.                         logisticians. Our main focus was
at Logistics Support Area Anaconda,            Modularity has created a           ensuring the systems our logisticians
providing general hardware repair        CSSAMO within each BCT, amount-          used were reliable, secure, and
and replacement. In addition we had      ing to six sections within a typical     available when their mission called
a certain percentage of “floats” for     heavy division (4 x BCTs, 1 x Avia-      for them to support the warfighters
every STAMIS, or piece of equip-         tion BDE, and 1 x Sustainment BDE,       on the ground. The systems we
ment, we supported. This allowed us      which since moved to 13 SC (E)),         supported touched every aspect of
to do “on-the-spot” exchange for all     with each section responsible for sole   the logistical world, the Signal skills
supported customers.                     STAMIS support of their respective       and experiences we brought high-
      Another task many Signal           BCT or BDE.                              lighted the current Army motto of
personnel would find familiar is a             The increase of CSSAMOs            “Army Strong.” We strengthen our
communications exercise or in the        throughout a division requires an        unit by bringing together automa-

8   Spring 2008
tion support and logistics.              on technology that is emerging in the    Afghanistan.
                                         Signal arena in order to increase
Seven commandments of a                  support provided to my users. As         6. Thou shall document, then
CSSAMO                                   the number of Army information           document again.
      The following are seven            systems continues to grow, com-                The ability to document
guidelines that helped me during my      manders want the ability to share        procedures and create historical
time as a member of a CSSAMO in          data between different platforms         information greatly benefits a
garrison and in theater. This is not a   and synchronize information across       CSSAMO. Technology changes
comprehensive list, only a starting      many disciplines. A CSSAMO that          often, but the ability to rely on
point for signal Soldiers who find       remains connected to their Signal        historical data and procedures
themselves in or headed to a             roots empowers their commanders          maximizes information dominance.
CSSAMO.                                  with information dominance.              In my section’s relief-in-place
                                                                                  process, both deploying and rede-
1. Thou shall keep the logistician       4. Thou shall know all supported         ploying, the advantage of having
connected.                               systems.                                 network schemes, wireless access
      As a CSSAMO, our number                  There is an Army saying “if        keys and encryption, and system
one mission was to leverage technol-     there is data to be stored, then there   administration data readily on hand
ogy to improve the BCT’s logistical      is an Army information system to         made the Relief-In-Place/Transfer of
operation. The advances of file          store it.” CSSAMO supports a             Authority process a smooth transi-
transfer protocol and data sharing       variety of information systems and       tion. I was able to obtain a variety of
allowed the logistician to obtain,       acronyms that would stump any            tactics, techniques, and procedures;
distribute, and maintain logistical      normal Soldier, such as Medical          workarounds, and other documents
data more effectively. 3BCT, 1CD         Communications for Combat                that I placed on an external hard
Support Operations Officer, MAJ          Casualty care, Property Book Unit        drive for the incoming unit.
Clint Taylor highlighted this point      Supply Enhanced, Standard Army
by saying “connecting the logistician    Maintenance System- Enhanced,            7. Thou shall stay connected with
allows critical sustainment and          Standard Army Retail Supply              commercial contractors.
requirement data to flow from the        System-1, Transportation Coordina-              The various logistical systems
end user through to the wholesale        tors-Automated Information for           supported by a CSSAMO were
DoD (Department of Defense)              Movements System- II, Radio              developed by a private contractor
logistics system. “                      Frequency Identification Device/ In-     for the Army. The ability to establish
                                         Transit Visibility to Standard Army      communication lines with local
2. Thou shall be familiar with the       Ammunition System-Modernization          contractors in garrison and in theater
logistician world.                       are just a few. Once I identified the    has greatly benefited my section in
      When I first arrived in my         various systems my section sup-          support of these systems. In addi-
current position in CSSAMO, I was        ported, I was able to establish          tion, leveraging the knowledge of
immediately introduced to a logisti-     training guidelines and documenta-       the contractors who developed a
cian vernacular unfamiliar to me.        tion for my section to provide the       particular system, allows you to
Terms and acronyms such as, 0-26         needed support to our units.             keep both the functional aspect and
report, BB status, TRANS-IN/OUT,                                                  technical aspect of a system fairly
RIC, MILSTRIP and much more              5. Thou shall stay connected with        close. A contractor from McLane
have found their way into my Signal      other CSSAMOs.                           Advance Technology, Joseph Rich,
military-dialect. I realize that, to            The ability to stay connected     stated “a private contractor is
provide better support to my units I     and pass information between other       dedicated to one system; a CSSAMO
needed to learn some of their            CSSAMOs greatly helped my section        Soldier is concerned about every
processes and their daily workings.      and me. The majority of issues           system”, he continued “using our
I was once told by another CSSAMO        arising in support for STAMIS have       knowledge is a no brainer.”
officer-in-charge, CW3 Michael           already been addressed or another
Roberts of 15th Sustainment Brigade      unit has already established a           Conclusion
“sometimes you have to become a          workaround. My section was able to             Many tasks of a CSSAMO
logistician, to find out what they       pass information and establish           mirror the tasks of an S6. Network
need Signal-wise to get the mission      processes for some STAMIS issues         administration, system administra-
accomplished.”                           which benefited other units in           tion, and other various IT tasks play
                                         theater. One great tool in use in        a vital role for both sections. The
3. Thou shall remain acquainted          theater was a CSSAMO distribution        ability to connect the logistician and
with the signal world.                   list, which greatly aided in the         provide dedicated automation
     During my time in CSSAMO, I         dissemination and sharing of             support to logistical systems proves
had to ensure I remained competent       information throughout Iraq and          to be a key component of success for
                                                                                  any CSSAMO. The skills and knowl-

                                                                                  Army Communicator                     9
edge signal Soldiers bring to a                                               daunting at first, but the knowledge
CSSAMO greatly effect the logistical                                          obtained in prior assignments can be
operations of a unit and the need       An S6 is responsible for              put to use in a CSSAMO. Logisti-
continues.                                                                    cians have a dedicated automation
      As more BCTs are formed,
                                        all Army Battle Com-                  office and signal Soldiers are up to
CSSAMO continues to be a focus for      mand Systems and                      the task to provide the support.
logistical automation for Army units.   CSSAMO is responsible                          CW2 Aaron Tyler currently
This requires more signal Soldiers to                                         serves as the officer-in-charge for a
venture into a logistical environ-      for Combat Service                    CSSAMO. He deployed with 3rd BCT,
ment. The skill sets a 25B or 251A      Support Automated                     1st CD to Iraq in support of Operation
obtain as an S6 will benefit them                                             Iraqi Freedom 06-08. His previous
greatly when transitioning to a
                                        Systems.                              assignment was with the G6, U.S.
CSSAMO. The significant difference                                            Intelligence Command at Fort Belvoir,
between a CSSAMO and an S6 are                                                Va. Tyler holds a Bachelor of Science
the systems they support. An S6 is      responsible for Combat Service        degree from the University of Maryland.
responsible for all Army Battle         Support Automated Systems. The
Command Systems and CSSAMO is           terminology and systems may seem


                                           ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
   13th SC (E) – 13th Sustainment         port Very Small Aperture Terminal     RFID/ITV – Radio Frequency Identi-
   Command (Expeditionary)                CSSAMO – Combat Service Sup-          fication Device/ In-Transit Visibility
   251A – Information Systems Tech-       port Automation Management Of-        RIP/TOA – Relief in place/Transfer
   nician                                 fice                                  of Authority
   25B – Information Systems-Special-     DISCOM – Division Support Com-        SAAS-MOD – Standard Army Am-
   ists                                   mand                                  munition System-Modernization
   316th ESC – 316th Expeditionary        DOD – Department of Defense           SAMS-E – Standard Army Mainte-
   Sustainment Command                    ESC – Expeditionary Sustainment       nance System- Enhanced
   3BCT, 1CD – 3rd Brigade Combat         Command                               SARSS-1 – Standard Army Retail
   Team, 1st Cavalry Division             FOB – Forward Operating Base          Supply System-1
   AOR – Area of Responsibility           FRA – Forward Repair Activity         SATCOM – satellite communication
   ABCS – Army Battle Command Sys-        FTP – File Transfer Protocol          terminal
   tems                                   IAVA – Information Assurance Vul-     SCP – Software Change Package
   BCT – Brigade Combat Team              nerability Alert                      SSA – Supply Support Activity
   BDE – Brigade                          ICP – Interim Change Package          STAMIS – Standard Army Manage-
   BSB – Brigade Support Battalion        IT – Information Technology           ment Information System
   CAISI – Combat-Service-Support         LAN – Local Area Network              TC-AIMS-II – Transportation Coor-
   Automated Information Systems In-      LSA Anaconda – Logistics Support      dinators’-Automated Information for
   terface                                Area Anaconda                         Movements System- II
   CD – Cavalry Division                  MOS – military occupational spe-      Tobyhanna-FRA – Tobyhanna –For-
   COMMEX – Communications Exer-          cialty                                ward Repair Activity
   cise                                   MC4 – Medical Communications for      TTPs – Tactics, Techniques and
   COTS – Commercial off-the-shelf        Combat Casualty Care                  Procedures
   CSS – Combat Service Support           NIPR – Non-Secure Internet Proto-     WSUS – Windows Server Update
   CSSAS – Combat Service Support         col Router                            Services
   Automated Systems                      OIC – Officer-In-Charge               VSAT – Very Small Aperture Termi-
   CSS VSAT – Combat Service Sup-         PBUSE – Property Book Unit Sup-       nal
                                          ply Enhanced




10 Spring 2008
Innovation,
    flexibility remain keys
to communications success in Iraq
By MAJ Mike Brown                         BCTs in the Army and was estab-         cluded a beyond line-of-sight
                                          lished beginning in the summer of       capability, as well as, enhanced
      Along with the Army’s new
                                          2005 and deployed to OIF in the fall    situational awareness for all coali-
modular concept came a significant
                                          of 2006.                                tion forces operating in the area.
change to the way communicators
                                                                                         Once developed, this design
support brigade combat teams.
                                          Riverine operations                     was applied in a “plug and play”
However, some things never change.
                                                One of the problems 1st           manner as required depending on
The following article highlights a few
                                          Battalion (Airborne), 501st Infantry    when the watercraft were made
examples of the importance of
                                          faced in north Babil, Iraq, was how     available to the battalion for opera-
innovation and flexibility, as well as,
                                          to interdict insurgents and extremist   tions.
accomplishments of some of our best
                                          groups along the Euphrates River
and brightest paratroopers from 4th
                                          valley. A portion of their solution     Internet Relay Chat
Brigade Combat Team (Airborne),
                                          included the integration of patrol            During the BCT’s OIF mission
25th Infantry Division, Spartan
                                          boats along the Euphrates River.        rehearsal exercise at the Joint
Brigade, while executing combat
                                          When asked to overlay an architec-      Readiness Training Center, Fort
operations in support of Operation
                                          ture to support command and             Polk, La., it quickly became apparent
Iraqi Freedom 06-08.
                                          control and situational awareness,      that the existing system we had for
      With the many advances in
                                          the paratroopers of the battalion S6    the brigade command net did not
technology and resources made
                                          section developed a dismounted          meet the brigade commander’s
available to modular BCTs, our real
                                          solution for powering and sustaining    intent or vision for command and
success continues to hinge on our
                                          an AN/VRC-92 along with vehicular       control.
greatest asset, the individual signal
                                          blue force tracking all mounted to            At that time, Macromedia
Soldier. Also, I will discuss some of
                                          boats for key leaders as they con-      Breeze’s chat program was being
the advantages and challenges of the
                                          ducted patrols along the Euphrates      used to facilitate real time data
new modular force structure as it
                                          River.                                  communications between the
relates to command, control, commu-
                                                The design included a fiber       brigade and battalion command
nications and computers operations
                                          glass tuff bin that could be mounted    posts. What we learned was that we
in a modular BCT. In order to better
                                          in the boat to protect components       needed a reliable and scalable
understand the context of these
                                          from the environment. This solution     Internet Relay Chat capability that
observations, 4th Brigade Combat
                                          provided for a more robust commu-       could time stamp and log all entries.
Team (Airborne), 25th Infantry
                                          nications architecture which in-
Division is one of the newly formed




Figure 1. Blue Force Tracking                               Figure 2. Blue Force Tracking

                                                                                  Army Communicator                   11
Figure 3. G-Shark                                   Figure 4. G-Shark digram
       The brigade’s automation          and canals such as our operational       other brigades in Multinational
officer was tasked to develop            environment in Iraq, air assault         Division – Center.
quickly an IRC capability that would     operations provide a great mecha-
meet this requirement. With the          nism for striking the enemy where        BCT tactical assault command post
brigade’s existing server infrastruc-    he operates. 3rd Battalion (Air-                Due to the limited time avail-
ture and many hours of combing           borne), 509th Infantry was given the     able in preparing for OIF, the
through configuration files, Spartan     mission of striking targets using air    brigade was not able to fully exercise
mIRC was born and implemented at         assault as the predominant means of      its tactical assault command post.
JRTC.                                    infiltration and ex-filtration during           When directed to conduct
       Spartan mIRC currently resides    Operation Marne Avalanche.               offensive operations in Ad
on two Dell servers that are linked             Due to the geographical           Diwaniyah, Iraq, in support of
together in order to provide redun-      dispersion of many of these targets,     Operation Black Eagle, we were
dancy and support on average 90-         the battalion S6 section adopted a       faced with the requirement for a
100 users in the command channel         concept developed by other special       robust tactical assault command post
alone. This server currently pro-        operations and airborne units.           with various enablers requiring
vides approximately six different               They also adopted the name        secure Internet Protocol router
channels that primarily replicate our    used by the 82nd Airborne Division,      network, non-secure Internet Proto-
brigade frequency modulation net         the Super High-speed Airborne            col router network, voice over IP
structure.                               Radio Kit with a little Geronimo         services, blue force tracking, and
       Due to the sheer size of our      flavor, G-SHARK.                         combat net radio support to include
operational environment, IRC is                 By modifying a Polaris Ranger,    single channel tactical satellite
proven as one of the most critical C2    the battalion successfully installed a   communications. Our solution was
assets that we employ and has            3KW generator, AN/PRC-150 (HF            to leverage the capabilities of a
effectively replaced the brigade’s FM    radio), AN/PRC-117F (single              command post platform and a
nets. Aside from being very band-        channel tactical satellite), a blue      satellite terminal trailer.
width friendly, mIRC generates log       force tracker, AN/VRC-92, a                     This configuration supported
files that can be used for historical    manpack Guardian Counter Radio           the requirements of the TAC, as well
purposes to include conducting           Controlled-IED Electronic Warfare        as, provided additional power
investigations and building opera-       system, and various whip and OE-         generation capability housed in the
tions summaries and storyboards.         254 antennas. This platform can be       CPP. The CPP allowed us to consoli-
       This is a tremendous capability   air assaulted via a CH-47 and            date our combat net radio systems
that should be strongly considered       provides a great venue for effective     and provided hard and soft common
for inclusion in the Army’s architec-    C2 for a battalion tactical assault      access units via tactical operations
ture for BCT tactical enterprise         command post or company com-             center network. The configuration
services.                                mand post.                               worked extremely well and sup-
                                                This capability was effectively   ported 23 secure Internet Protocol
Air assault operations                   used on numerous occasions in            router network users, five non-
     In a predominantly rural            support of Operation Marne Ava-          secure Internet Protocol router
environment with many rural roads        lanche and has been adopted by two       network users, six common access
12 Spring 2008
                                                              Figure 6. G-Shark diagram. Low Data Rate
Figure 5. G-Shark digram                                      Communications using the PRC 117F
rusers, and 11 VoIP phones. Our          a low data rate communications          Battalion (Airborne), 509th Infantry
setup time was reduced, as were the      solution was emplaced at a coalition    in conjunction with RCT 5 devel-
requirement for various dismounted       patrol base in north Babil, Iraq.       oped a concept for communications
very high frequency-FM and single-             The solution provided a much      support that would allow the
channel tactical satellite systems.      needed data capability at Jurf As       battalion to use its organic equip-
      With tactical operations center    Sukhr patrol base. The solution         ment and maintain ties to its parent
network, we were able to provide         provided Apache Company the             brigade headquarters while at the
combat net radio communications to       ability to send data obtained from      same time capitalizing on the
the desktop via the network thus         patrols and engagements to its          existing capabilities available at
allowing our TAC personnel to            parent battalion headquarters using     Camp Fallujah.
monitor CNR communications from          a Harris AN/PRC-117F radio, radio             The solution involved using the
any given workstation via the            programming application, high-          battalion’s CPN and STT in the
network. This also helped to reduce      performance waveform, and a serial      brigade’s time division multiple
the noise level in the TAC by reduc-     data cable over very high frequency     access mesh with access via satellite
ing the need for various external        high line-of-sight. A laptop com-       to the brigade’s enterprise services
speakers.                                puter with Microsoft Office (Out-       (email, active directory, etc.) while
      All of this was realized without   look) provided a user friendly/         using a static route into the fiber
any degradation to the brigade’s         familiar environment for users. This    optic network at Camp Fallujah.
main command post and various            configuration provided an average       This provided links to both RCT 5
attachments and tenants at forward       of about 3 Kb/s transfer rate for       and 4th BCT (ABN), 25th ID. This
operating base Kalsu, supported by       data.                                   clearly illustrates the flexibility of a
two Joint Network Nodes. Our BCT               The capability facilitated the    battalion possessing a fairly robust
TAC looked fairly similar to a           exchange of pictures from patrol de-    beyond line-of-sight transmission
slightly scaled down version of a        briefs, various reports, and adminis-   system and data stack with Cisco
battalion command post from a            trative actions required for day to     Call Manager Express providing
communications perspective. A CPP        day operations. We are currently        SIPRNET, NIPRNET, and VoIP
in lieu of a CPN for a battalion         looking to model and expand the         services such as that inherent in the
command post would serve as a            capability to another patrol base in    battalion CPN and STT.
tremendous enabler with the combat       our operational environment.                  By integrating the battalion
radio capability it provides.                                                    into the Marine infrastructure at
                                         Joint interoperability                  Camp Fallujah, 3-509 IN (ABN) was
Low data rate communications at a              In December 2006, the 3rd         able to place calls and send real time
patrol base                              Battalion (Airborne), 509th Infantry    data to their higher and adjacent
      Through some assistance            was tasked to relocate to Fallujah in   Marine headquarters while still
provided by the Asymmetric War-          support of Regimental Combat Team       maintaining a direct line of commu-
fare Group and some great ingenuity      5, Multinational Forces-West for a      nications to its parent Army head-
from communicators in the 1st            period of three to six months. The      quarters over 60Km away, thus
Battalion (Airborne), 501st Infantry,    brigade headquarters and 3rd

                                                                                 Army Communicator                    13
                                                            the use of commercial          With a Dell server baseline
                                                            assets provided the      provided by the Battle Command
                                                            commander increased      Common Services fielding, the BCT
                                                            flexibility by freeing   was able to augment with additional
                                                            up tactical assets to    hardware and software to complete
                                                            support other mission    the enterprise suite. The suite
                                                            areas such as patrol     provided robust and reliable ser-
                                                            bases, joint security    vices for information dissemination
                                                            stations, and military   management throughout the BCT.
                                                            transition teams.        This was particularly important
                                                                  With some          considering our geographic location
                                                            resourcefulness,         at FOB Kalsu.
                                                            paratroopers from the          It significantly reduced our
                                                            signal company and       requirement for data transfer
                                                            battalion S6 shops       outside of the BCT’s internal net-
                                                            across the BCT were      work and supports the concept of
Figure 7. Switchbox                                         able to acquire the      modularity. IRC and a collaboration
                                                            necessary skills and     suite, such as Adobe Connect,
taking advantage of the benefits of                                                  should be considered for inclusion
                                          equipment to extend network
access to both networks. The static                                                  into the Army fielded tactical
                                          services via fiber optic cable. One
route employed allowed for connec-        such example is a pelican case             enterprise services suite. The real
tivity to both networks without           equipped with media converters and         challenge associated with this
causing issues with routing and                                                      configuration is staffing and train-
                                          switches that provided network
provided for additional redundancy                                                   ing. The requirement for domain
                                          connectivity to five company com-
in the event that there were issues on                                               and systems administrators coupled
                                          mand posts at FOB Iskan in north
the fiber optic network at Camp                                                      with information assurance require-
                                          Babil province, Iraq.
Fallujah or with the brigade’s                  Additionally, the commercial         ments is demanding based on the
network.                                  fiber optic network at FOB Kalsu,          existing allocation of personnel. It
      Since the CPN and STT were                                                     will be further addressed in a
                                          initially installed by 4th Infantry
organic to the battalion, the battalion                                              review of the modular signal force
                                          Division, has grown two fold in our
was trained and prepared to assume                                                   structure below.
                                          year on the FOB and is now a
this mission with nominal assistance                                                       Our BCT also operates
                                          network that the BCT can success-
from the brigade and RCT. The             fully upgrade and expand as needed         enterprise services on NIPRNET
primary consideration was good            to meet new requirements, such as          that support Exchange mail, Active
coordination between network                                                         Directory, Domain Name Server,
                                          the integration of a new BCT at the
technicians and engineers to ensure                                                  Windows Systems Update Service,
                                          FOB in support of the troop surge.
that there were no routing issues and                                                Symantec Antivirus, file server,
                                                We quickly learned that we
that both organizations were com-                                                    and a Certificate Revocation List
                                          must devise new ways of providing
fortable with the architecture and        network connectivity where tactical        Stratum II server in order to
routing configurations with the two       assets are unavailable, such as            provide a Common Access Card
autonomous networks.                                                                 logon capability. Admittedly, it is
                                          company command posts, and that
                                          our signal paratroopers in the BCT         difficult to manage given the
Commercialization                                                                    current staffing of the BCT S6
                                          can and must install and maintain
      With the extensive use of                                                      shop.
                                          these commercial devices and
commercial assets in theater, both        networks.                                        Even though it is a challenge
network and transmission systems,                                                    to operate and maintain these
the BCT provided vital NIPRNET                                                       servers and develop the expertise
                                          Enterprise services
and SIPRNET connectivity to                                                          to sustain them, enterprise services
                                                4th BCT (ABN), 25th ID
various command posts and transi-                                                    at the BCT is a non-negotiable
                                          employed the following SIPRNET
tion teams throughout our opera-                                                     requirement and is something that
                                          enterprise services at the brigade
tional environment.                       level throughout OIF 06-08: Ex-            must remain in the BCT’s arsenal.
      Commercial fiber optic cable        change mail, SharePoint portal                   Following our deployment in
was a critical component in extend-                                                  support of OIF, we will pursue
                                          service, IRC, Active Directory,
ing tactical network connectivity to                                                 integrating this architecture into a
                                          Domain Name Server, Windows
company command posts and                                                            garrison environment and truly
                                          System Update Service, Symantec
various tenants that absolutely must                                                 “train as we fight” while reducing
                                          Antivirus, SQL 2005, and Adobe
have NIPRNET and SIPRNET                  Connect. These services were               the transition for users as we
connectivity to effectively conduct       absolutely essential to enabling           deploy for training and future
combat operations. Additionally,                                                     operations.
                                          battle command across the BCT.
14 Spring 2008
Modular signal force structure            authority to direct the movement of      pany runs the helpdesk that sup-
       Many discussions have              assets, establish priorities of work,    ports our brigade staff and FOB
takenplace concerning the effective-      and provide technical guidance as        tenants.
ness of the existing modular signal       required.                                      On the next page is an organi-
force structure in the divisions and            With the tools inherent in the     zational diagram depicting what I
BCTs. As a BCT S6, I am a strong          signal company and with a close          think is a reasonable solution for
advocate for the current force            working relationship with the            enterprise systems, information
structure. That is to say that with       network operations/computer              dissemination, and IA management
minor adjustments to the existing         network defense team, depicted in        with the existing personnel and what
structure, what we have today             the organizational diagram (next         I believe is a shortfall of three 25Bs
provides the required flexibility and     page), the BCT S6 has the ability to     within the brigade S6 structure.
responsiveness required at the            monitor and manage the BCT wide                The relationships discussed
brigade level.                            area network.                            above are largely informal but are
       I will begin by discussing what          I am aware of a few different      tailored to meet the needs of the
I believe is the most important           ways that BCTs in Iraq organize          BCT. One might make the argument
aspect of this new structure: relation-   themselves to make the best use of       that these relationships should be
ships. Then I will discuss some           signal assets and to coordinate          formalized. On the other hand,
observations as a BCT S6 from our         network management. My opinion,          BCTs will very likely continue to
experiences during the first twelve       with regards to our organization, is     organize themselves as their mission
months of our rotation in support of      that the network operations/             dictates. Ultimately, organization
OIF 06-08.                                computer network defense team            does matter.
       The challenges with the            must be integrated into the BCT S6             The key to success at the BCT
existing modular signal force             section so the S6 has ready access to    level is to retain the flexibility
structure for a BCT largely relate to     the expertise embedded in that cell,     inherent in today’s signal force
the new dynamic created between           regardless if they remain by Modi-       structure.
the BCT S6 and the signal company.        fied Task Organization and Equip-
The coordination and collaboration        ment in the signal company or in the     Conclusion
required to make this new dynamic         brigade S6 section. I would also add            As a newly formed BCT, our
effective is a good working relation-     that the spectrum management and         BCT was given a short window to
ship between the BCT S6, signal           communication security functions         prepare for deployment in support
company commander, and special            must be under the direct oversight of    of OIF. This is not uncommon across
troops battalion commander and            the BCT S6.                              the Army.
staff.                                          As we continue to learn how to            One of the things that make us
       Ultimately, the signal company     maintain and remain compliant with       somewhat unique is that we have no
is a brigade asset and although we        regard to information assurance, we      association to a division headquar-
sometimes have to work through            have asked how we can best make          ters; therefore we had not trained
questions relating to organization,       use of the automated data process-       with a division headquarters outside
roles, and responsibilities we should     ing security personnel in the CND        of our mission rehearsal exercise.
always defer to the brigade               cell. With the effort required to        Once we arrived in Iraq, we were
commander’s intent and vision for         ensure IA compliance, the ADP            task organized to the 4th Infantry
battle command. Through the               security personnel may be employed       Division and shortly transitioned to
orders process, the BCT S6 has the        to assist the S6 automations section     1st Cavalry Division as part of
                                                             with the patching     Multinational Division-Baghdad.
                                                             and scanning of              This provided us with a
                                                             servers and com-      completely new outlook we had not
                                                             puters and            previously experienced. Through
                                                             remediation.          some great help from the division G6
                                                             Lastly, we are        staff we were able to sort out report-
                                                             currently able to     ing requirements and what it meant
                                                             sustain our enter-    for us to be part of a larger wide area
                                                             prise services        network. After five months with
                                                             largely because the   MND-B, we were tasked organized
                                                             brigade S6 section    to 3rd Infantry Division, MND–
                                                              can focus on         Center. This required us to migrate
                                                              enterprise systems   from the MND-B to MND-C net-
                                                              and information      work while conducting operations.
                                                              dissemination        Since the BCT’s inception, we
                                                              management while     conducted new equipment fielding
Figure 8. Switchbox                                           the signal com-      and training, a mission rehearsal
                                                                                   Army Communicator                   15
 Figure 10.
exercise, established a network with    having these assets organic to his      Regiment’s success. Although the
MND-B and then transitioned to          BCT. Additionally, this network is      current modular signal force struc-
MND-C.                                  his to command and control through      ture is not perfect, in my opinion, it
      Our BCT has employed a wide       his staff proponent and signal          is far better than what we had
area network at Fort Greely, Alaska;    company. The above example              previously. Having the resources to
Fort Polk, La.; and under three         clearly validates the concept of        execute is critical and today’s force
different division headquarters in      modularity, “plug and play”.            structure provides the flexibility at
Iraq, to include a battalion CPN              As previously stated, with the    the BCT level that enables us to
under Multinational Forces–West         Army’s new modular concept came         succeed.
with Regimental Combat Team 5           a significant change to the way
and 6 in Fallujah.                      communicators support BCTs.                   MAJ Mike Brown is currently
      I can say without doubt,          However, some things never change.      served as the S6 for 4th BCT (ABN),
today’s modular signal force struc-     Our signal Soldiers’ innovation and     25th ID at FOB Kalsu, Iraq.
ture works. My brigade commander        “can do” attitude continues to be the
appreciates the flexibility he has by   cornerstone for the Signal




16 Spring 2008
 ACRONYM QUICKSCAN                    Supporting OIF
ADP – automated data processing
AWG – Asymmetric Warfare Group
                                      Mobile regional hub node
BCT – brigade combat teams
BCCS – Battle Command Common               delivers network-enabling capabilities
Services
BFT – Blue Force Tracking                 to lowest tactical echelon
C2 – command and control
C4 – command, control, communi-
cations and computers
CAC – common access card
CAU – common access units
CND – computer network defense
CNR – combat net radio
COMSEC – communications secu-
rity
CPP – command post platform
CREW – Counter Radio Controlled-
IED Electronic Warfare
FM – frequency modulation
FOB – forward operating base
HPW – high performance waveform       By MAJ Jacqueline D. Brown, MAJ          others are resulting in an extensive
IA – information assurance            Philippe R. Persaud, and CPT Jackie      proliferation of biometrics collection
IRC – Internet Relay Chat             A. Williams                              and dissemination systems down to
JNN – Joint Network Node                                                       the platoon and company levels,
JRTC – Joint Readiness Training             As the Army continues to
                                                                               giving commanders at all levels the
Center                                conduct asymmetric combat opera-
JSS – joint security stations                                                  ability to exploit real-time intelli-
                                      tions in a noncontiguous area of
LOS – line-of-sight                                                            gence with unprecedented speed,
                                      operations, the demand for modular
mIRC – m Internet Relay Chat                                                   detail, and effectiveness. The signal
MITT – military transition teams
                                      communications has increased at a
                                                                               community in Iraq provides these
MND-B – Multi-national Division-      rapid pace. In an environment
                                                                               tools to the lowest tactical echelon
Baghdad                               where an insurgent can claim victory
                                                                               via the Iraq Mobile Regional Hub
MND-C – Multi-national Division-      from one success out of a hundred
Center                                                                         Node, initially employed by the 3rd
                                      failures, coalition commanders
MTO&E – modified task organiza-                                                Infantry Division during Operation
                                      require a new generation of tools
tion and equipment                                                             Iraqi Freedom III.
                                      that not only bring them real-time
NETOPS – network operations                                                          The lessons learned in the
NIPRNET – Non-secure Internet         intelligence and shared situational
                                                                               employment of the MRHN provide
Protocol Network                      awareness, but provide them with
                                                                               the signal community a frame of
OE – operational environment          capabilities to achieve strategic,
                                                                               reference for the application of the
OIF – Operation Iraqi Freedom         operational, and tactical objectives.
RCT – Regimental Combat Team                                                   fixed regional hub nodes, the first
                                            Therefore, commanders are
RPA – radio programming applica-                                               scheduled for commission, March
                                      leveraging a wide selection of
tion                                                                           2008.
                                      automated collaborative tools that
SHARK – Super High-speed Air-                                                        The Signal Regimental trans-
borne Radio Kit                       provide real-time synchronization of
                                                                               formation to support the modular
SIPRNET – Secure Internet Proto-      combat operations.
                                                                               Army brought many advances in
col Network                                 An example of these tools is the
                                                                               technology to the signal community.
STT – Satellite Terminal Trailer      latest generation of automated
TAC – Tactical Assault Command                                                 The interim modularity solution,
                                      biometrics technologies allowing for
TDMA – time division multiple ac-                                              Joint Network Transport Capability-
                                      the real-time querying of individuals
cess                                                                           Spiral program enabled divisions to
TOCNET – Tactical Operations Cen-
                                      against a data base of suspected
                                                                               provide Defense Information
ter Network                           insurgents based solely on a finger-
                                                                               Systems Network services down to
VHF – very high frequency             print or retina scan.
                                                                               the battalion level without having to
VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol         Commanders in Iraq are also
                                                                               leverage external communication
                                      enjoying shared situational aware-
                                                                               agencies’ assets. This capability is
                                      ness throughout the Iraqi Theater of
                                                                               provided by the divisions’ TRHNs,
                                      Operations in the form of command
                                                                               providing a point of presence for the
                                      post of the future, a collaborative
                                                                               divisions’ network traffic entering
                                      tool that presents a common operat-
                                                                               the Global Information Grid. These
                                      ing picture across the ITO.
                                                                               services are then extended to the
                                            The success of these tools and

                                                                               Army Communicator                  17
                                                                                alternate paths in the network. The
                                                                                travel time difference between
                                                                                packets as a result of congestion or
                                                                                variable routes is known as jitter.
                                                                                Jitter causes Voice over Internet
                                                                                Protocol phones to experience poor
                                                                                performance and dropped calls.
                                                                                       Applications such as CPOF and
                                                                                BATS have been severely hampered
                                                                                by the effect of slow transfers
                                                                                induced by traffic being forced to
                                                                                take multiple satellite hops.
                                                                                       Recognizing the need to reduce
                                                                                latency, 3rd ID established the first
                                                                                JNTC Time Division Multiple Access
                                                                                POP in the ITO with their THRN
                                                                                prototype in 2005. This allowed
                                                                                traffic within the 3rd ID division
                                                                                network to be one satellite hop away
                                                                                from Multi-national Corps-Iraq and
                                                                                Multi-national Forces-Iraq head-
                                                                                quarters. While greatly enhancing
                                                                                the performance of the 3rd ID
                                                                                tactical network, the POP did not
                                                                                provide any increase in performance
                                                                                of the other JNTC brigades and
  Mesh Diagram                                                                  divisions. When 3rd ID rotated
                                                                                home, the hub truck was left behind
                                                                                as an enduring MRHN. The 22nd
subordinate units via the brigade      traverse one satellite link to the
                                                                                Signal Brigade expanded the POP to
combat teams JNNs and the battal-      TRHN and another satellite link to
ion CPNs, enabling the BCTs to                                                  include the 4th Infantry Division
                                       arrive back in theater.
establish an independent brigade                                                (replaced by 1st Cavalry Division).
                                              The double satellite hop
                                                                                       In order to provide services
communications network based on a      induced by not having a POP in the
                                                                                they installed a separate data stack
TDMA mesh. This allows any node        area of operations adds a full second
                                                                                to handle the interconnect between
connected to the BCT mesh network      of latency to any traffic leaving the
                                                                                the division tactical network and
to communicate directly with any       division, hampering effective
other node without exiting the BCT                                              MNF-I strategic network. 22nd also
                                       communication between the divi-
network. It also allows the BCT to                                              established a separate data stack to
                                       sions and other units in theater.
                                                                                handle BCTs that arrived in theater
receive DISN services from the         Tools such as CPOF and Biometric
                                                                                with JNTC equipment not assigned
TRHN via the TDMA mesh.                Automated Toolset are both latency
                                                                                under a division. The 3rd Signal
      The TDMA mesh effectively        sensitive applications which require
                                                                                Brigade expanded the mesh to
shares bandwidth among the             special engineering considerations
battalions’ CPNs within a BCT,                                                  include the 25th Infantry Division
                                       outside of the JNTC architecture
providing bandwidth on demand.                                                  network. By February of 2007 the
                                       engineering solutions to work
                                                                                enduring MRHN contained three
The JNNs provide the brigade           properly.
                                                                                data stacks and became the primary
headquarters and larger elements              In addition to the increased
                                                                                POP for strategic to tactical traffic
the ability to talk within the TDMA    latency, a double satellite hop also
                                                                                exchange in the ITO.
mesh and to use dedicated FDMA         has other impacts on the network.
links provided by the TRHN to                                                          In January of 2007, MNF-I
                                       The more satellite links that data has
transfer larger files to division                                               published the Baghdad Security Plan
                                       to traverse, the greater the chance a
                                                                                which resulted in a surge of combat
headquarters.                          packet is dropped due to congestion
                                                                                forces into the ITO. Additionally, a
      Doctrinally, the tactical re-    within the network. If a packet is
                                                                                requirement was identified to
gional hub nodes are placed in         dropped, TCP will automatically
                                                                                support the military transition
sanctuary locations outside the area   halve the current number of packets
of operations. In order for elements                                            teams. MNC-I purchased 38 MTT
                                       it is sending, decreasing an already
in the division to transfer informa-                                            very small aperture terminals
                                       slow file transfer rate to a crawl.
                                                                                packages that were capable of
tion to units outside the division            More hops also increase the
                                                                                providing the same services as a
network, their data traffic must       probability that the traffic may take
                                                                                JNTC CPN. Knowing that both the
18 Spring 2008
Pictured are six of the 38 MiTT VSATS purchased for use in Iraq.

new MTTs communication require-           Dynamic Field Service Representa-        taught many valuable lessons. First,
ments and the surge of combat             tive, Brian Heaton, configured and       tactical units require an I-TIG POP
forces would equate to a surge of         installed a 3rd ID data stack, a         inside the theater of operation to
modular communications require-           MNC-I call manager and voice             maximize the performance of critical
ments, the 3rd Signal Brigade began       gateway router. The addition of the      applications. The theater is con-
planning for the incorporation of         new data stack provided a router         stantly reminded that latency
these assets in the ITO MRHN.             stack for each division (1st Cavalry     severely degrades the performance
      The addition of 38 VSAT to          Division, 3rd ID, 25th ID) along with    of critical command and control
meet MTT missions and an addi-            a data stack to handle any separate      application in the ITO so as to be
tional division as part of the surge,     units not under the divisions. All       unusable by tactical commanders.
the 3rd Signal Brigade identified an      the routers were tied into the strate-   Next, an FRHN must provide the
opportunity to efficiently and            gic network. This allows any JNTC        primary interchange between tactical
effectively support both require-         element to be terminated at the ITO      autonomous systems and the GIG.
ments by leveraging the ITO TDMA          MRHN accessing any of the tactical       Accomplishment of this mission
mesh provided by the MRHN.                networks.                                dictates a data stack for each division
However, this addition of the 38                 Currently the ITO MRHN            installed at the FRHN. Last, the
MTT VSAT terminals and a division         provides the primary interconnects       FRHN must possess the capability to
JNN required the purchase of more         between the tactical JNTC network        rapidly change and expand in order
satellite transponder space. Central      and the Iraqi-Theater Information        to meet the emerging combat opera-
Command purchased the additional          Grid reducing latency on intra-          tions in the theater of operation. The
transponder space for the ITO,            theater traffic as well as providing     MRHN continues to evolve as
however it was located on different       fail-over capability to the divisions’   combat commanders requirements
satellite than the ones currently         TDMA meshes. The 3rd ID passes           change.
accessed by the ITO MRHN. 3rd             more traffic through the ITO POP                As the Signal Regiment begins
Signal Brigade required an addi-          than they do through the 3rd ID          to commission their FRHNs, the
tional TRHN satellite truck to access     TRHN. Future engineering plans           lessons learned from the Iraq MRHN
the new transponder space.                include the ability for each division    should be incorporated in both the
CENTCOM in coordination with 3rd          and separate unit data stack to pass     installation and operation of the
ID shipped an extra pair of TRHN          traffic between each other without       FRHNs to support future modular
satellite to theater in April of 2007.    going through the strategic network      units deploying into combat opera-
      In April of 2007, the 86th Signal   and the ability to pass interchange      tions.
Battalion, in conjunction with 3rd        voice traffic within the I-TIG. As a            Due to the ongoing support to
Signal Brigade staff, received and        result of the success of the ITO         combat operations the Signal Regi-
configured the satellite trucks for       MRHN, MNC-I plans on exploiting          ment has an incredible opportunity
operation. This was a complex             the MRHN TDMA mesh by support-           to execute its wartime mission in
undertaking, requiring a team of          ing the expanding JSS and combat         support of OIF/Operation Enduring
experts to execute. The 3rd Signal        outposts with VSAT terminals.            Freedom. While warfighter commu-
Brigade, and the JNTC General                    The expansion of the MRHN         nication requirements grow at a

                                                                                   Army Communicator                   19
phenomenal rate, the Signal Regi-         operations.
ment continues to rise to meet the                                                     ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
challenge by transforming techno-                MAJ(P) Brown currently serves
                                          as the 3rd Signal Brigade S3 for OIF 06-    ACRONYMS:
logically, organizationally and
                                                                                      AO – area of operation
doctrinally. As a result, the Iraq        08. She previously served as the 57th
                                                                                      AOR – Area of Responsibility
signal community refined the JNTC         Signal Battalion S-3 and as the 3rd         BAT – Biometric Automated Toolset
TTPs enabling a more robust archi-        Signal Brigade S-3 Operations officer       BCT – Brigade Combat Team
tecture while leveraging the I-TIG        during OIF II. Brown holds a Bachelor       CENTCOM – Central Command
strategic infrastructure providing        of Science in production and operations     COP – Common Operating Picture
unprecedented levels of support to        management from Georgia Southern            CPN – Command Post Node
                                          University and masters in telecommuni-      CPOF – Command Post of the Fu-
the lowest tactical echelons by
                                                                                      ture
connecting their VSATs into the           cations management from Webster             DISN – Defense Information Sys-
MRHN. The theater signal commu-           University.                                 tems Network
nity successfully engineered a                                                        FDMA – Frequency Division Mul-
TDMA POP via the MRHN which                      MAJ Persaud is an FA-24              tiple Access
reduced latency and provided a            (information systems engineer) assigned     FRHN – Fixed Regional Hub Node
much needed fail-over capability for      to the 3rd Signal Brigade as the officer-   GIG – Global Information Grid
                                                                                      ID – Infantry Division
the divisions’ TRHNs. As a result of      in-charge of the S3 engineering section.
                                                                                      I-TIG – Iraq-Theater Information Grid
these efforts, commanders are armed       He previously served as S3 engineer for     ITO – Iraq Theater of Operation
with unprecedented capabilities           the 11th Signal Brigade. He holds a         JNN – Joint Network Node
allowing them to exploit the full         degree in electrical and computer           JNTC-S – Joint Network Transport
lethality of these tools in the noncon-   engineering from University of Wiscon-      Capability-Spiral
tiguous area of operations.               sin at Madison and is currently working     JSS – Joint Security Station
      Doctrinal, institutional, and       towards a masters in telecommunica-         MNC-I – Multi-national Corps-Iraq
                                                                                      MNF-I – Multi-national Forces-Iraq
technological changes are inevitable      tions systems from the University of        MRHN – Mobile Regional Hub Node
and bring with them skepticism and        Maryland                                    MTT – Military Transition Team
uncertainty. It will be the ingenuity                                                 OEF – Operation Enduring Free-
and resourcefulness of our Signal                CPT Williams is the 3rd Signal       dom
Regiment that quells this natural         Brigade’s S3 circuits and transmission      OIF – Operation Iraqi Freedom
resistance toward change and ushers       officer. He previously served as the        POP – Point of Presence
                                          160th Signal Brigade plans and projects     TCP – Transport Control Protocol
forward a new generation of capabil-
                                                                                      TDMA – Time Division Multiple Ac-
ity using both existing and emerging      officer. He holds a bachelor of applied     cess
technologies to support Warfighter        science in computer information systems     TRHN – Tactical Regional Hub Node
communication requirements                from Dallas Baptist University and is       TTP – techniques, tactics, and pro-
throughout the full spectrum of           currently working towards a masters in      cedures
                                          telecommunications systems from the         VOIP – Voice over Internet Protocol
                                          University of Maryland.                     VSAT – Very Small Aperture Termi-
                                                                                      nals




20 Spring 2008
Canadian Army transformation
By MAJ Neil McKenna                          my pending argument that doctrine       radios in the Canadian army inven-
                                             need not only be current but, at the    tory (high frequency, very high
      Transformation:
                                             same time must also be able to          frequency and ultra high frequency).
      1. a. The act or an instance of
                                             embrace further transformation                I also had to learn such impor-
transforming.
                                             without necessarily needing a           tant items as teletype operations and
      b. The state of being trans-
                                             complete revision. Lastly, I re-        Morse Code. I had to become an
formed.
                                             viewed countless PowerPoint slides      expert on the knowledge of crypto;
      2. A marked change, as in
                                             and surfed Army Knowledge Online        how to operate it and, of course, the
appearance or character, usually for
                                             like a demon, searching for relevant    crypto handling procedures. I
the better.
                                             material to use in support of my        learned the basics of electronic
      Transform:
                                             article.                                warfare, and of course the ever
      1. To change markedly the
                                                   On the Canadian side, I again     fascinating world of antenna theory
appearance or form of [something]
                                             reviewed doctrine manuals, surfed       and radio wave propagation.
      2. To change the nature,
                                             our Army On Line (equivalent to               This, on top of all the other
function, or condition of; convert
                                             U.S. AKO), reviewed another ton of      necessary Soldier skills, prepared me
(Source: http://www.thefreedictionary.com)
                                             PowerPoint slides, searched through     to be that all important third man in
                                             a number of other Canadian army         a three-man CNR detachment.
      When approached to write this
                                             journals and training bulletin/               I thought at the time that I was
article, I gladly accepted. The
                                             manuals, and back editions of the       at the cutting edge of
concurrent invitation to dinner by
                                             Canadian Forces Communications          technology…how could it get better
the fine officer who asked me to
                                             and Electronics Branch newsletters.     than this? I had to be working with
write this was surely coincidental
                                             Again, my intent here was to select a   the best technology in the world.
and was in no way intended to
                                             start point where I could say with      Didn’t I? Our government wouldn’t
influence my decision. I can say,
                                             some degree of certainty,               have us preparing (at that time) to
however, that both experiences
                                             “There!!!…this is the point in time     defend Europe, alongside our allies,
(dinner and the article) were en-
                                             where our Canadian army transfor-       with equipment that wasn’t the best
joyed.
                                             mation, and subsequently, Canadian      in the world? Would they?
      I had intended to write an
                                             army signals transformation began.”           These are the kinds of thoughts
article using the Doctrine, Organiza-
                                                   I learned that it is indeed       that went through my young head as
tion, Training, Material, Leadership
                                             possible to do too much research.       I would be banging the tuning fork
and Education, Personnel and
                                             Second, and more important, was         against the palm of my hand in an
Facilities criteria to compare and
                                             my epiphany: signals never stops        attempt to sort out my TTY 76/98
contrast the transformation activities
                                             transforming; ever! Follow me now       which probably had just gone
of both the United States and
                                             on a small trek back in time as I use   berserk for the fourth time in my
Canadian armies and the subsequent
                                             my own career experiences to            eight-hour shift in the back of the
impact this had on the signal compo-
                                             support this statement.                 message center vehicle (an AN/GRC
nents of both armies. I thought it
                                                   I joined the Canadian army in     142); a vehicle we would affection-
quite a brilliant topic and eagerly
                                             1982 as a private. My Military          ately refer to as a CRTTZ (HF Radio
dove into the required research to
                                             Occupation Code was 211 Radio           Teletype Secure).
gather all necessary information. I
                                             Operator. “Signalman McKenna” as              This, after having had to
got more than I bargained for, but in
                                             a Rad Op, had to learn more than        change frequency on my AN/GRC
the process, learned a great deal (I
                                             simply how to operate all tactical      106 HF radio (tune/load/tune/
will return to this later).
                                                                                     load…get the needles in the green)
      I read through countless back
                                                                                     and also after having had to reset the
issues of Army Communicator starting
                                                                                     KWK-7 with the crypto setting for
at the most recent edition and
                                                                                     the next day. I am proud to say now
working backwards to try to find a
somewhat precise point in time
when the U.S. Army Signals trans-                                                    FIG 1. Circa 1959 the TT-76
formation (or redesign) began. As                                                    reperforator-transmitter provides
well, I perused a number of the                                                      perforated tape copies of
newer U.S. Army signals doctrine                                                     teletypewriter messages received,
publications (Field Manuals and/or                                                   or transmits messages pre-
Field Manual Interims) to support                                                    recorded on perforated tape.

                                                                                     Army Communicator                  21
                                                                                 their careers, was not an army
                                                                                 “owned” school. CFSCE also
                                                           FIG 2. Radio set      provided the Air Force and Navy
                                                           AN/GRC-106 is a       environments communications
                                                           high frequency,       training for their personnel. CFSCE
                                                           single-sideband,      was truly a joint school. More on
                                                           radio receiving-      this later. Upon arrival at 1 CSR I
                                                           transmitting set.     was employed as a Detachment
                                                           This set operates     Member, and subsequently as a Det
                                                           over a frequency      2ic, and eventually as a Detachment
                                                           range of 2.0 to       Commander of a CNR detachment.
                                                           29.999 MHz.           This command post detachment was
                                                                                 designated “Div Arty CP” meaning
                                                                                 that my vehicle served as the net
                                                                                 control station for the Div Arty
                                                                                 VHF/HF Command Nets. The role
                                                                                 of the 1 CSR at that time was to
that all of the above mentioned          likelihood, as a Crypto Custodian or    support the deployment of the 1st
equipment can be viewed in our           Crypto Custodian Clerk. This MOC        Canadian Division Headquarters.
Canadian Forces Museum of Com-           had been open for many years to               Let’s have a brief look at some
munications and Electronics…where        females. So, from a Rad Op’s per-       of the history of this unit. Created
perhaps it should have been in the       spective, a Rad Op had to know          on July 1, 1958, 5 Signal Squadron
early 1980s.                             everything a Tel Op knew…but it         (Kingston) was re-designated 1
      I noted above that, as a Pte Rad   was not so vice versa. Tel Ops were     Signal Unit on June 1, 1961. Then,
Op, I was referred to as “Signalman      for the most part concerned with        on Aug. 15, 1963, this unit became
McKenna”. This of course, was            providing the institutional Canadian    the 1st Canadian Signal Regiment
during the days when the Canadian        Forces message delivery services.       until 1990 when the 1st Canadian
army Rad Op trade was closed to          They manned strategic level and         Signal Regiment and 1st Canadian
females. That policy changed in the      base level communications nodes         Division Headquarters were amal-
mid to late 1980s when the trade         and message centers across Canada       gamated to form 1st Canadian
opened up to females, as did a           and in many cases they were housed      Division Headquarters and Signal
number of other Canadian army            in hardened underground bunkers.        Regiment. This lasted until June 1,
MOCs. Of course, this incursion by       These bunkers were constructed at       2000, when the 1st Canadian Divi-
females into the male bastion of         the height of the Cold War. Author-     sion Headquarters and Signal
Combat Arms and the Combat               ity to construct them came from         Regiment and 79 Communication
Support Arms MOCs was not                Prime Minister John Diefenbaker         Regiment were officially stood down
without a great deal of teeth-gnash-     (the bunkers became known as            on June 1, 2000, to merge and create
ing and misery on the part of many,      “Diefenbunkers”). The Tel Op MOC        the Joint Signal Regiment. Today
many non-commissioned officers           was stood down in the late 1990s.       this unit is known as the Canadian
and officers in the Canadian army.       The personnel from this trade were      Forces Joint Signal Regiment and it
Given this significant change in the     merged with Rad Ops and a new           provided the supporting strategic
personnel structure of our MOC, the      trade of Signals Operators MOC 215      and theatre level communications
term signalman was simply short-         was created.                            for all Canadian Forces Joint Opera-
ened to “Sig” as signalwoman and/                                                tions Group missions until 2005
or signalperson was simply too                 (Hang in there….I am getting to   when the CFJOG was stood down
many syllables to yell out on parade     the point of this article.)             and replaced by the Canadian Forces
and, in hindsight, probably didn’t                                               Joint Headquarters the deployable
translate well into French for those           My first assignment was to the    headquarters of the Canadian
who hailed from Quebec.                  1st Canadian Signal Regiment in         Expeditionary Force Command
      There was another MOC that         1983 (after completion of my Radio      which was a new operational level
was quite similar to the Rad Op 211      Operator Trade Qualification Course     headquarters stood up in 2005 as
MOC. It was the teletype operator        Level 3 at the Canadian Forces          part of Canadian Forces transforma-
212 MOC. The Tel Op trade had            School of Communications and            tion (Principal Source: 90 Years and
nothing to do with radios or Morse       Electronics. I should note, CFSCE,      Counting, a history of the Canadian
Code, electronic warfare nor antenna     although providing all Canadian         Signal Corps). So, in the span of
theory/radio wave propagation.           army signals officers, warrant          approximately 50 years, this unit
They rarely were posted to field         officers and NCOs the necessary         went from being a completely army
units and if they were it was, in all    formal Signals training to succeed in   oriented unit supporting the tradi-
                                                                                 tional war fighting role of a divi-
22 Spring 2008
sional headquarters to being a unit       signals as an invaluable war-fighting      Guide to Army Transformation). With
completely focussed on provision of       capability.                                these words the Canadian army
the extension of strategic C2 links to                                               kicked into a higher gear and
overseas operations for the Canadian           (Now to my point.)                    launched significant transformation
Forces and not just the Canadian                                                     activities to orient ourselves towards
army.                                           Why have I discussed the early       fighting snakes. It was recognized a
      I mentioned earlier that CFSCE      years of my career, my trade struc-        number of years ago that our army
was a “joint” school. This was true       ture, the old equipment, the opening       needs to be able to conduct direct
for many years. While the main            of my trade to females, the merging        actions, take out terrorists, conduct
customer of the school was the            of the Rad Op and Tel Op trades, the       cordon and search operations for
Canadian army, it was not an “Army        history of one of the major signals        weapons or explosives, face down or
School”….until recently. Effective        units in the Canadian Forces and a         destroy a militia, or remove a suicide
April 1, 2007, in simple terms,           brief mention of our signals school        bomber. At the same time we must
CFSCE became an army school that          and Communication Reserve                  search out the good folks, support
continues to provide education and        component? The answer is simple;           them and enable them to achieve
training to the Navy and Air Force.       to demonstrate to you that which I         stability and to do what they need to
This is a significant change for          stated earlier; Signals never stops        do to rebuild their lives, their
CFSCE as it is now felt that it can be    transforming, ever.                        families, their communities, and
more responsive to the needs of the             The Canadian Army Signal             their countries. In order to do this
Army which provides the bulk of the       Corps has been transforming for all        the Canadian army changed its
Soldiers and officers for overseas        of my (thus far) 26 years of service to    approach to fight the enemy with
deployments and virtually all of the      Queen and country. There is no end         speed, agility, and information
communicators required for these          in sight. In fact, as can be attested to   dominance. This meant changing
operations. As well as assuming           on both sides of the border, it is only    the way we train, changing the way
ownership of CFSCE, the Army will         the pace and magnitude of transfor-        we force generate, and changing the
also assume ownership of the              mation which has changed. In other         way we fight.
Canadian Forces Communication             words, more is changing faster.                  The second reason can be seen
Reserve on April 1, 2008. I believe it    Why? I offer some reasons in no            as either a negative or positive
safe to say that the Commander of         particular order.                          consequence of living in a highly
the Canadian Army would also like               The first reason is a derivation     modern, well educated, G8 nation
to repatriate the CFJSR back to the       of one of Sun Tzu’s thoughts as            that most of the world only dreams
Army as well. What is being demon-        outlined in The Art of War: know           about. The simple fact is that our
strated here is a significant desire by   your enemy. As the commander of            people are very intelligent and well
the Army to own those all important       the Canadian army stated in 2003           educated. Given this, there is huge
signals resources (personnel and          “As an Army, we are no longer              competition between the civilian
equipment) so as to be able to            preparing to fight the bear as we did      commercial sector and the military
continue to force generate these          during the Cold War - we are now           for personnel. If the army wishes to
resources in support of ongoing           preparing to fight many snakes in an       hire the “best and the brightest” we
deployed operations. It would also        un-defined, foreign battle space           need to be able to offer them com-
enable better command and control         where the enemy mingles freely with        petitive salaries, ongoing advance-
of those resources and a significantly    innocent civilians and humanitarian        ment, and continual education and
improved ability to influence future      aid workers” (Source: CA army              training opportunities. We need to
growth, training and development of       Chief of Land Staff’s A Soldier’s          provide them with the best equip-


                                                 FIG 3. KWK-7 plug block assembly. Once wired up, this mated
                                                 with the plugboard in the photo Figure 2. (Page




                                                                                     Army Communicator                  23
ment in the world and we need to          secure video-teleconferencing and        input into the ops plan as it is being
assure them that should they be           all those other marvellous techno-       drafted, we are now recognized as
injured or killed in the service of       logical advances made since my           the “silver bullet” in the era of
their nation, that they and/or their      entering the Canadian army have          network enabled operations, net-
Families will be looked after. This is    changed the way we communicate           work centric warfare. Now that we
all proper, of course, but the bottom     and support day to day, domestic         are at the table we, as signaleers,
line is that this is a hugely expensive   and overseas operations. To put          must add value. Part of the Cana-
undertaking. Politicians in both the      things in perspective my former          dian army commander’s vision is the
U.S. and Canada are gravely aware         three-man CNR detachment simply          army will be a knowledge-based and
that there are many competing             provided secure and non-secure           command-centric institution capable
demands for the taxpayer’s dollar.        voice and it could only provide that     of continuous flexibility and task
Therefore, the military had better        for a range of approximately 25          tailoring, useful for a wide range of
make the absolute best use of all         miles (VHF) (RT-524 high power)          modern conflict. Warfighters today
monies allocated to them. From a          without needing a complete other         are not fighting on the same battle-
signals perspective this means            detachment serving as a rebroadcast      field as their fathers and grandfa-
structuring and equipping ourselves       station. Think about this in the         thers. Signals intelligence, electronic
to do the most with the least. Can        context of a single person can do        warfare, and other electromagnetic
we afford to have two separate and        with a cell phone today.                 spectrum operations have increased
distinct trade structures (211 Rad              I personally feel that the         in importance on a magnitude that
Op/212 Tel Op), one of which can          primary reason for transformation is     couldn’t be predicted a decade ago.
do all of the other’s tasks? No. Not      the fact that we are a combat support    EMSO is a warfighting capability.
these days.                               arm and we realize that those who        The warfighters look to us to give
                                          we support need us to change. The        them the edge in this realm. This is
Yet another reason is technology.         network is a weapon system now. If       why in the U.S. Army an entirely
     Remember the Diefenbunkers           history in the United States Army is     new MOS has been stood up to
mentioned earlier. They are all sold      similar to that of the Canadian army     oversee electromagnetic spectrum
now to the private sector and the         the ops plan used to be crafted in a     operations. This is why much recent
antiquated Strategic Message              signals vacuum. The signals annex        effort has gone towards improving
Switching System is no longer the         was too often “to be issued” and we      Army EW capabilities. In the
backbone of the national information      would be left to draft a plan to         Canadian army our lone Active
technology infrastructure. Secure         support the warfighter after the fact.   Component EW Squadron has
and non-secure email, the Canadian        These days, after years of wishing       essentially doubled in size. It is why
Forces Defence Information Net-           we could be elevated to the grown-       a new Reserve Component EW
work, the internet, secure and non-       up table so that we could provide        Squadron was stood up several
                                                                                   years ago. It is why so much effort
                                                                                   has gone towards Canadian army
                                                                                   IED defeat efforts.
                                                                                         There is always a lot of “noise”
                                                                                   commanders at all levels must
                                                                                   address. Budget concerns, retention
                                                                                   issues, technology advances, time
                                                                                   constraints, Soldier/Family issues,
                                                                                   and many other external and inter-
                                                                                   nal pressures. As a former com-
                                                                                   manding officer of mine said, you
                                                                                   must “find your signals in the
                                                                                   noise.” I was never sure exactly
                                                                                   what he meant by that. I think it is a
                                                                                   phrase that can apply to many
                                                                                   situations. For the purposes of this
                                                                                   article, I choose to believe it means
                                                                                   that in this era of rapid and ongoing
                                                                                   transformation we must remain
                                                                                   focused on the purpose of signals
                                                                                   which clearly is, despite all the
                                                                                   “noise”: to enable the commander to
                                                                                   exercise command and control. We
                                                                                   do it differently today, and we will
FIG 4. Canadian Army Vision chart
                                                                                   do it differently tomorrow, but we
24 Spring 2008
will only do it by continuous trans-       Brigade Group Headquarters and Signal     Nations Protection Force in Bosnia/
formation; we always have, we              Squadron, Petawawa, Ontario, and most     Croatia. In 2001 he was appointed as
always will. For signals, transforma-      recently he served on the Canadian army   the Canadian delegation chief for
tion is both a curse…and a blessing.       G6 Ops staff as the desk officer for      Canadian participation in EX COM-
                                           signals and EW support to deployed        BINED ENDEAVOR and in 2002/03
       MAJ McKenna is the Canadian         operations. In 1992/93 McKenna served     he served as the Canadian J6 for
army liaison officer to the U.S. Army      as the Canadian contingent J6/officer     Canada’s Joint Task Force Southwest
Signal Center and Fort Gordon. After       Commanding the National Command           Asia as part of Operation Enduring
enlisting and spending nine years as a     and Control Information System for        Freedom.
noncommissioned officer, McKenna           Canada’s contribution to United
completed Royal Military College in


                                           Digitization of the
Kingston, Ontario, and accepted his
commission as an officer. Since then he
served as the operations and training




                                                                                   French
officer for 73 Communication Group in
Winnipeg, Manitoba; as the plans officer   By LTC Vincent Bajon, French Liaison
for 72 Communication Group Halifax,        Officer
Nova Scotia; as the officer commanding           This article aims to provide an




                                                                                   army
721 Communication Troop, Glace Bay,        overview about the digitization of
Nova Scotia; as the deputy commanding      the French army. This process is
officer for two Canadian Mechanized        directly managed at the army staff
                                           level in Paris. The document is
                                           divided as follows:
   ACRONYM QUICKSCAN                             Part 1: a short overview of the
                                           French army.
  AKO – Army Knowledge Online                    Part 2: a presentation of the       NATO HRF system.
  1CDHSR – 1st Canadian Division           digitization process (when, what,
  Headquarters and Signal Regiment         how?).                                         1:2. Operational formations
  1CSR – 1st Canadian Signal Regi-               Part 3: comments
  ment
                                                                                          The operational force (100,000
  CEFCOM – Canadian Expedition-                                                      Soldiers) breaks down into:
  ary Force Command                        The French army                                - 2 x Corps HQs
  CFJOG – Canadian Forces Joint            1:1. General organization                      - 4 x Division HQs
  Operations Group                               Comments:                                - 8 x Brigade Combat Teams
  CFJHQ – Canadian Forces Joint                  - Doctrine and Training are              - 1 x Army Aviation Brigade
  Headquarters                             not under the same command.                    - 1 x Special Force Brigade
  CFJSR – Canadian Forces Joint
                                                 - CoFAT – Commandant de                  - 4 x Support Brigades
  Signal Regiment
  CFSCE – Canadian Forces School           la Formation de P’Armie de Terre –             - 2 x Logistic Brigades
  of Electronics                                  (Branch schools command) is
  Det Comd – Detachment Command            in charge of education: basic             2.0 Digitization of the French army
  DOTMLPF – Doctrine, Organization,        training, individual training,                 As far as experimentations are
  Training, Materiel, Leadership and       advanced military studies.                concerned, digitization is the most
  Education, Personnel and Facilities            - CFAT – Commandant de la           important process, in the French
  EMSO – electromagnetic spectrum
  operations
                                           Force d’Action Terestre and CFLT –        army right now.
  EW – Electronic Warfare                  Commandant de la Force Logistics
  IED – improvised explosive device        de P’Armie de Terre – implement           2:1.
  ITI – information technology infra-      training policies provided by the                - 2001: beginning of the
  structure                                army staff; CFAT – is the coordina-       studies
  FM – Field Manuals                       tor.                                             - 2003: beginning of the
  FMI – Field Manual Interim                     - High Readiness Force
  MOC – Military Occupation Code
                                                                                     experimentation at battalion level
  Rad Op – Radio Operator                  Headquarters is a new army corps                 - 2005: the digitized experi-
  Sig Ops – Signals Operators              headquarters under CFAT com-              mental units (see below Part 2:2)
  Tel Op – teletype operator               mand; it was certified by the North       start to be deployed with their
  TQ3 – Trade Qualification Course         American Treaty Organization in           digitized equipments (i.e. Kosovo,
  Level 3                                  June 2007.                                Ivory Coast…)
  TTY – teletype                                 - France provides some                     - 2006: the experimentation is
  UNPROFOR – United Nations Pro-
                                           education to Eurocorps and partly         now at the brigade level
  tection Force
                                           supports its training.                           - 2008:
                                                 - Both corps are part of                     certification of the first

                                                                                     Army Communicator                  25
digitized BCT                                                                                       Staff of the Army (see
         First major                                                                                below Part 2:3.2).
rendezvous: two                                                                                            - In 2005, the
BCTs plus possible                                                                                  CSA, in compliance
reinforcements are                                                                                  with the 2004 report,
digitized and ready                                                                                 gave the responsibil-
to be deployed                                                                                      ity of digitization to a
      - 2011: 80                                                                                    full time officer.
percent of all the                                                                                         - Since July
operational forma-                                                                                  2007, it has been the
tions are digitized                                                                                 responsibility of the
      - 2015: the                                                                                   BDOR3 - Bureau
operational force is                                                                                développement des
fully digitized                                                                                     opérations en réseau
                                                                                                    – Development of the
     Note: the                                                                                      Networked Warfare
French-German                                                                                       Office. This office
Brigade will get                                                                                    was created this year.
specific digitized
equipment (begin-                                                                                    2:3.2. The 2004 report
ning 2008).                                                                                                 This document
                                           less, the capabilities of its contacts   was titled “10 keys for a good digitiza-
2:2. The experimental force                allow the French army to conduct         tion”. The main recommendation
      Since France did not have the        live technical testing and experi-       was to address these 10 issues
capability of maintaining a full time      ments during CAX.                        simultaneously.
experimental force, it was decided to                                                     1. To have a full time officer-
commit specific forces to this addi-       2:3. What is involved in digitiza-       in-charge, supported by an expert
tional task:                               tion?                                    from each office involved with the
      - The 2nd BCT (Heavy)1                     The French digitization is not     Army Staff (including doctrine, i.e.
      - The 6th BCT (Medium)2              some kind of FCS based program. It       the French version of Training and
      - Additional dedicated               is more command, control, commu-         Doctrine Command). Therefore and
combat, combat support, service            nications, computers, intelligence,      accordingly with the nine other
support, air defense artillery, and        surveillance, and reconnaissance and     “keys”, all the offices had to be
army aviation units                        DP enhancement oriented.                 involved.
                                                 Subsequently, the program                2. Equipment (development
      Comment 1: at the beginning,         SCORPION (i.e. System of Contact         and allocations, including a revision
logisticians wanted to stay apart          for Versatile Capabilities in Informa-   of the C4IS allocation subsequently
from the process arguing they had          tion Networking) will take over. The     to the results of the experiments and
their own specific systems. But after      conception step will start in 2008.      to put logistics in the loop).
two main experiments, it was                                                              3. Experiment: to maintain the
decided to digitize the combat             2:3. Command and control process         planning whatever the cost (mean-
service support units at the same                The army staff is in charge of     ing time available) with a priority for
pace for a better technical coherence,     the digitization process.                field training exercise at the begin-
and to keep logistics in the digitiza-                                              ning (to be able to fully analyze the
tion process.                              2:3.1. A quick history                   equipment/Soldier tandem).
                                                  - At the beginning, it was the          4. Experimental force: to
      Comment 2: as mentioned in           responsibility of the C4IS Office of     improve its design and to involve
Part 2:1, the main level being tested      the HQA, in co-ordination with the       the CTCs.
now is the BCT HQ. The environ-            G3.                                            5. Doctrine, employment and
ment is provided by the echelon-                  - In August 2004, this respon-    force design: a spiraling of the
above-corps, meaning digitization          sibility was given to the G3 to ensure   writing, the testing, the validating
links all levels from the Soldier to the   the operational pre-eminence in this     and the re-writing at the pace of the
division command post.                     process.                                 main experimental exercises.
                                                  - In December 2004, following           6. Education and manning: to
       Comment 3: experimentation is       a major digitization experiment, a       implement a process more coherent
a permanent process with main              report analyzed the full process and     and to anticipate the needs for the
yearly events alternating experimen-       made recommendations which were          future digitized units.
tal field training exercise and            all approved by the Vice Chief of              7. Joint level: to address ASAP
combined arms exercise. Neverthe-          Staff of the Army and the Chief of       the interoperability issues with the
26 Spring 2008
other services.
      8. Multinational: to address         Footnotes                              3
                                                                                   Bureau développement des
ASAP the interoperability issues
                                           1
                                             2 ème brigade blindée (2BB)          opérations en réseau
with the main partners – priority to
                                           2
                                             6 ème brigade légère blindée
Germany, Great-Britain, and the            (6BLB)
United States.
      9. Training (to study the needs
of digitized units and to adapt it
subsequently).
                                           French Brigade’s Combat Team
      10. Information (within the               In the French chain-of-           built to be autonomous; their
Army, the Department of Defense,           command, the land command is           structures focus on modularity.
the Joint and multinational commu-         composed of:                                 In addition, there are in the
nities, towards industry…).                - eight twinned combined BCTs:         land command:
                                           One light armored and one heavy              - One army aviation brigade
2:3.3. Cooperation between French          armored brigade in each pair           (transportation + attack)
army and U.S. Army                         (same capacities in the four pairs);         - One Special Forces brigade
         In regards to these 10            They are made of six regiments or            - The French German brigade
“keys”, it is obvious that France is       expeditionary battalions (1,000              - Four specialized brigades
interested in all the recent lessons       men each)                              (artillery, signal, engineer and
learned.                                        These brigades have been          Information +Electronic Warfare)
         As far as the key # 8 (Multi-
national) is concerned there are two
aspects:
         The first one is the technical
one and it is addressed by the
Delegation Generale pour l’ Arma-
ment, the French Procurement
Agency.
         The second one is more
operational oriented. It is why the
French army is looking for installing
a liaison officer at Fort Bliss, Texas.
His job would be more concepts,
doctrine, tactics, techniques and
procedures, Training, employment
oriented.

3.0 Additional considerations
          All these projects take time.
To reach interoperability – whatever
the level envisioned – takes time.
          The 10 “keys” I refer to must
be addressed simultaneously. If not,
each time there is something new in
one domain, there are subsequent
implications. It is true at the national
level; it is truer in bi- or multi-
national.
          The later two countries work
together, the bigger their differences,
the (more) they can later achieve
their goals.
          Which mainly aim at sup-
porting the Soldiers on the ground.




                                                                                  Army Communicator                27
French Rapid Reaction Corps High Readiness Force
By LTC Vincent Bajon, French LNO        subordinate and superior units.        peace time.
                                              The Rear Support Command               The full operational capabil-
      The French Rapid Reaction         has the delicate diplomatic and        ity occurred in February-March
Corps is set up in Lille, France, in    logistical roles to coordinate with    2007. The rapid reaction corps HQ
the immediate vicinity of many of       the host nation and each contribut-    has been deployed on the field in
the Allied contributors and also        ing nation’s support - together        France and tested on its ability to
collocated with the Land Com-           with other components and agen-        work in full autonomy, to generate
mand. This corps is within a one-       cies as necessary, in order to         orders quickly, to protect itself
hour drive of Supreme Headquar-         organize the Reception, Staging,       (force protection), to organize its
ters Allied Powers in Europe at         Onward Movements, and Integra-         support and to use safely a large
Mons, Belgium and the North             tion, as appropriate.                  CIS network. All the skills have
Atlantic Treaty Organization in               Finally, the home base CP is     been tested during a five weeks
Brussels, Belgium.                      key to a successful deployment; it     CPX field exercise with terrestrial,
      - 12 Nations will be eventual     provides the critical rear link        aerial, and chemical alerts.
contributors, of which four nations     during operations, and is the                As far as the CIS and
are contributing 10 or more signifi-    essential pied-à-terre during          interoperability are concerned, the
cant posts. The United States           redeployment.                          following items have been tightly
Army, Turkey, and Italy have                                                   controlled:
already joined the corps. The           Peace structure:                             - connectivity and communica-
remaining significant post could be           All the staff is displayed in          tion security
filled next year by Austria.            this fairly classic structure with           - command and control
                                        MN responsibilities pretty well              communications
    A word about the French             spread throughout the HQ:                    - satellite and voice communi-
generic capacities.                           An Italian colonel will lead           cations, digital transmission
    FR Contribution                     the Faction Liaison cell.                    - passage of information and
    Command : 1,700                           In support division, G1 is             orders, transfer of command
    Combat : 12,000                     under the command of a Belgian               delivery of information (to a
    Support : 12,000                    colonel, and G9 under a Dutch                processing unit)
    Total FR: 26,000                    colonel.                                     - army fixed telecommunica-
                                              In RSC Division, G7 is led by          tion system and trunk commu-
C2 concept:                             a German colonel. In Ops Division,           nication system (RITA)
       The French army has very         ACOS G3, who is also ACOS OPS,               - the meshing, radio net, the
carefully studied other Multina-        is a British colonel.                        equipments, switchboards
tional HQs and eventually opted               The staff is organized as              - operating the equipment,
for the generic concept based on a      supported/supporting according               operating instructions and
single Main CP, just as did the         to task, as for example G. Engi-             direction for use
ARRC a few years ago, moving            neer, G9 and G7 have responsibili-           - power failures
from the Cold War pattern with a        ties within each of the divisions.
Main and a Rear.                                                                      Policy, logistics, administra-
       With all enablers on board,      Certification process:                 tion, and operation cells have also
Arty and Engineer Brigades                    NATO certification process       been controlled according to a
interfaces, this allows the best        was successfully led last year. This   large number of certification
flexibility to address any kind of      process has been split into two        criteria.
issue. It also minimizes the force      main steps, and controlled on the             Each conclusion has been
protection with a single location.      field by the NATO control team         written in a report and sent to
       The RRC stands ready to          (Deployable HQ Task Force)             SACEUR, who indicated last year to
deploy an alternate HQ to allow               The initial operational          the NATO Military Community that
adequate survivability (would the       capabilityoccurred in the October -    the French Rapid Reaction Corps is
Force Protection assessment lead        November 2006. It aimed to             fully operational (SACEUR certifica-
to it) – or to act as a step-up if we   control the staff procedures, the      tion). The final decision belongs to the
need to move.                           means and equipment set up in the      North Atlantic Council. At that time,
       There is also a TAC CP to        accommodations, the documents,         the (FR) RRC takes the NATO
allow the COM to exercise com-          and above all, the CIS infrastruc-     Response Force alert in June 2008.
mand at the right place and time.       tures, to fulfill all the NATO
       Indeed the Corps HQ has all      conditions so that the staff might          LTC Bajon is the French Liaison
necessary liaison links to flanking,    be able to afford its mission during   signal officer at Fort Gordon, Ga.

28   Spring 2008
   ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
 ARRC – A Rapid Reaction Corps
 CIS –
 COMSEC – communications secu-
 rity
 CPX – Command Post Exercise
 DGA – Delegation generale pour
 d’armement
 DHQTF – Deployable Headquarters
 Task Force
 FOC – full operational capacity
 FR RRC – French Rapid Reaction
 Corps
 IOC – initial operational control
 NAC – North Atlantic Council
 NRF – NATO Response Force
 RITA – Research and Innovative
 Technology Administration
 RRC – Rapid Reaction Corps
 SACEUR – Supreme Allied
 Commaner Eruope
 SHAPE – Supreme Headquarters
 Allied Powers Europe
 TAC CP – Tactical Command Post




Army Communicator                    29
Signal Regiment Soldiers
   on point with
                                                     NATO
                                                       High Readiness Force

By LTC Mark Rosenstein                Rapid Deployable Corps-Italy was        support, humanitarian support and
                                      established at Ugo Mara Barracks,       other operations throughout NATO
      United States Army Regiment
                                      Solbiate Olona, Italy, 23 miles north   territories and beyond NATO’s Area
Soldiers serve proudly around the
                                      of Milan. Others were established in    of Operation as directed by NATO
world in support of the Global War
                                      France, Germany, Spain, and             mission Commanders. NRDC-Italy
on Terrorism. Most signaleers are
                                      Turkey.                                 trains, exercises and operates its
familiar with traditional signal
                                            NRDC-Italy is a multi-national    headquarters, assigned forces and
assignments with J6, G6, and S6
                                      headquarters with Italy serving as      affiliated elements using NATO
offices however few are familiar
                                      the framework nation; Italy pro-        procedures.
with the Regiment contribution to
                                      vides almost 70 percent of the                 NRDC-Italy is capable of
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
                                      personnel with the remaining 30         commanding up to four divisions
High Readiness Force commands.
                                      percent consisting of Soldiers from     and associated combat support and
      In 2001, following a compre-
                                      other contributing nations. The         combat service support units (ap-
hensive force structure review,
                                      multi-national environment is the       proximately 60,000 Soldiers). The
NATO approved a new war-fighting
                                      key enabler of the organization.        headquarters has a wide-range of
force structure to provide Alliance
                                      Currently, 15 member nations            options available to command and
countries with five new HRF (Land)
                                      comprise the Headquarters.              control land forces at the division
organizations as Rapid Deployable
                                            Mission: NRDC-Italy contrib-      and brigade level, to operate as a
Corps Headquarters. The NATO
                                      utes to the deterrence of aggression    stand-alone formation or as a
                                      against NATO countries through the      subordinate organization to a higher
                                      establishment and maintenance of a      headquarters. On Jan. 16, 2008,
                                      capability to deploy anywhere in the    NRDC-Italy completed its six-month
                                      NATO Area of Operation as ap-           mission as NATOs Reaction Force in
                                      proved by the North Atlantic            which it was prepared to deploy for
                                      Council. NRDC-Italy prepares to         operations anywhere in NATOs
                                      conduct defensive, offensive, peace     Area of Operation. The NRF mission




                                      Pictured (Left) in front of an Italian Army Tri-Band Satellite Station and
                                      (Right) in front of an Italian Army Single Channel Tactical Satellite Terminal
                                      are from left to right, LTC Mark Rosenstein, G6; COL Alfonso Miro,
                                      commander, 1st Signal Regiment, Italian Army; and CPT Jermaine Sutton,
     NRDC-Italy Member Nations        Information Management.

30    Spring 2008
rotates through all NATO HRF
commands.
       The Headquarters is an organi-
zation with a committed, confident
and experienced multi-national staff
working in a cohesive and struc-
tured team environment. The staff                                                          (Left) Pictured from left
employs well-developed doctrine for                                                        to right are SFC Dawn
multi-national and joint operations                                                        Waites and LTC Felice
at the Land Component level and                                                            Cofini,     chief    G6
has an in-place support structure                                                          Networks, Italian Army.
with equipment for both training
and operations which includes the
full range of dedicated communica-
tions.
       To remain at the leading edge
of rapidly changing doctrine, the
headquarters undertakes a full and
demanding training schedule
exercising the full operational
spectrum up to high intensity war-
fighting using a complete range of
modern weaponry. To ensure
Soldiers are prepared for deploy-       (Right) Pictured, left to right
                                        are CPT Jermaine Sutton;
ment, all nations are required to
                                        WO Antonio Citton,
participate in Individual Readiness
                                        Information Management
Training similar to that conducted      Specialist, Italian Army,
by the U.S. Army.                       and MAJ Giovanni Boggeri,
                                        Chief         Information
                                        Management, Italian Army.


                                        Central Staff supporting Information   Armies have progressed and experi-
                                        and Knowledge Management.              encing the Italian culture.
                                              SFC Dawn Waites, 25B, previ-           Sutton, 25A, previously
                                        ously assigned as NCOIC Help Desk      assigned as commander, B Com-
                                        Operations, Fort Carson, Colo., now    pany, 53rd Signal Battalion, U.S.
                                        serves as an Information Systems       Army Space and Missile Defense
                                        Technician in G6 Networks Section,     Command now serves as assistant
(Pictured left) 1LT Andrea Tortarolo,   NRDC-Italy. She is responsible for     chief, Information and Knowledge
Italian Army, coaches LTC Mark          developing and testing new software    Management, NRDC-Italy. He is
Rosenstein through qualification on     prior to implementation on the Local   responsible for establishing policies
the AR 70/90 Assault Rifle at           Area Network/Wide Area Network,        and developing new strategies for
Caserma Babini, Bellinzago, Italy.      developing architectures, assisting    effectively exchanging and transmit-
The AR 70/90 is the basic Italian       with Corps-level network configura-    ting information throughout the
infantryman weapon.                     tions and training Soldiers to main-   Headquarters, its deployed locations
                                        tain the Headquarters website.         and to higher NATO echelons.
      The G6 Division is responsible          During exercises, she assists    Sutton selected the assignment for its
for providing communications and        with network Quality of Service        cultural enrichment, to gain insight
information systems, guaranteeing       monitoring and other Information       into command and control opera-
connectivity with higher echelons       Technology functions. Waites was       tions from another country’s per-
and command and control of the          offered the assignment by her          spective and to obtain Joint experi-
Corps’ subordinate formations. To       Branch Manager and accepted it         ence within the NATO environment.
accomplish this, the division has 41    based on its unique location and       His most rewarding experiences
permanently assigned personnel of       professional opportunity. Her most     include enjoying the Italian culture
which two are from the U.S. Army        rewarding experiences include          with his family, training with multi-
Signal Regiment. Another member         learning how Allied Armies operate,    national officers and the professional
of the Regiment works within the        seeing how women in different          experience/knowledge gained from

                                                                               Army Communicator                  31
                                                                             www.nato.int/nrdc-it/index.htm.

                                                                                  LTC Rosenstein joined the
                                                                            U.S. Army Signal Corps after
                                                                            serving as a field artillery officer.
                                                                            Over his 25-year career he has held
                                                                            a variety of tactical, operational,
                                                                            and strategic assignments includ-
                                                                            ing: brigade S-3, battalion executive
                                                                            officer, corps and division G-6 plans
                                                                            officer, group S-2/S-3 officer,
                                                                            company commander and platoon
                                                                            leader. He deployed to Haiti with
                                                                            the 10th Signal Battalion, 10th
                                                                            Mountain Division for Operation
                                                                            Uphold Democracy and twice to
                                                                            Iraq with V Corps and the 22nd
                                                                            Signal Brigade for Operation Iraqi
Pictured from left to right are MAJ Rosario Serraino, Interoperability and Freedom I and 2005-07. He is
Policy, Italian Army; MAJ Andres Genovard, Plans Team B, Spanish Army; currently serving as chief, G-6
LTC Mark Rosenstein and LTC Marco Cali, Plans Team A, Italian Army.         plans, NATO Rapid Deployable
                                                                            Corps – Italy.
working with NATO allies.             gaining a new perspective on multi-
      Rosenstein, 25A, previously     national and NATO training and
assigned as S3 Officer, 22nd Signal   operations, making life-long profes-       ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
Brigade, V Corps now serves as        sional/personal friendships and
Chief G6 Plans, NRDC-Italy. He is     enjoying Italy and its culture with      GWOT – Global War on Terrorism
responsible for exercise and opera-   his family.                              HRF – High Readiness Force
tional communications planning as                                              IKM – Information and Knowledge
                                            Assignments with NRDC-Italy
                                                                               Management
well as communications project        are 36-month nominative command          IRT – Individual Readiness Training
management. He assists with           sponsored tours. Field grade officers    LAN – Local Area Network
planning and integration of critical  receive Joint credit. The assignment     NAC – North Atlantic Council
Knowledge Management systems          is considered a remote overseas          NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Orga-
and influences and revises signal     assignment. Prior to accepting an        nization
Doctrine and signal policy.           assignment with NRDC-Italy,              NCOIC – Noncommissioned Officer-
      Rosenstein selected the assign-                                          in-Charge
                                      Soldiers should contact their Branch     NRDC- NATO Rapid Deployabe
ment to gain Joint-level experience,  Manager and the serving NRDC-            Corps
learn about NATO, work with           Italy U.S. Senior National Represen-     NRF – NATOs Reaction Force
Soldiers from many different coun-    tative at DSN 314-634-6790 or 011-       QOS – Quality of Service
tries and provide his family with a   39-0331-32-9349.                         WAN – Wide Area Network
unique overseas experience. His             For more information about
most rewarding experiences include    NRDC-Italy visit: http://




32   Spring 2008
Integrating a modular tactical signal company
into the world
of transformed

Army
sustainment
                                        (Training on the ku- trailer)

By CPT Jason Daugherty                  and even one company is currently        brigade in a commercial environ-
                                        running a combat outpost in Iraq         ment?
       The last several years of Army
                                        and controlling route security for a
transformation has seen multitudes
                                        main supply route. For many units,               Are the fielded equipment
of signal units undergo modularity
                                        though, the mission set becomes a        and resources of a modular tactical
or activate as a modular unit. Prior
                                        hybrid solution.                         signal company sufficient to sup-
to transformation, most signal
                                              As the Army heads into its fifth   port a sustainment brigade in an
companies existed merely to
                                        year of physically implementing          expeditionary mission?
provide signal node services.
                                        modular transformation at the unit
       With the addition of tactical
                                        level, it has been my experience that          The search to find these an-
radio communications equipment
                                        each newly formed or modified unit,      swers has yielded a balanced solu-
and specialists, network operations
                                        signal or not, evolves and matures       tion that is currently being imple-
cells, signal maintenance teams, the
                                        initially to support the immediate       mented to support the 7th Sustain-
new modular signal package allows
                                        mission at hand.                         ment Brigade in its mission to
brigades to self-support its own
                                              My most recent experience has      provide area logistical support to
command and control assets.
                                        been to activate, stand-up, equip,       southern Iraq. Our signal mission set
Fortunately, the added flexibility of
                                        and deploy a modular Joint Network       is a solution that fits an already
newly formed modular signal
                                        Node-Network signal company to           commercialized environment.
companies has allowed leadership
                                        support a newly transformed              Although I am not able to completely
to adapt their companies to support
                                        sustainment brigade. Through this        answer whether a modular signal
evolving mission sets and changing
                                        journey, I have gained valuable          company for a sustainment brigade is
battlefield conditions.
                                        insights into the quest for providing    adequate in an expeditionary envi-
       One of the unique experiences
                                        value-added support to a multi-          ronment, I do have some recommen-
of being a junior officer in today’s
                                        functional logistics unit, and deter-    dations for discussion.
Army, is that we get to take a new,
                                        mining if the level of capability
modular concept and apply it to the
                                        provided by a signal company is          Background:
truth on the ground in a deployed
                                        sufficient to support this unit in a     Operational environment
environment. Some deployed
                                        deployed environment.                          The operational environment in
tactical signal companies are
                                              The following are questions        a theater of operation constantly
conducting their traditional support
                                        which I set out to answer over the       evolves, and therefore signal support
missions, some are commercializing
                                        last year and a half:                    must also evolve to support changing
forward operating bases, some are
                                                                                 mission sets. I established an open
conducting communications
                                               What is the optimal fit for a     and in-depth relationship with the
training, some are conducting
                                        deployed modular tactical signal         commander of the signal company
personnel security team missions,
                                        company supporting a sustainment         our unit replaced in southern Iraq,

                                                                                 Army Communicator                  33
more than six months prior to the         units. It was not until signal compa-     has more direct connectivity and
actual deployment. This gave our          nies were created within sustain-         better compatibility to provide
company the opportunity to adapt          ment units, that supporters pos-          certain reports.
our pre-deployment training focus         sessed dedicated communications                 Support units have been, and
and modify our company organiza-          assets to provide non-secure and          continue to be “commo light” for
tional structure, in light of under-      secure Internet Protocol router,          actual signal personnel outside of a
standing the current operational          voice, and defense switched network       signal company. The Modified
picture.                                  services. Secondly, as information        Table of Organization and Equip-
      During the information gather-      systems advanced along with               ment authorizations in a sustain-
ing process prior to deployment, we       changing technologies, Army               ment brigade S6 shop are signifi-
learned how the operational envi-         sustainers became increasingly            cantly less substantial than a maneu-
ronment in southern Iraq is becom-        reliant on using .mil websites and        ver brigade S6 shop.
ing more and more of a sustainment        web servers to process and conduct              Even in the newly formed
operation. It is an environment           force sustainment missions. Among         special troops battalions for sustain-
much different than the initial stages    functions which use these .mil sites      ment brigades, only two signal
of operation in Iraq, and even much       and servers are maintenance opera-        Support Specialists (25U1Os) are
more different than when JNN-N            tions, classes of supply operations,      authorized to run communications at
was first implemented in theater.         personnel and human resource              the battalion level. This makes it
      Signal supporters in Iraq have      operations, postal operations, and        more difficult to provide robust
evolved from primarily providing          finance operations.                       signal support to operate tactical
tactical voice and data networks, to            In part because Nonsecure           communications systems and
providing a permanent enterprise          Internet Protocol Router connectivity     maintain networks within a sustain-
network infrastructure in most            was not as easily available, and also     ment brigade.
places. This transition is still taking   because sustainers became increas-
place at some of the developing           ingly reliant on direct access to .mil    Mission analysis, arrival of a
forward operating bases. For              websites and servers, the Army            solution set
example, we learned from the              fielded Combat-Service Supported                 Mission analysis to determine
company we replaced that its FOB          Automated Information Systems             our signal company’s initial de-
Delta JNN provided services for           Interface and very small aperture         ployed mission set was a continual
several C2 nodes at remote locations      terminal communication systems to         process, as requirements evolved
on the camp, where the commercial         interface with Standard Army              prior to deployment and when we
network had not extended to yet.          Management Information Systems.           first arrived in southern Iraq. Our
      As things changed on the            This provides supporters with a           leadership worked to determine how
ground in Iraq, the company com-          separate network with direct connec-      we could best support a sustainment
mander kept me abreast of new             tivity to their essential informational   unit in a mostly commercialized
situations. The end result was that       systems. In effect, Army sustainers       environment, though our traditional
our company knew exactly what we          had already integrated a solution to      mission is to provide initial entry
would be facing, as we arrived in         satisfy the communication require-        tactical communications.
theater. The biggest learning point       ments needed to conduct its core                 During analysis we had to
to note is that while you can be as       missions.                                 figure out where the gaps in the
informed as possible about the                  Additionally, sustainment           commercial network were, across the
situation you are about to face, until    units needed a permanent solution         various FOBs our brigade supports,
you personally get a feel for the         to provide connectivity for actual C2     and determine where we could best
situation on-the-ground, it is best to    of personnel, sections, and units.        give support. In our unit’s situation,
maintain the flexibility to execute       Modular transformation fulfilled this     we were tasked to provide commu-
various alternatives as you are           requirement to supporters through         nications in the gaps that were
coming into theater.                      the implementation of the JNN-N           already being filled by tactical
                                          signal companies. The JNN-N               communications assets we would
Background:                               system provides services to support       replace.
How does a sustainment unit use           C2 functions, such as access to NIPR,            The other issue that we placed
communications assets?                    SIPR, and DSN networks, including         the most significant amount of effort
       Two factors have shaped the        exchange servers and share portals.       and analysis into, was to determine
way Army sustainers use informa-          Even though NIPR access provides          how our signal company could be
tion technology to conduct logistical     connectivity to most of the sustain-      involved to directly support a
operations and support customers.         ment information systems that             sustainment unit’s core mission of
First, support units are “commo           supporters use, Army logisticians         providing customer support. Due to
light”: support units traditionally       continue to use the CAISI/VSAT            the fact that supporters already
lack the same level of communica-         network as a primary connection.          primarily use the Combat-Service-
tions assets as combat maneuver           This is mainly because the network        Support Automated Information
34   Spring 2008
Systems Interface/VSAT network,
and use commercial NIPR for
secondary means, little assistance is
needed with this central mission. It
was found that the best way to give
value-added support to our brigade
was to provide training and mission
support for tactical communications.
       In analyzing how to support a
sustainment mission and provide the
most value-added communications,
we determined the essential mission
support roles for this operational
environment.
       My first sergeant and I took the
derived essential roles, and logically
organized the company to enhance
its ability to execute the primary
signal support missions for the
brigade. Each platoon and section
in the company is organized to
support a specific primary mission.
By continually analyzing our opera-       2LT Beverly Wendell and CPT Jason Daugherty, CO executive officer and
tional environment before and after       company commander with 7th Signal Company, Special Troops Battalion,
we deployed, we arrived at a stable       7th Sustainment Brigade.
solution which optimizes the
amount of support we are able to                1.) Provide Information Tech-       mission assets in order to extend FM
provide to the 7th Sustainment                  nology services from the end-       coverage for the brigade. Since FM
Brigade.                                        user (client) to the tactical hub   retransmission is not needed in our
       Our first primary mission is to          (the “cloud”) for the tactical      brigade’s area of responsibility, our
support the tactical communications             voice and data network;             unit went through a process to
customer, which involves providing              2.) Provide support to brigade      determine how they could still
training and mission support for                tactical radio communications       provide services to the brigade.
tactical radios and tactical tracking           customers;                                We decided to reorganize the
systems. Our second mission is to               3.) Provide end-user support        company to house all the 25Us in
provide signal network node ser-                for the special troops battalion    one platoon, with the addition of the
vices, which includes operation of              commercial network.                 CPN team. The platoon was given
our JNN and our Command Post                  I will highlight and describe the     the primary mission to support
Node. Our third mission is to             key points which exemplify how we         tactical communications, and
provide network management for            are providing signal support in a         secondarily to provide one node for
signal nodes, which is the core           commercialized environment,               signal support, the CPN.
mission for our brigade network           broken down by key mission.                     The signal company we
operations team. Our final mission                                                  replaced used its 25Us to provide
is to support the tactical and com-       Key mission: Support the tactical         mission and training support for
mercial network customer, which           communications customer                   tactical communications for the
includes end-user support for our                One of the greatest benefits       brigade. Our company assumed the
tactical subscribers and our parent       which adds to the flexibility of the      same mission, and refined it and
battalion’s command, staff, and           modularized signal companies, is          expanded it. The most visible
separate companies.                       that there are substantial numbers of     success for our 25Us has been the
       Our company’s doctrinal/           authorized Signal Support Special-        development of the Contingency
modular core mission is to provide        ists (25U), a military occupational       Operation Base Adder Radio Tele-
“network level” signal nodes and          specialty most predominantly              phone Operators Academy. Com-
node management support to a              invested inside actual unit commu-        pany Soldiers are permanently
brigade tactical voice and data           nications shops before transforma-        assigned to provide tactical radio
network, and to provide extended          tion. Of the 55 authorized slots for a    training for units within the 7th
FM coverage to a brigade’s area of        sustainment brigade signal com-           Sustainment Brigade. For more
responsibility.                           pany, 14 are 25Us, most of which are      details, please refer to a subsequent
       Our modified mission set has       slotted to operate and maintain           article in this issue of Army Commu-
the following focus:                      frequency modulation radio retrans-       nicator about the RTO Academy and
                                                                                    Army Communicator                  35
its use of signal community e-            taken place. In effect, even though     areas where there are gaps in
university resources.                     our JNN and CPN are currently           commercial communications, there
       Mission support for tactical       filling in the gaps in commercial       is seldom a unit S6 shop to provide
communications is another emphasis        communications, both nodes are          end-user support.
for the signal company. Two 25Us          currently being used at less than             In particular, our brigade S6
are provided to the brigade fusion        twenty percent of their intended        shop focuses primarily on support-
cell (brigade tactical operations         capacity. Because the theater           ing the enterprise network, because
center) to permanently provide            information systems goal is to          their primary customers C2 on this
communication support and battle          provide all customers in Iraq with      network. This leaves our company
tracking for CLPs. 25Us are also          enterprise services, it has also        Soldiers to manage end-user support
provided as part of the brigade’s         become our company’s goal to            on the tactical side. For example,
Personnel Security Detachment for         accomplish a transition of tactical     our JNN platoon provides an
vehicle communications. 1LT David         services for our customers to com-      information management officer,
Hamlin is a school-trained electronic     mercial domain services.                information assurance, and worksta-
warfare officer, and he provides                 A significant example of Iraq    tion troubleshooting support to over
augmentation support for the COB          commercialization is currently          30 subscribers at FOB Delta.
Adder Electronic Warfare Officer          taking place at FOB Delta. This               Our support for the end-user
team. In particular, he works with        camp has become a focal point for       does not stop with the tactical
the team to ensure counter-impro-         FOB expansion in southern Iraq, and     network. There is no authorized
vised explosive device warlocks for       the network commercialization           battalion S6 for the STB, and the
tactical vehicles are fully operational   effort is becoming more and more of     decision was made to dual-hat our
and updated.                              a critical piece as Delta grows.        company executive officer as the STB
       Another key advantage of           Currently, a core mission of the 44th   S6. The decision to make this a dual
having a wealth of 25Us not con-          Signal Battalion is to commercialize    position, has ultimately paved the
ducting their doctrinal mission, is       FOB Delta, including the area where     way for the automations experts in
that we have the ability to support       our company’s JNN is providing          our company to provide expert
other battalions that have shortages      tactical communications support.        services to the STB command and
in their S6 shops. In addition to         The company JNN platoon’s mission       staff and separate companies. This
supporting the 142nd CSSB for the         is to provide voice and data network    also allows the brigade S6 shop to
RTO Academy, our 25Us provide             services for brigade sustainment        focus on supporting the brigade staff
mission support measures as well.         units and C2 nodes at Camp Delta.       and subordinate battalions.
The battalion conducts convoy             The JNN platoon and the 44th Signal           Even though our mission is to
logistics patrol validation prior to      are focusing commercialization          support brigade assets, this addi-
FOB departure for every CLP, which        efforts, by working together to         tional mission has helped us become
includes status checks and trouble-       migrate our supported units from        an integral component to the STB as
shooting measures to ensure all           the tactical network to the commer-     well. For example, our Soldiers were
vehicles are able to command and          cial network, over the coming           responsible for installing a LAN for
control using tactical communica-         months. These efforts will help         the STB command and staff from
tions. Our company Soldiers               guarantee a seamless integration of     scratch. In my discussions with
provide assistance to this mission        our supported units to the commer-      other sustainment brigade signal
from time to time. The gamut of           cial network, and also help standard-   company commanders, other like
mission support operations will           ize the work to expand the sub-         companies have adopted similar
continue to evolve as requirements        network that supports our own           information technologies support
change throughout the deployment.         sustainment assets at FOB Delta.        structures to their STBs.
                                          Currently, the JNN platoon is
Key mission: Provide signal               leading an effort for network expan-    Signal support along a continuum
network node services                     sion and standardization at the               In analyzing whether the
      Even though our sustainment         central hangar/warehouse for            capability added to a sustainment
brigade signal company is autho-          logistical operation and FOB Delta.     brigade by a modular signal com-
rized one JNN, two CPNs, and a                                                    pany is sufficient enough to support
data package, it was actually fielded     Key mission: Support the tactical       command and control of its critical
just one JNN and one CPN. More-           and commercial network customer         missions, one must take into consid-
over, the maneuver brigade signal         (end-user services)                     eration the actual deployed environ-
companies are authorized more than             Our traditional mission has        ment. As our armed forces conduct
twice the overall capability of signal    evolved from providing merely           operations in foreign countries, the
nodes that our type of company is         network support, to also providing      deployed environment usually
authorized. This limitation of node       end-user support on both sides of       evolves from expeditionary to
resources is alleviated by the vast       the network. Because our tactical       sustained over time. In recent
network commercialization that has        nodes provide support at remote         deployments, communications
36   Spring 2008
support trends have evolved with          piece of support. The sustainment         logistics elements or other forward
the environments and mission sets,        brigade headquarters, the extensive       task force nodes if they are deployed
by gradually transitioning from a         support operations section, and the       to support another portion of the
tactical to a commercial/enterprise       special troops battalion would all        battlefield. It is recommended that a
network environment. Different            have to be centrally located so that      CPN and a CAISI/VSAT both be
regions of Iraq are further along in      the JNN alone could provide sup-          deployed with a FLE, so that one
the continuum than other regions.         port. In this situation, the brigade S-   assemblage can provide C2, and one
       In the case of southern Iraq,      6 shop and the signal company             can be used to conduct logistics
most operating bases are fairly           would play an enormous role of            requisitions and create reports. The
commercialized in places where            providing a multi-level local area        more CPNs that a sustainment
sustainment units operate. The            network with associated domain            brigade has at its disposal, the more
signal nodes that were fielded to our     services. This would include              FLEs it can send out with the vital
signal company, under the current         installing and operating commercial       communications it needs.
mission set, are more than adequate       servers to provide e-mail exchange              In any possible scenario for a
to provide tactical communications        services, share-portal services, and      sustainment brigade in an expedition-
where commercialization lacks. In         other domain services.                    ary environment, its options are still
some cases, tactical communications             The other core requirement          significantly limited with the nominal
assemblages are used to provide           would be that any battalion or other      additional capability of the new
temporary solutions to units during       subordinate unit must bring their         modular signal company equipment.
migration to new facilities on an         own command post node into                In any event, voice and data commu-
operating base. All in all, there is no   theater, so that it would have voice      nications are unlikely to be redundant
question that the provided signal         and data services to communicate          and will have a single point of failure
company capability to the current         with the brigade elements connected       in an initial-entry set. This issue can
environment for sustainment units is      to the JNN. The signal company            be best alleviated by fielding more
more than adequate.                       would have one or two CPNs which          CPN teams to the sustainment
       The other brigade-level sus-       it could bestow to subordinate            brigade signal companies. If this does
tainment units in other regions of        battalions, but this would immedi-        not occur, then the other solution is
Iraq are also at various points in the    ately take away the only redundant        for sustainment brigades to work with
continuum of providing commercial         communications for command and            other units across the Army to task
versus tactical communications. One       control at the brigade level.             organize additional CPNs to deploy-
sustainment brigade signal company              If a sustainment brigade does       ing units.
currently uses its tactical assets to     not have to task its CPN(s) to subordi-
provide supplemental DSN services         nate battalions, then the CPNs could      Concluding remarks
to its brigade headquarters, in           also be used to accompany forward             The solution of applying
addition to access of various Army
Battle Command Systems.

Signal support in an expeditionary
environment
      Looking at signal support
along a continuum gives rise to the
question of whether a modular
tactical signal company is sufficient
to support a sustainment brigade in
an expeditionary manner. This
question cannot truly be answered
due to the fact that modular sustain-
ment units are not battlefield-tested
in an expeditionary environment.
However, valid points can be drawn
from recent experiences and recom-
mendations can be produced.
      At its core, the modular signal
capability is nominal, with no room
for providing a robust and expanded
network. Assuming that no com-
mercial or other means of voice and
data communications are available         1SG Laraine Range and CPT Jason Daugherty are the command team for
for C2, the JNN becomes the center-       7th Signal Company, 7th Sustainment Brigade.

                                                                                    Army Communicator                   37
modular unit concepts to constantly        signal companies prior to an expedi-
evolving deployed mission sets,            tionary deployment.                             ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
allows for greatly increased flexibility         For units operating in a stable
to signal units which permanently          environment, an enterprise package is        ABCS – Army Battle Command Sys-
support sustainment brigades. Signal       preferred as the primary network,            tems
                                                                                        C2 – command and control
company Soldiers work hand-in-hand         while the JNN serves is an excellent         CAISI – Combat-Service-Support Au-
with logistics units, whether deployed     tactical augmentation for gaps in            tomated Information Systems Inter-
or not, and they can continually           communications. In a sustained               face
evolve their understanding to provide      environment, and in an increasingly          COB – Contingency Oerations Base
better support to the customer.            net-centric world where the Army             COP – Combat Outpost
       Wherever the communications         conducts more and more of its                CLP – Convoy Logistics Patrol
focus effort is for the sustainment        business over IT infrastructure, more        CPN – Command Post Node
                                                                                        DSN – Defense Switched Network
brigade, there will always be signal       robust tactical and enterprise solu-         EWO – Electronic Warfare Officer
Soldiers to support these endeavors.       tions will continue to be in higher          FLE – Forward Logistics Elements
More significantly, support units now      demand.                                      FOB – Forward Operating Base
have an initial entry tactical signal                                                   IA – Information Assurance
capability to support their C2 capabil-           CPT Daugherty is the company          IED – Improvised Explosive Device
ity anywhere in the world.                 commander of the 7th Signal Company,         IMO – Information Management Of-
                                                                                        ficer
       As modular signal companies         Special Troops Battalion, 7th Sustain-
                                                                                        IT – Information Technology
continue to activate and mature            ment Brigade. The unit is currently          JNN – Joint Network Node
throughout the Army, the essential         stationed at COB Adder and FOB Delta,        JNN-N – Joint Network Node–Network
concept to note is that each unit must     Iraq, and serving in support of Opera-       MSR – Main Supply Route
tailor its capabilities to support a       tion Iraqi Freedom 07-09. His previous       MTOE -- Modified Table of Organiza-
unit’s current mission, and at the         duty assignments include maneuver            tion and Equipment
same time maintain the flexibility to      battalion S6, node center platoon leader,    NETOPS – Network Operations
                                                                                        PSD – Personnel Security Detach-
adapt to changing mission sets and         and multi-channel tactical satellite         ment
converging net-centric technologies.       platoon leader. Previous tours include       RTO – Radio Telephone Operator
       The JNN-N system is a good          Operation Iraqi Freedom I and III.           SPO – support operations
initial capability system to provide       Daugherty received his commission            STAMIS – Standard Army Manage-
tactical voice and data communica-         from the United States Military              ment Information System
tions for sustainment brigades. The        Academy.                                     STB – Special Troops Battalion
system would be much more robust if                                                     VSAT – Very Small Aperture Terminal
more assemblages were fielded to the



RTO’s Academy uses
Signal community e-University resources
to train Soldiers                          deploying.
                                                 The rapid
                                                                                                  battlefield.
                                                                                                           In a rush to get the
on Iraqi                                   demand for in-
                                           creased capability of
                                                                                                       latest equipment to
                                                                                                        Soldiers who are
battlefield                                tactical radio
                                           communications for
                                                                                                        about to, or are
                                                                                                        already in the fight,
By CPT Jason Daugherty                     deployed Army                                                adequate training on
                                           warriors has                                                 communications
      Imagine for a moment that you                                                                     equipment prior to
                                           brought a variety of
are a Soldier on a team assuming a                                                                    operation on the road
                                           new technologies
primary mission to conduct route                                                                    is somewhat neglected.
                                           directly to units in Iraq
security patrols or convoy logistics                                                              Soldiers learn the basics of
                                           and Afghanistan. New
patrols on dangerous roads in Iraq.                                                           these new communication
                                           equipment fielding of tactical
You are also expected to communi-                                                      systems, and they get on with the
                                           radios and other communications
cate on tactical radio equipment on                                                    mission. Furthermore, signal Sol-
                                           devices are being distributed to
which you never trained prior to                                                       diers are expected to be the subject
                                           modular Army units during prepa-
deployment. This scenario is fairly                                                    matter experts and facilitate the
                                           ration for deployment, and in some
common for many Soldiers currently                                                     training of these new signal systems.
                                           cases, after units have arrived on the

38   Spring 2008
These Soldiers may be nominally
able to conduct training themselves
before they are expected to share the
knowledge.
      Over the past several years, the
Signal Regiment has worked relent-
lessly to globalize its ability to
provide training and learning of
tactical communications and infor-
mation technology. This has taken
the form of distance learning, e-
universities, and access to knowl-
edge and information available via
the Internet. On a fluid battlefield
where new C2 systems continue to
rapidly multiply, signaleers are
relying more on web-based re-
sources to provide training required
to get operators ready on new and
unfamiliar equipment.
      One such example of this trend
is currently taking place at Contin-
gency Operating Base Adder, in
Southern Iraq. At COB Adder, the          SSG Michael Browley, COB Adder RTO, gives instruction and observes as
7th Sustainment Brigade hosts an          SGT Michael Correa (right) troubleshoots the AN/VRC-152 Harris radio
RTO Academy, whose mission is to          system.
provide tactical communications                                                (Precision Lightweight GPS Receiv-
training for brigade Soldiers. 25U                                             ers and Defense Advanced GPS
Signal System Specialists from the        On a fluid battlefield               Receivers); and intercom systems
7th Signal Company provide train-                                              inside tactical vehicles.
ing in both classroom and hands-on        where new C2systems                         “The RTO Academy is truly a
environments. Since December 2007,        continue to rapidly                  mobile and agile school,” claims
the RTO Academy has used interac-                                              instructor SGT Deon Peterson.
tive training materials, provided by      multiply, signaleers are             “There is no permanent place of
the signal community, to train                                                 instruction,” he adds. Instead, the
several hundred brigade Soldiers at
                                          relying more on web-                 academy has integrated itself to
COB Adder. This directly enhanced         based resources to                   perform classes wherever training
the brigade’s ability to conduct                                               needs to take place. The academy’s
convoy logistics patrols, and thus        provide training required other two primary instructors are
keep Soldiers safer on the battlefield.   to get operators ready on SGT Eland Jones and SSG Michael
      The 7th Sustainment Brigade                                              Browley.
deployed to Iraq in October of 2007       new and unfamiliar                          In addition to providing
to replaced the 82nd Sustainment          equipment.                           separate unit-level training, the RTO
Brigade. Signal Soldiers from the 7th                                          Academy is also a component of the
Signal Company quickly assumed                                                 7th Sustainment Brigade’s CLP
the mission of providing radio                                                 Academy and the 142nd CSSB’s CLP
training via an academy that origi-       all forms of tactical communications Academy. The proliferation of CLP
nated while the 82nd Signal Com-          used by 7th Sustainment Brigade      academies has flourished over the
pany was deployed. The 7th Sustain-       units on the battlefield. This in-   last few years for support units.
ment Brigade sought to expand the         cludes the AN/VRC-152 Harris         They provide a methodology for
capabilities of what communications       radio sets, now popularly used as    support units to conduct CLPs on
training could be offered, and 7th        radio communications for CLPs; the   the main routes, by training the
Signal Soldiers took the lead on this     single-channeled ground-to-air radio latest techniques, tactics and proce-
effort by increasing the types of         systems family of radios; blue force dures and also teaching counter-IED
equipment it could offer training         tracker and maneuver tracking        measures. The RTO Academy is
for.                                      system; communications security      allotted an entire day to train
      Essentially, the RTO Academy        data transfer devices (Automated     Soldiers during the week-long CLP
at COB Adder has become the focal         Net Control Devices and Simple Key Academy for the 142nd CSSB, one of
point for on-the-ground training for      Loaders); land navigation systems    the brigade’s subordinate battalions.
                                                                                Army Communicator                39
At the brigade’s CLP Academy, RTO
Academy personnel perform evalua-
tion to determine areas for CLP
teams to improve for communica-
tions, and then academy personnel
have allotted time to train them on
these focused areas.
      The biggest limitation to
provide sound training for the RTO
Academy is lack of resources. Most
of the tactical equipment we conduct
training for, simply does not exist in
the signal company. In addition,
some of the newer types of equip-
ment, such as the Harris AN/PRC-
152 radio system, was never used by
any company personnel prior to
deployment.
      The academy’s platoon ser-
geant, SSG Paul Aquino, established
a relationship with key personnel at
Fort Gordon, paving the way for
substantial training aid support for
classroom training. Aquino worked        RTO Academy poses with Brigade Personnel Security Team after a
with employees of the Signal             training session.
Regiment’s University of Informa-
tion Technology and the                  of Information Technology, and           personnel from the University of
LandWarNet e-University - Lifelong       Mike Sizemore, Floyd Orial, and          Information Technology and the
Learning Center, by providing            Clark Solomon from the Lifelong          Lifelong Learning Center by request-
requirements for training needed in      Learning Center.                         ing materials on two fronts. First, the
Iraq. In turn, key personnel worked            In February 2007, personnel        RTO Academy works to obtain
diligently to provide a training         from the 7th SB and 7th Signal           additional training materials for other
computer disc encompassing               Company conducted two impacting          systems essential to battle-tracking
comprehensive and interactive            phone conferences with key leader-       and C2 for the brigade, such as the
training for each type of tactical       ship from Fort Gordon. These             command post of the future. Addi-
communications equipment used.           conferences included discussions         tionally, the organizations are work-
      The RTO Academy uses the           with BG Jeffrey Foley, commanding        ing to provide materials for informa-
training materials as the core cur-      general, U.S. Army Signal Center         tion technology and network training
riculum during formal classroom          and Fort Gordon; COL Michael             for brigade signal Soldiers. The 7th
instruction. When available, these       Cordes, director of Training for the     Signal Company looks to expand its
training materials are used along        Signal Center; CSM Thomas J. Clark,      own internal network academy by
with classes on stand-alone systems      command sergeant major for the U.S.      incorporating training materials
inside classrooms. The materials         Army Signal Center and Fort Gor-         provided by the LandWarNet e-
serve as a guideline for teaching        don; SGM Paul Cyr; and SGM               University - Lifelong Learning Center.
Soldiers and operators how to            Edgardo Ramirez, Directorate of                As the Army continues to field
perform important functions on the       Training, and the personnel who          command and control systems to
equipment. The final step in the         provided the training materials.         support the ongoing convergence of
training process includes hands-on             The leadership noted that they     tactical and enterprise communica-
training on equipment in actual          see the RTO Academy as an extension      tions into one integrated net-centric
vehicles Soldiers operate during         of how the signal community is           environment, the urgency to provide
CLPs.                                    reaching out to Soldiers on the          on-demand training materials for
      Since December 2007, the RTO       battlefield to ensure they can commu-    these systems will continue to in-
Academy has used the interactive         nicate effectively. It was reiterated    crease. The on-line collaboration and
training materials to provide instruc-   that the signal community at Fort        access to materials from the Signal
tion on a weekly basis at COB            Gordon stands ready to further assist    community at Fort Gordon have
Adder. Key personnel at Fort             in the communications training of        already set the foundations for
Gordon who directly contributed to       Soldiers deployed worldwide.             prolonged success, and will continue
this endeavor are: Patrick Baker,              The 7th Sustainment Brigade        to be critical as technical aptitude
chief of Training for the University     continues building a relationship with   becomes increasingly important to all

40   Spring 2008
                                             Signal Support in
Soldiers in the Army, Signal or not.
       CPT Daugherty is the company
commander of the 7th Signal Company,
Special Troops Battalion, 7th Sustain-


                                             Counterinsurgency
ment Brigade. The unit is currently
stationed at COB Adder and FOB Delta,
Iraq, and serving in support of Operation
Iraqi Freedom 07-09. His previous duty
assignments include maneuver battalion
S6, node center platoon leader, and multi-
channel tactical satellite platoon leader.
Previous tours include Operation Iraqi
                                             Operations
Freedom I and III. Daugherty received        By LTC Steve Birch                     strategy and focusing the collective
his commission from the United States                                               effort to bolster or restore govern-
                                                   The publication of FM 3-24       ment legitimacy. (Collaboration)
Military Academy.
                                             Counterinsurgency in December 2006              HN forces and other
                                             immediately preceded the an-           counterinsurgents must establish
     ACRONYM QUICKSCAN                       nouncement of the surge of forces in   control of one or more areas from
                                             support of ongoing combat opera-       which to operate. HN forces must
   ABCS – Army Battle Command Sys-           tions in Iraq. The intent of the surge secure the people continuously
   tems                                      was to get the security situation to a within those areas. (Physical Occu-
   ANCD – Automated Net Control              point where Iraq could achieve some pation)
   Device                                    political growth.
   C2 – command and control                                                                  Operations should be
                                                   This article examines signal     initiated from the HN government’s
   CAISI – Combat-Service-Support
   Automated Information Systems In-         support requirements in COIN           area of strength against areas under
   terface                                   operations, assess the performance     insurgent control. The host nation
   CLP – convoy logistics patrol             of the signal                                            must retain or regain
   COB – Contingency Operating Base          regiment in the                                          control of the major
   COMSEC – communications secu-             conduct of COIN
   rity                                      and offer some
                                                                   The intent of the                  population centers to
   CPOF – Command Post of the Fu-                                                                     stabilize the situa-
   ture
                                             lessons learned.      surge was to get the tion, secure the
                                             Before examining
   CPN – Command Post Node
   CSSB – Combat Sustainment Sup-            specific signal       security situation to government’s
                                                                                                      support base, and
   port Battalion                            issues, I will        a point where Iraq                 maintain the
   DAGR – Defense Advanced GPS               review some
   Receiver                                  overarching           could achieve some government’s
   DSN – Defense Switched Network                                                                     legitimacy. (Popula-
                                             principles of         political growth.                  tion as Key Terrain
   EWO – Electronic Warfare Officer
   FLE – Forward Logistics Elements
                                             counterinsurgency                                        and Center of
   FOB – Forward Operating Base              operations. The                                          Gravity)
   IED – Improvised Explosive Device         following is extracted from FM 3-24.            Regaining control of insur-
   IT – Information Technology                     Counterinsurgency operations     gent areas requires the HN govern-
   JNN – Joint Network Node                  are a component of full spectrum
   JNN-N – Joint Network Node–Net-                                                  ment to expand operations to secure
                                             operations. COIN is a combination      and support the population. If
   work                                      of offensive, defensive and stability
   MSR – Main Supply Route                                                          insurgents have established control
   NETOPS – Network Operations               operations with the proportion of      of a region, their military must be
   PLGR – Precision Lightweight GPS          effort changing over time and in       eliminated and political apparatus
   Receiver                                  response to the situation. This can    rooted out. (Direct Action)
   PSD – Personnel Security Detach-          also vary by geographic area and                Information Operations
   ment                                      echelon. COIN operations require
   SINCGARS – Single Channeled                                                      must be aggressively employed to
                                             synchronized application of military, influence the perception of HN
   Ground to Air Radio System
                                             political, economic and civic actions. legitimacy and obtain support for
   SKL – simple key loader
   SPO – support operations                                                         COIN operations.
   STAMIS – Standard Army Manage-            There are five overarching require-
   ment Information System                   ments for successful COIN opera-       Signal Support Requirements
   STB – Special Troops Battalion            tions:                                       Signal support requirements in
   TTP – techniques, tactics, and pro-               U.S. and Host-Nation mili-
   cedures                                                                          COIN operations can be identified
                                             tary commanders and the HN             only when understanding the
   VSAT – Very Small Aperture Termi-
   nal
                                             government must together devise a      operational characteristics of COIN.
                                             plan for attacking the insurgent’s     Effective communication is critical

                                                                                     Army Communicator                  41
between organizations in order to       tion partners.                          zations that support COIN (Corps
maintain synchronization of effort.           Communication with the            of Engineers, State Department,
There are five major types of organi-   local population can be accom-          contractors, local government
zations that we must communicate        plished using the civil communica-      officials). Patrol bases and combat
with:                                   tion network. The ability to            outposts are the front line in the
     Ourselves                          communicate with the population         COIN fight. They are located at
     Coalition and Interagency          is proportional to civil communica-     the center of gravity of the COIN
     Organizations                      tions infrastructure. In Iraq, the      fight.
     Host-Nation Government             robust cellular network existing in           The current brigade combat
      Agencies                          urban areas provides outstanding        team organization provides secure
     Host-Nation Military and           ability for communications while        broadband connectivity down to
      Police Forces                     the lack of infrastructure in rural     the battalion level. Since COIN is
     Local Population                   areas requires more face to face        predominantly a company level
      Understanding the informa-        interaction.                            fight, the company becomes the
tion exchange requirements (who                                                 lowest echelon requiring support.
needs to exchange information           Baseline communications require-        Not all companies will operate
between each other and what             ments.                                  from patrol bases, but current
information needs to be ex-                   The following list of capabili-   experience indicates up to three
changed) is important. The five         ties has emerged as the standard        additional locations per maneuver
groups listed above are the “who”       baseline expected at any fixed          battalion are the norm. A rough
in the information exchange             geographically isolated location:       estimate for a BCT would be to
requirement. Once we know who           (Typically a company level patrol       plan for supporting up to 12
needs to communicate, we next           base or combat outpost):                locations.
need to determine how they                                                            A command post node or
communicate and what informa-             Secure single-channel voice           equal capability alone is not
tion they need to exchange. All of      (FM, HF or TACSAT)                      sufficient for the patrol base or
the groups are important because             o Command and Control              combat outpost. The ability to
they are all part of the COIN fight.         o Fire Support                     communicate within the coalition,
      COIN operations increase               o MEDEVAC                          to HN military and civil authori-
signal support requirements               Blue/Red Situational Awareness        ties remains unresolved. The
because of an expanded amount of        (Blue Force Tracker, FBCB2)             solution for this shortfall can be as
requirements. The increase in                o See yourself and see the         simple as exchanging liaison
units living among the population       enemy                                   teams, procurement of equipment
exceeds our organic equipment                o Limited text messaging           (cell phones) or using enterprise
levels. COIN also introduces              Secure Voice and Data                 level solutions.
interoperability issues with the             o Email
HN and coalition partners due to a           o Web Portal Access                Solving the capability shortfall
lack of standardization. Network             o Secure Telephone                      There are three courses of
interoperability and integration is          o Collaboration tools (CPOF,       action to solve the shortfall in
best accomplished at the enterprise     CIDNE)                                  equipment required to support
level. When no enterprise solution        Non-secure voice and data             COIN operations:
is available, the force can revert to   (Provides connectivity to local
liaison team exchanges or other         population and essential Soldier                 Status Quo. Accept the
local solutions.                        services)                               risk of not being able to conduct
      Single-channel voice commu-            o Email                            COIN operations and fill require-
nications with coalition partners is         o Voice                            ments with Operational Need
essential in the conduct of combat        Streaming Media (Emerging as a        Statements and other procurement
operations. The risk of fratricide is   standard capability) (Provides real     actions as the situation dictates.
increased when language barriers        time situational awareness and                   Fill shortages of equipment
or system interoperability prob-        force protection)                       by redistributing equipment
lems prevent ground-to-ground or             o Unmanned Aerial Vehicle          within the formation or augment
ground-to-air communications            (Shadow, Raven)                         the brigade combat team with
when United States and coalition                                                equipment from expeditionary
forces share operating environ-               The baseline is robust yet        signal battalions.
ments.                                  entirely appropriate for COIN.                   Change the current organi-
      Interoperability with HN          The fight requires shared situ-         zational design for BCT. Augment
government, military and security       ational awareness; access to            the current BCT signal company
forces offers similar challenges and    intelligence databases; communi-        with a pool of equipment in order
solution options to those of coali-     cations with agencies and organi-       to meet requirements.
42   Spring 2008
      The current COIN fight is        tions for the expanding number of       BCT units. Commercial Internet
being waged with a combination of      patrol bases. The standardized          Protocol based radios are assisting
the first two courses of action.       approach to defining the require-       in trying to meet the requirements.
Units have assembled available         ments provided the Army and             Where no broadband communica-
equipment to meet the emerging         acquisition community a chance to       tions are available units operated
requirements. The third course of      respond. A clearly defined stan-        with single channel radios.
action has been explored, but not      dard for capabilities helps because           All echelons have a role to
exercised. The issue in changing       the requirement can be planned          play in the planning and execution
the design is in determining which     for. While a standard solution for      of signal support in COIN. The
solution is right for the long term.   providing network connectivity          battalion S6 must ensure that the
      We are not equipped to           was established, the speed of           communications equipment on the
execute COIN with only organic         establishing patrol bases on the        patrol base is functional. He must
assets. Only with the augmenta-        ground caused pursuit of alterna-       also work to assemble available
tion of the BCT signal resources       tive options such as commercial         ancillary equipment. His mission
can the requirement be met. The        radios.                                 is primarily to execute communica-
division assumes the responsibil-                                              tions with the assets available.
ity to plan and resource the BCT                                                     The real heroes in building a
so they can execute their missions.                                            network to support COIN are our
                                                                               BCT S6s. They have to build a
Performance of the Signal Regi-
                                       The real heroes in                      network that meets the unique
ment in the current COIN fight         building a network to                   requirements of their operating
      The troop surge and move-                                                environment. The BCT S6 must
ment of combat formations from         support COIN are our                    decide on the manner of connect-
large forward operating bases to       BCT S6s. They have to                   ing the patrol base (line-of-site or
combat outposts and patrol bases                                               satellite), attempt to resource
defined the real transition to         build a network that                    automation systems (blue force
COIN. While in a limited position      meets the unique re-                    tracker, computers, CPOF ma-
to begin the transition to COIN, a                                             chines, telephones) and work to
shortfall of equipment and people      quirements of their                     identify equipment shortfalls so
existed. Multi-National Corps-         operating environment.                  that the division can work to
Iraq recognized that teaming                                                   resource them. The BCT is the
between Network Enterprise                                                     service provider for email, collabo-
Technology Command, the corps                                                  ration portals and access to fire
signal brigade, divisions and                The existing network shows        support, medical evacuation and
brigade combat teams would be          the collaboration and sharing of        close air support.
required to accomplish the mis-        equipment between many units at               The division responsibility is
sion. Even with a teaming ap-          different echelons. Shortfalls at       to assist in network integration,
proach, the race to establish patrol   the BCT and below level have been       provide resources and technical
bases continues to exceed the          filled with equipment from other        assistance ensuring the network is
resources available to support         brigades, the division signal           fully connected to the Global
them. Fully one year into the          company, corps signal brigade or        Information Grid. The corps and
surge, not all patrol bases have       Network Enterprise Technology           NETCOM have responded by
broadband connectivity.                Command battalions. The level of        reallocating assets and bandwidth
      The failure to accurately        teamwork in the regiment is a           to support the BCT fight. Every
identify the number of patrol bases    positive indication of the willing-     echelon has a part to play in
requiring support continues to         ness of units to work together to       conducting COIN operations.
place the regiment on the backside     accomplish the mission.                       The actions by program
of the resource curve. The success            The redistribution of com-       managers in providing equipment
of patrol bases among the popula-      mand post nodes provided imme-          to meet the COIN requirement and
tion has increased the desire for      diate flexibility for those units       other actions by the MNC-I have
more patrol bases. Complicating        moving off the FOB. In many             expedited the arrival and distribu-
the failure to accurately identify     cases, the robust infrastructure of a   tion of equipment for units in the
the end state is the long delivery     FOB allowed the battalion head-         fight. While many patrol bases
timelines for equipment. The           quarters to transition to strategic     started out with only frequency
agility of our units far exceeds the   infrastructure. The arrival of          modulation radio and a blue force
agility of the acquisition commu-      expeditionary signal battalions         tracker device, they have continu-
nity to resource the fight.            further expanded the amount of          ally grown in capabilities over
      MNC-I acted quickly to           interoperable equipment that            time.
identify standard material solu-       could be task organized to support
                                                                               Army Communicator                43
Lessons learned                        Units must be able to successfully
      Accurate identification of       exercise push-to-talk equipment in           ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
requirements is critical. This is      order to conduct combat operations.
easier said than done. The real        The ability to call for fire, conduct       BCT – Brigade Combat Team
lesson here is to understand that      fire and maneuver and call for a            C2 – Command and Control
you need to establish a require-       medical evacuation is essential at          CPOF – Command Post of the Fu-
                                                                                   ture
ment early so that the process of      every level and for every Soldier.          CIDNE – Combined Information Data
resource generation can begin. It            Higher headquarters is respon-        Network Exchange
is also important to ensure that       sible for fighting for resources,           COIN – Counterinsurgency
requirements are defendable,           integrating networks, and ensuring          FBCB2 – Force XXI Battle Com-
logical, and prioritized. Integrity    the brigade and battalion S6s have          mand, Brigade and Below
counts and priorities for providing    the equipment they need to accom-           FM – Frequency Modulation
                                                                                   FOB – Forward Operating Base
signal support should match the        plish the mission.
                                                                                   GIG – Global Information Grid
commanders overall priorities.               In closing, the U.S. Army is          HF – High Frequency
      Constant collaboration and       conducting COIN operations as we            HN – Host-Nation
communication is essential at all      speak. We are developing the                ID – Infantry Division
levels. The sharing of ideas,          doctrine for signal support every           MNC-I – Multi-National Coalition-Iraq
exploration of options and open-       day and our Soldiers are accomplish-        MEDEVAC – Medical Evacuation
ness provide for a better climate of   ing the difficult missions in an            NETCOM – Network Enterprise
                                                                                   Technology Command
cohesion. Issues should not fester     excellent manner. We must recog-            TACSAT – Tactical Satellite
at any level and leaders must work     nize that our BCTs are not currently        UAV – Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
to provide solutions or options.       configured to conduct COIN without          U.S. – United States
      We are not currently orga-       augmentation. Understanding the
nized for COIN without augmenta-       information exchange requirements
tion. Frequency modulation radio       will provide the signal planner with
and blue force tracker are not         a start point for planning signal
sufficient for COIN. COIN requires     support.
robust communications at the
company level.                                LTC Birch is currently serving as
      Interoperability and network     the G6 for Multi-National Division
integration is essential in the COIN   Center and the 3rd Infantry Division in
environment. Challenges working        Operation Iraqi Freedom. He started his
with the HN and coalition partners     career as an armor officer in the 5ID. He
exist, but can be addressed in         commanded a company in the 122nd
many ways. The minimum                 Signal Battalion, 2ID and later served as
solution is the exchange of liaison    a brigade S6 and battalion executive
teams.                                 officer for the 121st Signal Battalion,
      Combat communications            1ID.
remains the number one priority.




44   Spring 2008
Recommended changes to
signal structure of the BCT
By MAJ Tom Schwab                                          the network operations—a section of the signal battalion
      The overall purpose of this point paper is to        S3 shop responsible for planning and managing the
capture some of the issues with the signal structure in    network—was transferred to the signal company. This
the brigade combat team and make recommendations           reorganization placed the signal company in a precari-
for change and improvement. This paper is based on the     ous position because while it works for the Special
operational experience of a brigade S6 during his train-   Troops Battalion, it should receive its signal guidance
up and 15-month deployment to the Afghanistan              from the BCT S6. The signal battalion electronic mainte-
Theater in support of Operation Enduring Freedom VIII.     nance shop was completely dissolved and only a two-
                                                           man team was assigned to the signal company. This
Problem Statement:                                         team does not have the proper training, equipment, or
      Define a modified table of organization and          manpower to effectively support all the BCT’s electronic
equipment that properly supports sustained combat          maintenance requirements, given the complexity and
operations for the communications systems and Soldiers     size of the operational environment.
in the BCT. This MTOE facilitates communications,
operations, and clear lines of responsibility, maximizes
training and career progression, and ultimately provides
the brigade commander with agile, reliable, and secure
communications which will enable him to conduct
effective battle command.

Background:
      Under the legacy division MTOE, the brigade S6
was responsible for tactical radio systems and retrans
teams. He would pass his network requirements to the
signal battalion which in turn would plan and manage
the network. The signal battalion would ensure the
small extension nodes teams, node center platoons, and
companies were trained, maintained, and ready (see
Figure 1. Legacy Division/Maneuver Brigade Relation-
ship). The signal companies had a habitual support
relationship with the maneuver brigades and generally      Figure 2. Modular Division/ Modular Brigade Combat
knew the brigade S6’s expectations. When the signal        Team
battalion was dissolved under modular transformation,
                                                                  Now under the modular brigade structure, the
                                                           brigade S6 has to pass his network requirements to the
                                                           NETOPS, the signal company, and the STB (see Figure 2.
                                                           Modular Division/Modular Brigade Combat Team).
                                                           This creates an overly bureaucratic process and does not
                                                           facilitate effective and responsive command and control
                                                           of signal forces within the brigade. It can also become a
                                                           problem when the STB and signal company commander
                                                           have different priorities than the brigade S6. When this
                                                           occurs, the NETOPS will answer to its boss and rater—
                                                           the signal company commander—who in turn will do
                                                           the same to his boss—the STB commander—leaving the
                                                           BCT S6 to deal with the repercussions. The brigade
                                                           commander will hold the S6 responsible for all commu-
                                                           nications requirements and performance, as he should;
                                                           however, the brigade S6 does not have the necessary
                                                           command authority or relationships to ensure unity of
Figure 1. Legacy Division/Maneuver
Brigade Relationship                                                          Army Communicator                   45
effort and prioritization of the resources that impact the
brigade’s network.

      Topic: NETOPS
      Issue: Assignment of the NETOPS.
      Discussion: The network and operations, a portion
of the old signal battalion S3 section, is assigned to the
signal company (see Figure 3. Network Planning Man-
agement and Command and Control). Under this
current modular structure, C2 of the network is very
convoluted because battalions are now reporting their
network status and requesting communication security
and frequencies from a company, not from their higher
headquarters, the brigade. Movement of the NETOPS


                                                                Figure 4. Recommended MTOE Changes
                                                                Training and maintenance are an issue as well. With
                                                                CPN teams assigned to battalions, the owning battalion
                                                                commander is responsible for ensuring his Soldiers are
                                                                trained and ready; however, many brigade commanders
                                                                will turn to the brigade S6, as the senior communications
                                                                officer in the brigade to ensure the teams can communi-
                                                                cate effectively. The issue is the brigade S6 has neither
                                                                direct control over these teams, nor does he have
                                                                assigned personnel with the right skill sets to develop an
                                                                effective training plan. The signal company possesses
                                                                the necessary personnel and control, but again the signal
                                                                company does not currently work directly for the
                                                                brigade S6. Therefore the brigade S6 has to work with
                                                                the NETOPS and signal company to develop a training
                                                                plan and hope the command backs him when CPN
Figure 3. Modular Brigade Network Planning                      teams fail to show up for training.
Management Command and Control
from the division signal company to the G6 section has                Recommendation: Assign the CPN teams to the
already occurred at the division level (ref. Chief of Signal    signal company and the signal company commander can
Sends message 08-006 dated Nov. 9, 2007). A similar             ensure teams are trained, equipment is maintained and
change in MTOE needs to occur at the brigade level.             that the Soldiers are ready (see Figure 4. Recommended
                                                                MTOE Changes).
      Recommendation: Move the NETOPS section to
                                                                      Topic: Manning
the brigade S6 section to facilitate the brigade S6’s ability
                                                                      Issue: The BCT S6 needs a deputy/plans and
to plan, manage, and C2 the brigade’s communication
                                                                operations officer.
network (see Figure 4. Recommended MTOE Changes).
                                                                      Discussion: Under the current MTOE, an infantry
                                                                brigade combat team, the BCT S6 section is only autho-
     Editor’s note: Force Design updates: 8.1 (Division
                                                                rized 10 Soldiers, including the S6 himself (see Figure 5.
Signal Structure) is approved by DA and Force Division 6.2
                                                                Current Brigade S6 Structure). With increased planning
(BCT Signal Structure) is pending approval by VCSA.
                                                                and operational requirements, in a decentralized
                                                                counterinsurgency environment, recommend adding an
                                                                operations/plans officer who can serve as the deputy
      Topic: Command Post Node Teams
                                                                brigade S6 (see Figure 8. Recommended Brigade S6
      Issue: Assign the command post node teams to the
                                                                Structure). Ideally, this officer serves as a battalion S6
signal company.
                                                                and then signal company commander first. The BCT S6
      Discussion: Assigning the CPN team to the
                                                                must support two command posts with the capability to
battalions is not effective. Battalion commanders now
                                                                conduct planning and operations. With only one signal
own these assets and don’t always want to re-task
                                                                officer assigned, the brigade’s signal planning require-
organize them, even when it is the best course of action
                                                                ments are not met. The brigade S3 section, along with
to support the brigade’s scheme of signal support.
                                                                all other staff sections, have the ability to conduct

46    Spring 2008
simultaneous planning and executing at both command         section has a wide range of responsibility and is not
post locations—tactical operations center and tactical      properly manned to conduct uninterrupted network
assault command post. The brigade S3 section has a          planning and management on a 24 hours-a-day, seven
plans officer -O4, operations officer -O4 and the brigade   days-a-week basis.
S3 also an O4 and numerous captains. Therefore, they
can effectively operate out of two command posts and              Recommendation: Recommend breaking the
conduct planning and operations twenty-four hours a         NETOPS into two main functional areas: an automations
day. The S6 section does not currently have this capabil-   section headed by the functional area-53 officer, O-3 and
ity.                                                        a signal operations section headed by a 25A signal
                                                            officer, O-3 (see Figure 8. Recommended Brigade S6
      Recommendation: Add a deputy/plans and
operations officer to the MTOE. (Below Figure 5. reflects
the current BDE S6 MTOE structure.)




                                                            Figure 8. Recommended Brigade S6 Structure

Figure 5. Current S6 Structure
                                                            Structure).
                                                                 Topic: NETOPS
      Topic: NETOPS restructre                                   Topic: Structure NETOPS 250 WAN
      Issue: Restructure of the brigade NETOPS.                  Issue: Structure of the brigade NETOPS and the
      Discussion: Under the current MTOE structure,         250 WAN warrant officer’s role.
the NETOPS has one chief warrant officer 250 wide area           Discussion: Under the current structure, the 250
network warrant officer in charge of a nine-man section     WAN tech is the operations officer for the NETOPS.
(see Figure 7. NETOPS Current MTOE Structure). This         With the introduction of an operations officer, recom-
                                                            mended above, the WAN tech would be subordinate to
                                                            the operations/deputy brigade S6 officer (see Figure 9.
                                                            Recommended Brigade Structure). The 250 WAN tech
                                                            would retain control of both 25S satellite operator-
                                                            maintainer and 25F Network Switching Systems opera-
                                                            tor-maintainers.

                                                                  Recommendation: Recommend the 250 WAN
                                                            Technician be subordinate to the operations/deputy
                                                            brigade S6 officer. Recommend changing both of the
                                                            NSS operator-maintainer billets to sergeant first class
                                                            positions (see Figure 10. Recommended WAN Struc-
                                                            ture). This change would allow for better career pro-
                                                            gression by allowing the NCOs to move from the E-6
                                                            JNN section sergeant position to NETOPS and then back



Figure 7. NETOPS Current MTOE Structure
                                                                               Army Communicator                    47
to the platoon sergeant position.                             expert to deploy with the brigade TAC.

      Topic: Manning                                               Recommendation: Add a 251 LAN warrant who
      Issue: FA-53 officers and the addition of a 251         can assist the FA-53 officer in his duties and provide the
local area network management warrant officer.                experience and training a junior FA-53 will need (see
      Discussion: Making the functional area 53 officer       Figure 11. Recommended Brigade S6 Structure).
the only technical officer in the brigade creates many
challenges. First, most FA-53 officers are not prior signal
officers, so they cannot easily operate as the deputy                Topic: LAN Management Structure
brigade S6 in his absence. The FA-53 officer at brigade              Issue: Help desk operations and LAN manage-
level needs to be viewed as a second lieutenant in the        ment
FA-53 branch. This is his first step in this area and he            Discussion: The LAN is the most complex piece of
                                                              the brigade communications structure. 4th Brigade
                                                              Combat Team had an average of 200 systems in com-
                                                              mand post one - TOC and 75 systems in its command
                                                              post two - TAC. The brigade had multiple servers to
                                                              manage 24/7, a help desk to operate, and information
                                                              security to manage, as well as, wiring the command




Figure 9. Recommeded Brigade Structure




                                                              Figure 11. Recommended Brigade S6 Structure

                                                              posts when moves were conducted. Two CPs must be
                                                              supported 24 hours-a-day, seven days-a-week. Wiring,
                                                              managing, and maintaining all these systems-at two
                                                              different locations 24 hours-a-day, seven days-a-week
                                                              are challenges with the current structure. Recommend
                                                              adding a LAN tech warrant officer to oversee this area.
                                                              He would provide the technical expertise and manage
                                                              all automation in the brigade and mentor battalion S6s
                                                              along with the brigade S6. Recommend adding two
                                                              server non-commissioned officers to manage the
                                                              brigade’s servers, a help desk NCO-in-charge who
Figure 10. Recommended WAN Structure
                                                              manages the work load of the help desk and ensures
                                                              continuity between day and night shift. I recommend
may not have the automation experience or background          adding a help desk NCO who is in charge of the help-
to handle an entire brigade’s automation requirements         desk Soldiers and manages and prioritizes trouble tickets
for planning, managing, and executing. Adding a 251           during the shift. Add a 25B help desk Soldier, who
LAN warrant, can help in training and mentoring the           would be the front line of the help desk and take care of
new FA-53 officer and oversee the brigade’s automation        trouble tickets. Career progression for 25B would be to
requirements. This structure also allows an automation        start at a battalion or on a command post nodes team,

48   Spring 2008
and then move to the help desk. As a sergeant, this
Soldier would start as the helpdesk shift NCO, and then
move to the ADP security specialist or server NCO.
(Recommend changing the current automation data
processing security slots from one E-4 and one E-3 to
two E-5s. To be effective in this position, the Soldier
needs experience – therefore, he must be an E-5 mini-
mum). Then they can switch back and forth between the
security team chief, server NCO, and senior help desk
NCO to gain enough experience to be the senior auto-
mations NCO as an E-7. The senior automations NCO is
responsible for all automations in the brigade and
mentoring all automations Soldiers.

      Recommendation: Add a Senior Help Desk NCOIC
and Help Desk NCOs to support two command posts (see
Figure 13. Recommended LAN Management Structure).
                                                             Figure 14. Recommended Brigade Structure


      Topic: NETOPS
      Issue: Structure of the brigade NETOPS and the
254 signal systems tech
      Discussion: By current duty description, the
signal systems tech is responsible for communications
systems in the brigade with the exception of the WAN,




                                                             Figure 15. Recommended Structure NETOPS - Radio
                                                             Team

                                                             Figure 14. Recommended Brigade Structure) and the
                                                             COMSEC custodians and the battlefield spectrum
                                                             manager works for the signal systems tech (see Figure
                                                             15. Recommended Structure NETOPS - Radio Team).
Figure 13. Recommended LAN Management Structure

which falls on the 250 warrant – WAN manager. The                  Topic: Signal Company Structure
responsibility of the signal systems tech is too broad. He         Issue: Change the structure of the signal company
can focus on one or two areas and master them. That is       to align with mission requirements.
why we recommend he drops responsibility for the LAN               Discussion: The signal company’s current struc-
and retains the tactical radio focus with COMSEC,            ture only has the two Joint Network Node platoons (see
frequency management and other systems such as global        Figure 16. Current Signal Company Structure). We
broadcast system and blue force tracker. He will also be     recommended adding a tactical radio platoon to the
responsible for mentoring battalion S6s, along with the      company organization to provide overall support the
brigade S6.                                                  brigade’s radio requirements. The CPNs would be
                                                             moved to the signal company as discussed earlier and
     Recommendation: Recommend the signal system
tech works for the brigade signal operations officer (see
                                                                                Army Communicator                    49
                                                              Recommendation: Reorganize the signal com-
                                                         pany and add an additional tactical radio platoon and
                                                         two additional radio operator maintainers to manage the
                                                         two CPPs (see Figure 18. Recommended Tactical Radio
                                                         Platoon Structure).




Figure 16. Current Signal Company Structure




                                                         Figure 18. Recommended Tactical Radio Platoon
                                                         Structure



                                                               Topic: Signal Company Restructure
                                                               Issue: Reorganize the NET/JNN Platoons
                                                               Discussion: Reorganize the NET platoon with the
                                                         one JNN and four CPN teams under each platoon. This
                                                         would allow one platoon leader to be forward with
                                                         command post two TAC, maneuver battalions, and their
                                                         assigned CPN teams. The platoon leader for net platoon
                                                         two will back at command post one TOC and with the
                                                         battalions that traditionally have more of a rear area
                                                         mission (see Figures 19. and 20. Recommended NET
Figure 17. Recommended Signal Company Structure          Platoon Structure).
the NETOPS would be assigned to brigade. Command
post platforms have been added to the MTOE, yet no             Recommendation: Recommend adding the CPNs
additional manning has been added to maintain these      to the NET JNN Platoons.
systems. The system consists of four shelters, two per
command post, one for CP1 - TOC and one for CP2 -
TAC. The platoon would also include the three retrans
teams (see Figure 17. Recommended Tactical Radio              Topic: Signal Company Structure
Platoon Structure). The signal company would then be          Issue: The signal company does not have the
aligned more toward three support platoons and a         required personnel and the correct skill sets necessary to
headquarters platoon. The two network support pla-       support the electronic maintenance requirements of the
toons would each have one JNN and, ideally, four CPNs.   signal company and the brigade.
Three CPNs would support the battalions and one as a          Discussion: Recommend adding a maintenance
spare to allow flexibility. Also recommend adding two    team NCOIC, (25N3P) to oversee and manage the
radios operator maintainers 25Us to man, operate, and    brigade’s signal maintenance program. Recommend
maintain the brigade’s CPPs. One pair of CPPs stays      adding a senior SATCOM operator/system maintainer
with CP1 -TOC and one goes forward with the CP2 -        25S2P to oversee all satellite and LOS systems and a
TAC.                                                     senior transmission system operator/maintainer 25Q2P

50   Spring 2008
Figure 19. Recommended Structure NET Platoon 1




Figure 20. Recommended Structure NET Platoon 2

to oversee and manage the maintenance brigades CPNs.        the brigade S6 section and meet all their parts and
Recommend adding a logistics automation specialist,         battery requirements. They will keep track of all equip-
92A2P and two logistics automation specialists 92A1P.       ment orders. The final position needed is a unit move-
The logistics automation specialists would split their      ment NCO 42A2P. This NCO will assist in moving the
duties: one would work with the signal company to           entire signal company for deployment and intra-theater
meet all its JNN, CPN, and signal company maintenance       movement (see Figure 21. Recommended HHC for the
parts, and prescribed load list needs, as well as, keep     Signal Company).
track of the maintenance status and spare parts kits. The
other logistics automation specialist would work with            Recommendation: Add a maintenance section, a
                                                                                Army Communicator                  51
Figure 21. Recommended Structure for HHC Signal
Company
                                                                           ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
unit logistics automation section, and a unit movement
NCO to HHC/signal company.
                                                                ADP – Automation Data Processing
                                                                BCT – Brigade Combat Team
Conclusion:
                                                                BFT – Blue Force Tracker
      With the introduction of the Modular Brigade              C2 – Command and Control
concept and the fielding of new technologies, such as the       COIN – Counter-Insurgency
JNN and CPNs, the brigade signal company is expected            COMSEC – Communications Security
to provide seamless, secure, and reliable communica-            CP1 – Command Post One
tions support to the brigade commander enabling him to          CP – Command Post
conduct effective battle command. However, the                  CP2 – Command Post Two
                                                                CPN – Command Post Node
personnel and structure do not currently support this           CPP – Command Post Platform
effort. The changes recommended in this paper attempt           EMS – Electronic Maintenance Section
to streamline command and control of the brigade’s              FA-53 – Functional Area-53
communications architecture and align duties and                FOB – Forward Operating Base
responsibilities along logical lines. Additionally, the         GBS – Global Broadcast System
changes outlined in this paper will provide a better            IBCT – Infantry Brigade Combat Team
career path that promotes development and growth and            JNN – Joint Network Node
                                                                JNTC-S – Joint Network Transfer Capability – Spiral
provides flexibility and depth.                                 LAN – Local Area Network
                                                                LMR – Land Mobile Radio
      MAJ Schwab is currently assigned as the S6 for 4th        MTOE – Modified Table of Organization and Equipment
Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division where he has        NCO – Non-commissioned Officer
spent the last 14 months in Afghanistan in support of Opera-    NCOIC – non-commissioned officer-in-charge
tion Enduring Freedom VIII. His previous assignments            NET – Network
                                                                NETOPS – Network Operations
include cable and wire platoon leader, C Company 304th
                                                                NSS – Network Switching System
Signal Battalion, Korea; node center platoon leader, and        OEF – Operation Enduring Freedom
company executive officer, 51st Signal Battalion Fort Bragg     PLL – Prescribed Load List
and battalion S6, for 2-319th Field Artillery, 82nd Airborne,   SATCOM – Satellite Communications
Fort Bragg. Schwab commanded Delta Company, 1st                 SEN – Small Extension Nodes
SATCOM Battalion Camp Roberts, Calif., and served as an         STB – Special Troops Battalion
observer-trainer with Operations Group Charlie, Battle          TAC – Tactical Command Post
                                                                TOC – Tactical Operations Center
Command Training Program, Fort Leavenworth. He is a
                                                                 WAN – Wide Area Network
graduate of Command and General Staff College.
52    Spring 2008
Tail of the surge –
            tip of the spear
By MAJs Gina Thomas and Ron               provide him/her opportunity to             computer is on the same domain –
Cohen                                     improve it. The difference between         iraq.centcom. This requirement
                                          network improvements on forward            became such an issue that during an
       The Iraqi Theater of Operations
                                          operating bases is how network             open discussion at the corps quar-
is a young and maturing network
that will challenge any signal officer    upgrades are approved and imple-           terly signal conference the Joint
far beyond any field problem. The         mented. Balad’s approving authority        NetOps Control Center-Iraq officer-
                                          is a Joint Communications-Iraq             in-charge, BG Hawkins, ordered C6
ITO has constantly changing network
                                          board consisting of Army and Air           to resolve this matter and the
operation rules and procedures that
                                          Force personnel. In contrast, the BCT      differences in requirements from one
impact a signal officer’s ability to
                                          S6s in concert with the TCF officer-       FOB to another. I can say that after
meet the needs of his/her com-
mander. On the flip side, the ITO will in-charge run the Taji Communica-             the analysis which involved many
truly develop young and old S6s with tions-Iraq board. Additionally, Balad           BCT S6s – little has changed and the
                                          Joint Communications-Iraq took on          fight with the TCF continues.
network improvements and proce-
                                          the responsibility of site surveys and            The Iraqi theater provides any
dures and doctrine development.
                                          requisitioning of equipment for            S6 challenges and many opportuni-
Additionally, the garrison infrastruc-
                                          projects when approved. At Taji, the       ties to develop skills. Setting aside a
ture of most forward operating bases
provides for a well-balanced network burden of procuring project materi-             tactical network mentality has to be
between strategic and tactical.           als and equipment rest on the BCT          the first lesson learned by every S6.
                                          S6.                                        The theater is maturing and imple-
       One of the first hurdles to get
                                                 One of the benefits in the ITO is   menting long term network im-
over as a new S6 in the ITO is the
                                          the ability to procure new automa-         provements and operations must be
garrison mentality of the network.
                                          tion equipment. The corps realizes         the focus while supporting the fight
Being in a combat zone and learning
to deal with little to no control of that this is a maturing network and lacks       outside the wire.
network to meet the commander’s           the architecture of more mature                   I would like to agree, there are
                                          garrison facilities. Funds are avail-      many challenges that an S6 will face
needs is tough for most S6s to accept.
                                          able and to request new automation         in the ITO. Foremost, three key
Yes, there will be collocated operat-
                                          equipment only requires a Commu-           areas:
ing bases and remote locations that
                                          nications and Signals Staff validation             1) Reset/Regeneration of
challenge any S6 with connectivity
that can only be provided by a            board packet. TF XII has submitted                 equipment and train-up of
command post node or AN/50 to             at least a dozen or so packets valued              personnel,
                                          at more than 1.25 million dollars for              2) Reception, staging, and
communicate. But, for the masses, the
                                          life cycle replacement, new automa-                onward integration in Kuwait,
network architecture is rather robust
                                          tion requirements, automation                      and
for such a young theater and con-
                                          supplies, and more. One note is that               3) Movement into area of
trolled by the technical control
facility and enterprise operations.       acquiring Land Mobile Radios is                    responsibility, setup, and
       TF XII (12th Combat Aviation       nearly impossible. After six months                transition to steady state
                                          in theater, TF XII has yet to receive              operations.
Brigade) has been in Iraq for six
                                          any radios even after Department of               However, it is critical for the
months. The unit’s original mission
                                          the Army G3 approved the unit’s            brigade or battalion S6 to be pre-
was in Balad supporting corps. The
                                          operational needs statement, and           pared for the unexpected and never
network architecture at Balad is
extremely robust although there are       corps’ plan to distribute 40,000 EF        lose focus of the priorities of the
significant differences between the       Johnson LMRs has stalled.                  tactical network. Last minute
                                                 A final note about some of the      changes in battle space, repeated
east and west side of camp and the
                                          aggravations a S6 will experience is       movement of TOC locations or
Army and Air Force networks. At
                                          the difference in how the TCFs are         “jumping the TOC,” and require-
Taji, where TF XII moved after
                                          run. One of the most significant           ments to provide service and equip-
receiving a change of mission, the
network lacks some of the robustness issues units face when moving in the            ment to elements above modified
that Balad provided. I can tell you       ITO is that each TCF requires a            table of equipment in an ever
                                          computer to be baselined even if the       increasingly stressed frequency
any network an S6 falls in will
                                                                                     Army Communicator                   53
spectrum environment are just a few
of the battles a S6 must face while
managing a tactical network.
      A brigade combat team
through the miracle of modularity
has become essentially autonomous
in that they operate their own piece
of the network and their own
communications security account.
The BCT now provides services to
the brigade and subordinate ele-
ments that were previously pro-
vided by the Division Signal Battal-
ion. When you also bring into
account the additional unexpected
challenges that a communications
                                         Figure 2. Three BCT TOC Setup on North Taji in Baghdad.
staff officer must be prepared for,
the S6 job becomes more compli-
cated than ever.                         building that had been gutted by the      Brigade established its headquarters
      When 3rd BCT arrived in            previous tenants in an area that had      in an empty warehouse on North
theater we were informed that we         little to no quality of life for our      Taji and facilitated battalion move-
would conduct a “non-traditional         Soldiers in relation to the rest of the   ment into battle space.
RIP.” Typically, units conduct a         units on the FOB.                               We now operate in a counter
relief-in-place with the outgoing unit          In addition, 3rd BCT left Fort     insurgency environment, where we
in preparation for the Transfer of       Carson with a number of automa-           combine offensive, defensive, and
Authority to the newly arrived unit.     tions equipment shortfalls, including     stability operations in an attempt to
      3rd BCT deployed as the            a lack of sufficient hand-held radios     achieve the conditions required to
“surge” draw down began -                that operate in the FM frequency          establish effective governance,
transitioning five BCTs out of theater   range for compatibility with single-      essential services, and economic
and leaving no unit to RIP with          channel-ground-to-air radios,             development. In this operational
officially. We arrived to Taji and       switches, laptops, and VoIP phones.       environment intelligence informa-
quickly learned that although the        Despite the conditions, we worked         tion is filtered from the bottom up,
surge was ending - space on Taji was     continuously day and night to set up      from dismounted patrols on the
tight with nearly 17,000 Soldiers on     the tactical operations center.           ground relaying information over
site. We were forced to occupy a         Within weeks of arrival the Stryker       frequency modulation back to the
                                                                                   joint security station, combat outpost
                                                                                   or patrol base in sector or from
                                                                                   concerned local citizens relaying tips
                                                                                   over cell phones to battalion TOCs.
                                                                                   All of this information is brought in
                                                                                   at the company level, analyzed, and
                                                                                   sent up to the battalion for further
                                                                                   analysis and targeting; key to this is
                                                                                   adequate communications systems
                                                                                   in place at the lowest level.
                                                                                         Communication requirements
                                                                                   at the company have changed from
                                                                                   traditional FM and Force Battle
                                                                                   Command Brigade and Below –
                                                                                   Lower Tactical Internet to now
                                                                                   requiring secure Internet Protocol
                                                                                   router/non-secure Internet Protocol
                                                                                   router/voice over Internet Protocol
                                                                                   (Upper Tactical Internet) and the
                                                                                   ability to conduct collaborative
                                                                                   meetings and input significant
                                                                                   activities over the network from the
Figure 1. Depicts the Surge Transition for three BCT 4th Infantry Division         bottom up. Every Soldier is a sensor,
as they assumed the equivalent of two BCT’s battlespace.                           which increases the number of
54   Spring 2008
                                                                                the mlitary transition teams, national
                                                                                police transition teams, embedded
                                                                                provincial reconstruction teams and
                                                                                other enablers that support both
                                                                                lethal and non-lethal operations.
                                                                                       In recent months the Multina-
                                                                                tional Division-Baghdad command-
                                                                                ing general directed that all COPs
                                                                                and JSSs have NIPR/SIPR/VoIP
                                                                                capability, as well as having ad-
                                                                                equate Morale, Welfare, and Recre-
                                                                                ation access for the Soldiers. Also as
                                                                                BCT and battalion headquarters
                                                                                begin to push off the FOBs and out
                                                                                into sector to facilitate continuous
                                                                                counter insurgency operations, the
                                                                                demands of collaborative applica-
                                                                                tions such as command post of the
                                                                                future, Adobe Connects (Breeze)
Figure 3. An SIPR Point of Presence sits outside a battalion headquarters       collaboration meetings and the
providing communications support where MTOE equipment was not                   SharePoint portal file sharing system
available.                                                                      will, challenge S6s at all levels to
information injection points into the   the company level. The joint network    provide these capabilities to their
network. Companies now, more            transport capability system stops at    commanders. To date we have
than ever, need the ability to ad-      the battalion level with the com-       resourced these requirements with
equately share information, filter      mand post node Ku satellite band        commercial-off-the-shelf, SIPR, Point
that information to higher echelons,    Terminal Trailer and a V1 line-of-      of Presence, Virtual Satellite Aper-
and conduct non-lethal targeting to     sight system, but what do we have       ture Terminals, or dismounted LOS
home in on the insurgents.              for the company level? In addition,     systems connected into data pack-
      Current MTOE authorizations       coalition forces continue to partner    ages outfitted with switches, routers,
for radios and computers do not         with Iraqi Army units to help           and Cisco Call Manager Express to
adequately meet requirements nor        increase the strength and presence of   provide these capabilities. However
do they adequately provide the          the Iraqi Army. The BCTs are            these resources were acquired
network transmission capability at      typically responsible with resourcing   through operational needs state-
                                                                                ments, and purchase requests, and
                                                                                commitments that took months to
                                                                                process.
                                                                                       The bottom line is a com-
                                                                                mander shouldn’t have to worry
                                                                                about communications, their job is to
                                                                                command and control, our job is to
                                                                                facilitate with adequate systems and
                                                                                with the outstanding signal Soldiers
                                                                                who make up our great Army.

                                                                                      MAJ Thomas serves as the brigade
                                                                                S6 for 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 4th
                                                                                Infantry Division out of Fort Carson,
                                                                                Colo. Currently deployed within the
                                                                                Multi-National Division - Baghdad area
                                                                                of operations for a 15 month tour.

                                                                                      MAJ Cohen was assigned to 12th
                                                                                Combat Aviation Brigade three weeks
                                                                                before he deployed to Kuwait. He has
                                                                                been assigned to 311th Military Intelli-
Figure 4. SPC Samuel Newman, SPC Jose Lozoya, and SPC Travis Davis              gence Battalion, Fort Campbell; 44th
from B Co, 3STB stand in front of Joint Network Node 6770 equipment             Signal Battalion, 7th Signal Brigade;
outside 3BCT TOC on North Taji.
                                                                                3ID where he served as G6 Plans Officer
                                                                                Army Communicator                    55
for 19 months and D/123rd company
commander during OIF I; Georgia           Overcoming
                                          communications
Southern University APMS; and 12th
CAB as the BDE S6.


     ACRONYM QUICKSCAN                    challenges of 07 surge
BCT – Brigade Combat Team
BFT – Blue Force Tracker                  By MAJ Mitchell McKinney                  dened higher command, and oper-
BSTB – Brigade Special Troops Battal-                                               ated off a dysfunctional doctrinal
ion                                             In the summer of 2006, Iraq
                                                                                    template. Fortunately, the American
C2 – command and control                  was precariously perched on the
                                                                                    spirit was alive and well and the
C6 – Communications and Signals Staff     brink of civil war. The nation’s
                                                                                    brigade was filled with extremely
CFT – Cross Function Team                 government desperately struggled to
COB – Collocation Operating Base                                                    competent signaleers, motivated and
                                          overcome ethnic differences as the
COIN – Counter Insurgency                                                           eager to overcome any challenge in
                                          deadly rift between Sunni and Shia
COMSEC – Communications Security                                                    order to provide continuous commu-
                                          Muslim factions raged out of control.
COP – Combat Outpost                                                                nications to warfighters expected to
CPNs – Command Post Nodes                 In response, President George W.
                                                                                    operate in the most austere and
CPOF – Command Post of the Future         Bush and his military advisors
                                                                                    lethal environments.
DCGS – Distributed Common Ground          devised a plan to surge additional
System
                                                                                          The ramp up for deployment
                                          American forces into the most
ePRT – embedded Provincial Recon-                                                   began with a modularization process
                                          volatile areas of Iraq. The ‘Surge,’ as
struction Team                                                                      that was conducted in conjunction
                                          it has been labeled, brought the total
FBCB2 – Force Battle Command Bri-                                                   with a battalion sized deployment to
gade and Below                            number of United States forces in
                                                                                    Iraq in support of the Special Opera-
FOBs – Forward Operating Bases            Iraq to its highest levels since the
                                                                                    tions Command. The fielding of
ID – Infantry Division                    initial invasion in 2003.
                                                                                    equipment and training of Joint
ITO – Iraqi Theater of Operations                The first unit to deploy as part
JCOOM-I – Joint Communications-Inte-                                                Network Transfer Capability – Spiral
                                          of the Surge of 2007 was the 2nd
grator                                                                              brought an entirely new capability to
                                          Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Air-
JNCC-I – Joint NetOps Control Center-                                               what was previously an Airborne
                                          borne Division (known as the Falcon
Iraq                                                                                Infantry Regiment dependent on
JNTC – Joint Network Transport Capa-      Brigade or Falcon Brigade Combat
                                                                                    personally carried radios. Following
bility                                    Team). Organic to 2nd Brigade
                                                                                    that process, the unit immediately
JNTC-S – Joint Network Transport Ca-      Combat Team was a group of
                                                                                    conducted several short-term
pability – Spiral                         communications specialists respon-
JSS – Joint Security Station                                                        equipment validation exercises and
                                          sible for establishing and maintain-
LMRs – Land Mobile Radios                                                           within six months was expected to
                                          ing the brigade’s vital communica-
MiTT – Military Transition Teams                                                    rotate through the Joint Readiness
                                          tions network. In order to sustain
MND-B – Multi-National Division -                                                   Training Center in January 2007.
Baghdad                                   the brigade’s communications
                                                                                    Surprisingly, the mission was hastily
MTOE – Modified Table of Organization     systems, these individuals had to
                                                                                    changed to a deployment to Iraq
and Equipment                             overcome numerous obstacles,
NETOPS – Network Operations
                                                                                    with less than two weeks notice.
                                          including modularity, antiquated
NIPR – Non Secure Internet Protocol                                                       During the Christmas Exodus,
                                          communications equipment, and
NPTT – National Police Transition Teams                                             the brigade was ordered to deploy to
                                          continuously changing missions.
OIF – Operation Iraqi Freedom                                                       Kuwait in preparation for a possible
ONS – Operational Needs Statements              In the summer of 2006, the
                                                                                    deployment to Iraq. This unex-
PB – Patrol Base                          Falcon Brigade, an Airborne Infantry
                                                                                    pected news abruptly ended the
PR&Cs – Purchase Requests and Com-        Regiment with a proud military
                                                                                    holiday festivities for most of the
mitments                                  lineage, was in the process of trans-
RIP – Relief in Place                                                               Soldiers assigned to the Falcon
                                          forming into a modularized brigade
RSOI – Reception, Staging, and On-                                                  Brigade and required them to end
                                          combat team. On June 26, 2006, the
ward Integration                                                                    their Christmas vacations in order to
                                          325th Airborne Infantry Regiment
SIGO – signal officer                                                               deploy. Within two weeks of being
SINCGARs – Single Channel Ground          officially became known as the 2nd
                                                                                    ordered to the Middle East, the
Airborne Radio System                     Brigade Combat Team. Name
                                                                                    majority of the BCT was in Kuwait
SIPR – Secure Internet Protocol           transformation aside, the Falcon
                                                                                    preparing for combat operations in
SPOP – SIPR Point of Presence             Brigade was ill equipped to trans-
STT – Satellite Terminal Trailer                                                    Iraq. The Falcons were directed to
                                          form into a modular BCT, especially
TCF – Technical Control Facility                                                    incorporate numerous external units
                                          with regard to the brigade’s commu-
TF XII – Technical Control Facility 12                                              into a new organizational team
                                          nications infrastructure. Specifically,
TOC – Tactical Operations Center                                                    including a Department of State
TPE – Theater Provided Equipment          the Falcon Brigade lacked automa-
                                                                                    embedded Provincial Reconstruction
VOIP – Voice over Internet Protocol       tions equipment, had an overbur-
                                                                                    Team, psychological operations
56   Spring 2008
(Above) The 2nd BCT, 82nd Airborne Division, known as the Falcon
Brigade, or Falcon BCT, deployed as part of the first of five surge brigades
load for deployment to stabilize Adhamiyah and Sadr City, Iraq. (Right)
Joint Network Node 7748 team cleans up at Adhamiyah command outpost.

units, civil affairs personnel, Air      rotation, most units within the           each of the different Brigades
Force teams, U.S. Marine Corps           Multi-National Division-Baghdad           averaged 900 computers and VoIP
Intelligence personnel as well as U.S.   positioned their command posts on         phones compared to fewer than 200
Navy Electronic Warfare Operations       larger forward operating bases,           for the Falcon Brigade. In order to
personnel.                               which provided them with a strate-        overcome this virtual shortfall in
      By mid-January 2007, the           gic infrastructure based on fiber-        leadership expectations for its
Falcon BCT had moved into Iraq and       optic connectivity. Although the          command and control capabilities,
was assigned the task of stabilizing     Falcon Brigade established its            the unit ordered millions of dollars
Adhamiyah and Sadr City, two             brigade headquarters in empty             of equipment, which eventually
highly volatile and contentious areas    warehouses on Camp Taji, Iraq (a          brought the unit’s C2 capabilities
of north eastern Baghdad. Prior to       large FOB with a strategic infrastruc-    online with its sister units.
the unit’s arrival, the U.S. presence    ture), the unit was initially unable to         In order to change the outcome
in north eastern Baghdad was             operate on the strategic network. As      of this desperately important fight
extremely limited and grossly            the first of five Surge brigades, the     for downtown Baghdad, the Falcons
inadequate to control the area. This     Falcon Brigade left Fort Bragg with a     changed the way they approached
area had been previously treated as      number of automations equipment           the fight itself. As other units were
an ‘economy of force’ which meant        shortfalls, including a lack of Cisco     consolidating their assets on large
there was precious little intelligence   switches and inferior equipment.          FOBs, the 2nd Brigade Commander,
available about the area’s 2.3 million   These deficiencies from a capabilities    COL B. Don Farris instructed his
residents or its government.             perspective initially precluded the       units to push at least 85 percent of
      In order to effectively dominate   Falcon Brigade from operating on          their personnel into the battle space!
the operational environment COL B.       the strategic network, which put the      He called for the units to conduct
Don Farris, commander of 2nd BCT,        unit months behind its sister units on    their fight around the clock and
established his headquarters at          the same FOB.                             expected every battalion to pursue a
Camp Taji, Iraq, and pushed more               The Falcon Brigade’s initial        “day job, night job”. The day job
than 85 percent of his force into        struggles to establish a functioning      consisted of non-lethal effects based
Adhamiyah. Farris’ aggressive plan       headquarters capable of supporting        missions which were executed to
of action posed a number of prob-        four maneuver battalions operating        improve the way the Iraqi civilians
lems for the brigade’s signaleers.       and residing in a forward battle          viewed Coalition Forces and more
Those problems were compounded           space was made worse by a shortage        importantly, how they viewed their
as the brigade morphed into a cross      of Theater Provided Equipment.            own Iraqi soldiers and police. The
function team that included non-         When compared to the other nine           night job focused on employing
doctrinal subordinate units and          MND-B controlled BCTs, the Falcon         kinetic operations against insurgents
augmentees, Civilians, transition        Brigade’s communication infrastruc-       and terrorists in support of the
teams, and Iraqi Security Forces.        ture was grossly lacking. Specifi-        strategic line of operation. Farris’
      Throughout the Falcon              cally, with regard to computers and       “day job, night job” mantra provided
Brigade’s Operation Iraqi Freedom        Voice over Internet Protocol phones,      the brigade with a balanced formula

                                                                                   Army Communicator                  57
                                                                                 the unit relied heavily on the strate-
                                                                                 gic fiber infrastructure on Camp Taji
                                                                                 provided by Multi-National Force-
                                                                                 Iraq, as well as, high bandwidth line-
                                                                                 of-sight connections to achieve a
                                                                                 level of collaboration never before
                                                                                 achieved by a tactical brigade level
                                                                                 unit. The complexity of the network
                                                                                 in Iraq today increases with each
                                                                                 subsequent rotation and is only
                                                                                 outpaced by combatant command-
                                                                                 ers’ expectations and demands for
                                                                                 further improvements.
                                                                                       Added to the complexity of the
                                                                                 communications architecture was
                                                                                 the fact that many of the radios
                                                                                 Soldiers were fielded don’t talk to
                                                                                 each other. For instance, Army
                                                                                 systems like the blue force tracker
COL Don Farris, commander 2nd BCT, and LTC Richard Kim, exit the first           system and the Force Battle Com-
meeting with Sadr City mayor.                                                    mand Brigade and Below system
                                                                                 whose purpose is to reduce fratricide
to effectively dismantle a well          and personnel) throughout the CFT.      incidents and improve leader
equipped and highly lethal insur-        This uncomfortable separation           situational awareness, do not
gency in Adhamiyah, while isolating      meant that battalion commanders         seamlessly talk to each other and
Sadr City. Through timely intelli-       were separated from their communi-      were both present in the unit’s battle
gence, quick strikes and constant        cation personnel and their command      space in equal numbers.
presence, the Falcon Brigade suc-        post nodes.                                   Additionally, the hand-held
cessfully detained more than a                 The addition of command post      radios teams used to talk to each
thousand criminals and insurgents,       of the future and the distributed       other were not compatible with each
including almost 150 high value          common ground system systems in         other and were always in short
targets. As the surge progressed,        conjunction with the SharePoint         supply. In fact, even though the unit
Sadr City, the potentially politically   Portal and Adobe Connect (Breeze)       was fielded almost 1,000 EF Johnson
strategic flash point crammed with       incorporated an increased band-         Land Mobile Radios, they were
more than 1.2 million impoverished       width requirement that the JNTC-S       initially not authorized for use off
Iraqis, remained quiet as the mixed      was not fielded to support, therefore   the FOBs and when that restriction
neighborhoods of Adhamiyah began
to flourish as never before seen since
the fall of the Saddam Hussein
regime. This was only possible by
the commander’s decision to live
amongst the people of Baghdad.
      In order to meet the
commander’s intent, the signal
community again had to push its
personnel and equipment past the
limits of standard Army doctrinal
expectations. The brigade separated
its Warfighter Information Network-
Tactical Increment 1 Nodes and
implemented line-of-sight connectiv-
ity for every battalion headquarters
in sector. This required a drastic
deviation from the newly established
modularity doctrine and the sharing
of battalion signal assets (equipment

      Tactical TOC baptism in Iraq.

58   Spring 2008
CPT Jason Arnold on Command Outpost Apache roof. LOS connectivity             The heat if the Iraqi summers often
for each battalion headquarters was established. WIN-T Inc 1 Nodes had        reached 120 degrees.
to be separated because of equipment shortfalls. Eventually this was
overcome.
was lifted, they were still incompat- unit achieved unprecedented results     throughout the CFT. This allowed
ible with the radios mounted in       by overcoming the heat of an Iraqi      subordinate units to operate in
vehicles. This caused much frustra-   summer where temperatures com-          conjunction with one another in
tion that was only overcome by the    monly exceed 120 degrees and            furtherance of the commander’s
ingenuity and resourcefulness of the  dealing with the tragic loss of life    intent.
unit’s dismounted patrols through     which comes all too often in a war             The communications architec-
sheer determination, planning and     torn land teetering on the verge of     ture that enabled command and
will power.                           civil war.                              control of the Falcon CFT was not
      More frustration was faced by         As the 15-month deployment        planned and was never envisioned
all brigade-size units throughout     dragged on, it became apparent that     by Farris prior to the deployment
Iraq as they attempted to overcome    the Falcon Brigade was making an        but it was necessary to ensure
the cumbersome organizational         important contribution to the overall   success.
structures they were doctrinally      security situation in Baghdad. As              That network architecture and
saddled with at the onset of the      businesses and schools began to         all of the functionality it brought
modularization conversion. Almost     reopen, displaced families returned     with it flattened the organizational
every unit changed its structure to   and attacks on coalition and Iraqi      structure to the point where the
place the network operations section  forces dramatically decreased, it       brigade commander could pass
under the BCT S6.                     became apparent that life and           along his intent across all levels of
      The seemingly haphazard         stability was returning to              his command simultaneously as well
placement of the NETOPS under the     Adhamiyah. The resurgence of            as pass information to the unit’s
brigade special troops battalion      peace made it extremely difficult for   higher headquarters. This complex,
forced the dalcon brigade to create a insurgents to openly operate in         redundant and highly reliable
knowledge management group,           Adhamiyah without being brought         architecture was connected by some
chaired by the BSTB Commander,        to justice or killed. At some point     of the most highly motivated signal
LTC James G. Zellmer. The Falcon      during the surge of 2007, reporters     Soldiers who refused to allow one
Knowledge Management team             stopped talking about a civil war in    life to be taken due to an inability to
included all brigade communica-       Iraq and began to focus on economic     communicate.
tions leaders and eventually solved   and political reconciliation. The              These signal Soldiers will
numerous organizational structure     Falcon Brigade was able to drasti-      undoubtedly look back one day and
issues. In addition to the frustra-   cally change the landscape in           feel great pride because of their
tions associated with poorly de-      Adhamiyah and Sadr City because         achievements during the Surge of
signed organizational structure, the  information flowed continuously         2007.

                                                                              Army Communicator                   59
                                           C4 support
       MAJ McKinney has served the
Army for more than 20 years. He has
been an enlisted infantryman and
aeroscout observer attaining the rank of
staff sergeant. After graduating from
Officer Candidate School, he served as a
signal officer in the 4th Infantry
                                                in Afghanistan OEF VIII
Division, 75th Ranger Regiment, XVIII      By LTC Patrick Dedham and CJ6            forward locations where the enemy
Airborne Corps and has been assigned as    staff                                    had freedom of movement before.
the brigade S6 at 2nd Brigade Combat                                                      With these systems, the for-
Team, 82nd Airborne Division since               The 82nd Airborne Division G6
                                                                                    ward tactical commander had access
March 2006.                                deployed to Afghanistan in January
                                                                                    to the intelligence and operational
                                           2007 and served as the Combined          systems that allowed for real-time
                                           Joint Task Force CJ6 until April 2008    application on the battlefield. They
      ACRONYM QUICKSCAN                    for Operation Enduring Freedom
                                                                                    provided access to battle command,
                                           VIII. The fifteen months as the CJ6
                                                                                    situational awareness, common
                                           team was extremely challenging,
     BCT – Brigade Combat Team                                                      operational picture, database
     BFT – Blue Force Tracker              rewarding, educational, and at
                                                                                    retrieval and input, biometrics,
     BSTB – Brigade Special Troops         times, frustrating. This article         target recognition, and unmanned
     Battalion                             highlights some of the key lessons       aerial vehicle streaming video.
     C2 – command and control              learned and observations acted on in
     CFT – Cross Function Team                                                      These systems also allowed the task
                                           order to improve command, control
     CPNs – Command Post Nodes                                                      force commander to rapidly dissemi-
                                           communications, and computers
     CPOF – Command Post of the Fu-                                                 nate complex information and plans
                                           support to the CJTF. The actions
     ture                                                                           across a widely distributed force. In
     DCGS – Distributed Common             taken by the CJ6 team were an            essence, it allows for the massing of
     Ground System                         attempt to create a positive effect on   information to apply combat power
     ePRT – embedded Provincial Re-        the battlefield in Afghanistan using
     construction Team
                                                                                    most effectively in order to accom-
                                           C4.
     FBCB2 – Force Battle Command                                                   plish the commander’s objectives.
     Brigade and Below                                                              The effect is improved communica-
                                           Expanding the network to the
     FOBs – Forward Operating Bases                                                 tions and faster access to informa-
     JNTC-S – Joint Network Transfer       lowest level:                            tion.
     Capability – Spiral                         Network connectivity must be             A division is not authorized
     LMRs – Land Mobile Radios             expanded to the lowest level in a
                                                                                    systems like the secure Internet
     MND-B – Multi-National Division -     counter-insurgent fight. If the
     Baghdad                                                                        Protocol router point of presence
                                           network is pushed low enough and
     MND-F – Multi-National Force - Iraq                                            terminal or traffic terminal at the
                                           used the right way it can be an
     NETOPS – Network Operations                                                    company level. Therefore, we had to
     OIF – Operation Iraqi Freedom
                                           effective combat enabler. It is about    procure the systems in theater and
     TPE – Theater Provided Equipment      flattening information so that we can    take personnel out of units that were
     U.S. – United States                  become quicker in moving data to
                                                                                    not signal Soldiers in order to
     VoIP – Voice over Internet protocol   information, which leads to decision
                                                                                    provide personnel to operate the
                                           making, finally resulting in action.
                                                                                    systems. Also the systems were not
                                           We do not want information to move
                                                                                    available for training prior to
                                           through bureaucratic tactical chains     deployment.
                                           of command – squad, to platoon, to             It should be a priority that the
                                           company, to battalion, to brigade, to
                                                                                    C4 systems and the personnel to
                                           division or the other way around
                                                                                    operate the systems are part of a
                                           before action is taken. We want
                                                                                    division’s Modified Table of Organi-
                                           everyone to see the information at
                                                                                    zational Equipment in order to
                                           the same time so that anyone who         provide network connectivity to at
                                           can take action on the information       least the company level.
                                           immediately does so.
                                                 The network was pushed to
                                                                                    Full motion video to the action
                                           platoon level in Afghanistan, when
                                                                                    level:
                                           possible, during OEF VIII increasing
                                                                                          Moving the network to the
                                           the amount of C4 nodes from 68 to        lowest level allowed the CJTF to
                                           98 in 15 months. These non-stan-         distribute intelligence, surveillance,
                                           dard systems provide network
                                                                                    and reconnaissance information,
                                           connectivity allowed the CJTF to
                                                                                    such as full motion video, to the
                                           continue to push combat forces to
                                                                                    action level.
60     Spring 2008
       The distribution of FMV from                                                networks before they are delivered
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles such as                                                   to units so that the information the
Warrior-A, Shadow, and Predator to         The Afghanistan net-                    ISR assets provide can be widely
the lowest level significantly helped      work is predominantly                   distributed. Program management
to reduce sensor-to-shooter time in                                                control measures must be developed
order to target more effectively. In
                                           satellite based because                 to ensure integration into C4 net-
Afghanistan, the CJTF acquired and         of the distances and                    works so that the information
deployed Global Broadcast Systems          terrain. Lots of network                provided by ISR assets are delivered
to all battalion command posts that                                                to a network instead of just to a
controlled battle space, procured          capability was wasted at                point.
Digital Video Broadcast-Receive            our battalion-size for-
Communications System production                                                   Forward deploying information
suites from Defense Systems Infor-
                                           ward operating bases                    services:
mation Agency to push Shadow and           because large files had                        The Afghanistan network is
Warrior-A FMV feeds into the GBS           to traverse satellite                   predominantly satellite based
network, and used the persistent                                                   because of the distances and terrain.
surveillance dissemination system of       links when the informa-                 Lots of network capability was
systems to compress the video so           tion was only being sent                wasted at our battalion-size forward
that it could be distributed through-      internally to the FOB.                  operating bases because large files
out SIPRNET in the CJOA-A.                                                         had to traverse satellite links when
       The effect was improved                                                     the information was only being sent
situational awareness and overall          provide an integrative training         internally to the FOB.
reaction time across the CJTF. The         program that trains the network                E-mail servers are maintained
authorization of GBS-IP suites to          operations at all levels how to IOM     at the brigade combat team level
every maneuver battalion should            video systems and how to integrate      because battalions do not have the
also be a top priority in the Army.        them via multicast networks, and        personnel to operate and maintain
       The distribution of FMV to the      finally all maneuver battalions must    the servers. When an e-mail, with a
lowest level through secure Internet       be fielded GBS-IP suites.               large attachment, is sent internal to a
Potocol router network using PSDS2                                                 FOB it must traverse a satellite link
was a challenge. The training               C4 ISR Integration:                    to hit the e-mail server only to be
provided in the Joint Network Node               It is important to note a com-    distributed back to the FOB it came
fielding was inadequate with respect       mon issue we continuously ran into      from.
to the installation, operation, and        during our time in Afghanistan.                To save resources we installed
maintenance of multicast network-          That is the issue of C4 ISR non-        file servers at the battalion FOBs;
ing. Multicast traffic is the bearer for   integration.                            now they simply send a link direct-
much of the traffic of the network               Several intelligence, surveil-    ing the receivers to the information,
and is the only way that video             lance, and reconnaissance assets        which is on the file server at the
transits the network. Consequently,        such as FMV platforms, SIGINT           FOB. Other services such as biomet-
issues like Protocol Independent           platforms, and Unmanned Ground          rics, virtual email exchange servers,
Multicast, Multicast Source Discov-        Sensors (Image Intelligence), are       and map servers are and could also
ery Protocol and Class D Addressing        incredibly valuable assets for the      be deployed forward to improve
are critical to mission success but are    war-fighter that could create a         information dissemination.
still viewed as a backwater topic.         greater positive effect if they were
This needs to change. Further, we          better integrated into the common       Implementing network accelera-
urgently need training and fielding        C4 networks. Instead, the majority      tion:
of tools that will allow us to manage      of ISR platforms feed information to           A key problem in satellite-
and view multicast traffic. The            a point, usually behind a steel door,   based data communication is
training provided for content              on an independent network instead       network lag due to TCP performance
networking, particularly video, was        of a common network like SIPRNET,       problems. The “TCP problem” is a
non-existent before we got to theater.     which would make them much more         major reason applications, such as
This is a significant shortfall given      distributable.                          Outlook, take a long time to load. A
that we see video dissemination via              The energy and time consumed      second problem is a growing appe-
JNTC-S multicast, GBS multicast,           in procurement, engineering, and        tite for applications such as FMV,
and DVB-RCS multicast.                     training the procedures for integrat-   biometrics, and command post of the
       We must increase the quality        ing ISR assets, such as the Shadow      future that require maximum data
and quantity of multicast training         UAV, at the division level is enor-     capacity managed above the IP
provided to the units fielding JNTC-       mous. ISR assets must be fully          layer. This reality means that you
S and provides multicast tools and         integrated into commonly used C4        have to manage the network at
training to the field. The Army must                                               application layer in order to add
                                                                                   Army Communicator                   61
capacity and visibility to JNTC-S.       significant technical solution that we   however you just run out of Soldiers
The Turbo IP appliance was an            developed was CENTRIXS Voice             because of the scope of the problem.
attempt to address this but was          over Internet Protocol telephone         Having a cable/wire organization at
inadequate to our needs here in the      calls from and to ISAF VoIP. We          division level would make a signifi-
CJOA.                                    were able to stand-up e-mail guards      cant difference.
       CJTF-82 enabled the network to    between ISAF-S and CENTRIXS but
drastically exceed the designed load     they were problematic. In a perfect      Use of commercial networks:
by two methods: installation of          world there would be a network                 In order to extend connectivity
expand accelerators and refining our     DMZ with cross domain feeders for        to the lowest level we took advan-
quality of service. Through these        all the disparate networks for all       tage of the Afghanistan Wireless
methods we have seen throughput          services – to include our own            Communications Company micro-
for the battalion level command          networks - Joint Worldwide Intelli-      wave networks. The AWCC net-
posts increase by 30 percent on          gence Communications System,             work provides line-of-sight trans-
average allowing us to deploy more       SIPR, etc.                               mission that we tunnel our SIPR,
services to the battalion CP.                                                     NIPR, and CENTRIXS networks
       JNTC equipped network             C4 Infrastructure:                       through. We began to establish
operations and engineering sections             The communications infra-         three hubs at Bagram, Fenty, and
should be trained to manage layer 4      structure at FOBs was the number         Salerno that will be used to draw
traffic appliances, such as Expand,      one C4 support problem in the            SIPR, NIPR, and CENRIXS services
Cisco WAAS and Riverbed. These           CJOA-A. These problems were              to smaller FOBs that are in the same
platforms should be included in the      created by years of unexpected           area.
CJOA to, first, get a handle on layer    growth, lack of materials and the              For Afghanistan the use of line-
4 to layer 7 traffic metrics and to      lack of skills by tactical signal        of-sight transmission will provide
optimize, to the greatest degree         Soldiers implementing quick tactical     improved lower latency connectivity
possible the traffic. Essentially        solutions to remedy network prob-        than satellite and will help the
digging where it matters so that we      lems.                                    growth of local development. Only
can improve what really counts – the            To improve base communica-        after a short time the effect of
services on the network not just the     tions infrastructure across the CJOA-    improved connectivity and growth
network.                                 A, the mission of the 25th Signal        in local development was realized
                                         Battalion was expanded to include        proving that the use of commercial
Coalition information sharing:           base communications support at           networks for United States forces
       In Afghanistan there are three    FOBs Salerno and Fenty in order to       was a viable option.
distinct coalition partner layers; the   provide outside plant and inside
Global Counter-Terrorism Force, the      plant support, and provide help          Information assurance and com-
International Security Assistance        desk support for the base. Addition-     puter network defense:
Force, and the North Atlantic Treaty     ally, we hired infrastructure special-          Users are typically indifferent
Organization. Each of the coalition      ists to provide training and support     in how they maintain their PCs;
partners are in different security       for Soldiers and the FOBs Fenty,         information assurance professionals
enclaves causing them to operate on      Sharana, and Salerno. The Soldiers       are habitually draconian in their
different networks. In order to          who were trained could then push         mitigation measure implementation
facilitate information flow in this      out to other smaller FOBs to help        as a first action rather than as a
environment we came to the conclu-       improve infrastructure. Also many        matter of last resort; program
sion that you must do three things:      C4 infrastructure projects through       managers do not approach system/
                                         DCS-SWA were funded over the 15          tool development with a holistic
     1. Products must be written for     months valued at about $8 million        approach to IA; and policy guidance
     release.                            plus 19 major projects valued at $214    from Department of Defense/
     2. The units must have trained      million to improve the infrastructure    Department of the Army lacks the
     Foreign Disclosure Officer/         in the CJOA-A.                           appropriate application of specificity
     Representatives                            OEF requires more strategic       to standardize tools and protocols
     3. Constant air-gapping of          signal forces to improve the commu-      while providing flexibility for
     information to different            nications infrastructure. The addi-      implementation and execution.
     networks must be executed           tion of an OSP/ISP company or                   (1) Users. Users need to be
     4. And finally, the fourth way      platoon would greatly improve            educated to treat the PCs they use in
     to improve information flow         support in the CJOA-A. Tactical          the same manner they treat their
     within a coalition environment      Soldiers do not have the requisite       personally owned vehicles and
     is technical solutions have to be   skill sets required to establish         individual weapons. Most people
     developed.                          permanent communications solu-           do not understand the details of the
                                         tions. Pre-deployment training was       internal combustion engine or the
     In Afghanistan the most             conducted on fiber optic cabling –       science of ballistics, but easily
62   Spring 2008
recognize they have a                                                                                 often cannot be
personal responsibil-                                                                                 accomplished with
ity to take an active                                                                                 client systems at
role in maintaining                                                                                   locations that do not
their equipment if                                                                                    have FSR support.
they want to get to                                                                                   Travel within the
work on time or hit                                                                                   Afghan CJOA result
the targets at which                                                                                  in several days lapse
they aim. Users                                                                                       to rectify problems.
should approach PCs                                                                                   For the most critical
with the same                                                                                         systems then, we are
mindset, but often                                                                                    required to have FSR
purposefully install                                                                                  support at multiple
unauthorized soft-                                                                                    locations. Systems
ware for personal                                                                                     which are web-based
reasons, don’t know if Combined Joint Task Force-82 J6 staff.                                         typically only require
their PCs have up-to-                                                                                 FSR support at the
date anti-virus                          disparate practices at lower levels                          central server
definitions, and are unaware of how, based on differing interpretations of           location. Users gain access from all
when, or if they are patched for         the same regulations. Very often,           over the CJOA and any problems are
security vulnerabilities.                “what right looks like” at the highest      dealt with at the server location.
       (2) IA Professionals. The         level of DoD is exactly “what right         Because the FSR is on site or can
tenets of IA are confidentiality,        looks like” at the lowest level. While      remote access into a server, issues
integrity, availability, authentication, some good technical guidance is             can be handled immediately.
and non-repudiation. Most IA             available (i.e. STIGs – Security                   A web-based approach elimi-
personnel view their job to protect      Technical Implementation Guides),           nates the need to configure user
the network as a requirement to          topics for which a well-known               computers. Often this means that
focus nearly exclusively on security.    standard procedure would be                 access can be provided to out of
This perspective is much too narrow, expected (i.e. how to safely/securely           theater users (for the right reasons)
moves focus off the tenets, and          move data from NIPR to SIPR)                when required as well.
elevates the state of the network        instead remain a bit of a mystery to               Where possible, DoD should
above the purpose of the network –       users and are implemented in                migrate to and pursue procurement
which is to provide data and data        various ways at different DoD               of systems that are accessed by a
services to the war-fighter. Avail-      locations.                                  web interface. Units will experience
ability is almost universally the first        IA is not just a section in CJ6. It   simplified and responsive service.
tenet sacrificed by IA personnel on      is an aspect of war-fighting that           Also, DoD must identify the core
the altar of security.                   deals with managing the risk associ-        functions that information systems
       (3) Program Managers.             ated with operating networked               must fulfill, clearly mandate the
Programs of record seem to be            information systems and corre-              information systems that will be
fielded with the polar opposite          sponding data services. IA needs            used, and stay ahead of technology
approach to IA exhibited by IA           command attention similar to the            making sure that those information
professionals. Availability is el-       Safety program in order to mature           systems are the best technology can
evated above all other tenets which      the users, IA professionals, pro-           offer.
often results in the development of      grams, and policy.                                 The lessons learned and
such brittle source code that subse-                                                 observations described in this article
quent security patches released for      Information systems:                        do not capture everything learned
vulnerabilities in the underlying              Use and procurement of web-           during our fifteen month deploy-
operating system cannot be applied       based applications is an important          ment. However, they do represent
lest they break the program soft-        point when it comes to information          the key issues that we were able to
ware. As well, the continued use of      system selection. The operation and         identify and apply solutions in order
known vulnerable communication           maintenance of client-based systems         to provide the best possible C4
protocols and development on             such as ABCS and CPoF is much               support to the CJTF.
networks that do not mimic actual        more difficult and costly than web-
battlefield conditions indicates a       based applications.                               LTC Patrick Dedham has served
general lack of awareness of current           These systems are fantastic in        in leadership and staff positions from
DoD/DA IA efforts.                       the functionality and capability they       platoon through division level in the
       (4) Policy. Guidance from         bring to the war-fighter. However,          304th Signal Battalion, Special Opera-
higher is often unnecessarily vague      trouble-shooting is difficult and           tions Command, 25th Infantry Division,
and results in the development of
                                                                                     Army Communicator                   63
Human Resources Command, White                Uphold Democracy in Haiti, Desert          Joint Task Force J6 during his recent 15
House Communications Agency, and              Shield/Storm, Operation Iraqi Freedom,     month deployment to Afghanistan. He
three tours in the 82nd Airborne              and Operation Enduring Freedom in          was responsible for C4 support to the
Division. His deployments include             Afghanistan. Dedham was the Coalition      CJTF consisting of seven brigade-size
                                                                                         organizations.
                                                  ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
     ABCS – Army Battle Command Sys-           DVB-RCS – Digital Video Broadcast-         MTOE – Modified Table of Organiza-
     tem                                       Receive Communications System              tional Equipment
     AWCC – Afghanistan Wireless Com-          FDO/FDR – Foreign Disclosure Of-           NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organi-
     munications Company                       ficer/ Representatives                     zation
     BCT – Brigade Combat Team                 FMV – Full Motion Video                    NETOPS – network operations
     C4 – Command, Control, Communi-           FOB – Forward Operating Bases              NIPR – Non-secure Internet Protocol
     cations, and Computers                    FSR – Field Support Representative         Router
     CENTRIXS – Combined Enterprise            GBS – Global Broadcast Systems             OEF – Operations Enduring Freedom
     Regional Information Exchange Sys-        GTCF – Global Counter-Terrorism            OSP – Outside Plant
     tem                                       Force                                      PM – program manager
     CIA-AN – Confidentiality, Integrity,      IA – Information Assurance                 POV – Personally Owned Vehicles
     Availability, Authentication, and Non-    IMINT – Image Intelligence                 PSDS2 – Persistent Surveillance Dis-
     repudiation                               IOM – Installation, Operation and Main-    semination System of Systems
     CJOA-A – Combined Joint Opera-            tenance                                    SIGINT – Signal Intelligence
     tions Area-Afghanistan                    ISAF – International Security Assis-       SIPR – Secure Internet Protocol Router
     CJTF – Combined Joint Task Force          tance Force                                SPOP – SIPR Point of Presence
     CPoF – Command Post of the Fu-            ISP – Inside Plant support                 STIGs – Security Technical Implemen-
     ture                                      ISR – Intelligence, Surveillance, &        tation Guides
     DA – Department of the Army               Reconnaissance                             TCP – Tactical Command Post
     DISA – Defense Information Sys-           LOS – Line-of-Sight                        TT – Traffic Terminal
     tems Agency                               JNN – Joint Node Network                   UAV – Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
     DMZ – Demilitarized Zone                  JWICS – Joint Worldwide Intelligence       UGS – Unmanned Ground Sensors
     DoD – Department of Defense               Communications System                      VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol




A tale of two
              admins
                                                          two
By Bennett Hayth                              day ensuring that many of the taken              What follows is a brief tale of what
                                              for granted, local area network            can happen.
       When the network goes down,
                                              services are functioning properly.
many times, it ends up being a wide
                                              Services such as Domain Naming                   Configuration management,
area network link dropping packets
                                              Service, Microsoft Exchange, Dy-           documentation, and knowledge of
or a break in a fiber backbone cable          namic Host Configuration Protocol,         the network are key elements to the
somewhere in the organizations                Microsoft Active Directory,                overall administration and data
network. When the WAN team
                                              Microsoft SharePoint Servers just to       management of an enterprise
repairs the break or reconfigures a
                                              name a few. But what happens               environment.
router interface to allow traffic to
                                              when the entire server administra-               When we took over from the
pass again, they are dubbed heroes
                                              tion staff has 100 percent turnover        outgoing unit, one of the first
for fixing the network and life goes          every 12 to 15 months? How much            questions I asked their administra-
on.                                           of the enterprises ins and outs,           tors (admin) was, “Where is the
       But, what about the server
                                              quirks, and custom configurations          domain documentation?” The cold
administrators, the guys in the cold
                                              are lost between the passing of            hard fact was that the current
and noisy environmentally con-
                                              responsibilities from one unit to the      admins were the domain documen-
trolled spot known as the server
                                              next? To compound things, what             tation, and so were those before
room? The true unsung network                 happens when no documentation or           them.
heroes who many times go over-                historical records on configuration              We had a few weeks to fit 12
looked are the server administrators.
                                              management exist?                          months of custom configurations
They go about their task day after
64     Spring 2008
and server management                                                               would be in a much better
history into our heads and                                                          situation knowing the pass-
hope nothing was missed. So,                                                        word and having access to the
we began our task and started                                                       domain via the built in domain
to write down everything,                                                           admin account. Additionally, it
noting what problems hap-                                                           is one password and account
pened during the relief-in-                                                         that should be protected to
place with regard to critical                                                       prevent unauthorized access
services in the enterprise.                                                         but, protecting it through
      We almost welcomed                                                            obscurity is not the most
trouble. For the outgoing unit                                                      preferred method. There are
it was a pain to fix, but for us                                                    also many other tasks in active
it was a way to learn some-                                                         directory that require the actual
thing critical to our job and to                                                    domain admin account. We
the future survival of the                                                          picked a slow day to change the
network. Like every unit                                                            passwords and held our breath.
before us, we had two weeks                                                         Fortunately, there were no ill
to learn everything we could                                                        effects and all was well. The
about the management of this                                                        users rejoiced as mail contin-
division headquarters’ net-                                                         ued to flow.
work that had been pieced                                                                 Shortly after TOA, we
together through five units,        WO Hung Tran works on the NIPR stack in the decided to document the data
over the last four to five years. MND-B Data Center.                                flow and times of backup jobs
      The day of the transition                                                     on all the servers in order to
of authority was like buying a used                                           eliminate any conflicts for band-
car – “as is with no warranty.” I                                             width on the server virtual LAN or
took over the keys to the server room                                         in processor use by a server perform-
as our own and asked the out going      The day of the transi-                ing multiple jobs at the same time.
admin one last question, “What are      tion of authority was                 Once the documentation was
the passwords to the built in domain
admin and Directory Service Restore
                                                                                              the
                                        like buying a used car – completed, alland backups seemed
                                                                              to be planned       well thought out.
accounts?” The built in domain          “as is with no war-                   The prior administrator did a great
admin account is the only account       ranty.” I took over the               job creating a service account to
that cannot be locked out in a                                                conduct all the backup operations
Microsoft Active Directory Domain       keys to the server room using NT Backup as the enterprise
and the Directory Service Restore       as our own and asked                  solution.
password is used to restore active                                                   The problem with the service
directory in times of disaster. The
                                        the out going admin                   account they created was the name
answer I got was not what I was         one last question,                    the unit used. The account name
looking for at all. The passwords       “What are the pass-                   was customized to represent an
were not known by the outgoing                                                association with their unit. On its
unit and probably were not known        words to the built in                 own, this is not a big deal but, it is
by their previous unit.                 domain admin and Di-                  also not a best business practice
      Now, the Directory Service
Restore password is not a big deal,
                                        rectory Service Restore since it was running could either
                                                                              enterprise wide, we
                                                                                                     the backups

we changed it on all the domain         accounts?”                            spend the time developing a script to
controllers and stored it in a safe in                                        change the account name on all the
case of a disaster. The domain          application (most of the time an      backup jobs or just leave it. We
admin password is a whole different improperly configured scan engine)        opted to yield to the problem and
problem. No one can be sure what        locks out the entire user account     moved on. At least we would have a
services are running in the domain      database (to include all the domain   reminder of the previous unit and it
using that account.                     admins) in the domain, then you       would be with us everyday of our
      If you change the password,       have to go to an alternate method of  deployment.
services using the account will stop    unlocking the accounts. This situa-          One thing we did discover
and without documentation of what       tion in and of itself is not really a during our backup documentation
services are running, no one knows      huge problem for most admins since effort that might have potentially
what may quit working. Another          the directory service restore console lead to disaster was backup jobs that
dilemma is, if you don’t change the     can be used to unlock accounts in a   were failing. Both domain control-
password and someone or some            disaster but, in times of crisis we   lers, on the low side, had NT Backup
                                                                               Army Communicator                  65
jobs that had not run successfully for                                             exchange to interfere with opera-
six months. What that meant for us                                                 tions because users couldn’t check
was that all of our current user         Many accounts on the                      their mail. The second thing was to
accounts in active directory were not    exchange were inactive                    start a slow and methodical “on-
backed up anywhere. Not a good                                                     line” defragmentation of the mes-
                                         and still being sent mail                 sage stores. Normally, the message
thing if your directory service
partition gets corrupt, but how often    from various distro                       store must be dismounted and
does that happen - right? Not            lists, better known to                    defragged with essential /d
something I am going to bet my                                                     Database_Name. In a combat
career on, so we began to investi-
                                         the exchange admin as                     environment where there is no
gate.                                    spam. Since they were                     week-end or end of the business day,
      Figuring out why an NT                                                       to do maintenance, a custom method
                                         not being checked by                      had to be developed. The Microsoft
Backup job did not run correctly can
be like a homicide investigation.        the user, no one was                      FSR provided us with a simple and
You have tons of clues and a dead        cleaning out the mail-                    very effective solution: create a new
body (in our case a failed backup                                                  message store and move all the
job) with all the usual suspects. Our
                                         boxes. We set the mail                    mailboxes we wanted to keep, and
investigation pointed to public          box size policy to 512                    then remove the old message store.
enemy number one, a server that          Mega bytes for “prevent                         An action plan was developed,
was no longer on the network or had                                                mailboxes were moved, and the
been renamed in the past. A refer-       both send and receive”                    exchange was defragged. Backups
ence on the “run line” of the NT         in order to reduce                        began to take less time and the
Back configuration on both domain                                                  cluster service started to failover
controllers was still pointed to an
                                         growth of inactive mail-                  properly. But our work was not yet
old, non-existing server so NT           boxes from spam.                          complete as we noticed another issue
Backup could not mount the target                                                  that needed our attention. The
location for the backup media.                                                     global policy for mailbox storage
                                         exchange, what we found were some         needed a long overdue review.
      I had to ask myself, could we
                                         large Exchange Data Base files. The       Previously, the policy was set to 100
avoid problems like this with change
                                         EDB files were filled with old mail       megabytes per mailbox store, per
control and domain documentation
or are we doomed to administration       and inactive account mailboxes. Our       user, to prevent the user from
by “discovery learning.” We imme-        largest EDB was 190 gigabytes and         sending mail when the mailbox got
                                         our smallest was 60 gigabytes. With       larger than 120 Mb, and nothing was
diately repaired the jobs and ran the
                                         EDB files that large, backup opera-       set for the “prevent send and
backup. Again, the users rejoiced
                                         tions were taking two to three days       receive.” The no setting on prevent
and mail continued to flow.
                                         just for the message stores.              send and receive was the root cause
      A week or so passed and we
continued to analyze our enterprise             Another problem was that the       of mail boxes being bloated with old
environment. One area of focus was       log files were growing large between      mail.
                                         backups, sometimes forcing the                  Many accounts on the ex-
an intense look at our Microsoft
                                         related message store to dismount.        change were inactive and still being
Exchange and the service level it
                                         We all know what happens when a           sent mail from various distro lists,
provided to our users. Our high side
                                         user cannot get their mail, (life as we   better known to the exchange admin
network was built as a Microsoft
Cluster for Exchange and was             know it could end!) So, we began to       as spam. Since they were not being
designed to provide the five 9s          purge accounts and mailboxes, but         checked by the user, no one was
                                         to our surprise, the EDB file did not     cleaning out the mailboxes. We set
operational up time (99.999 percent).
                                         shrink at all. A Microsoft Field          the mail box size policy to 512 Mega-
It was a two node cluster with a
                                         Support Representative was con-           bytes for “prevent both send and
typical configuration for each
                                         tacted to assist in developing an         receive” in order to reduce growth of
message store that was indexed by
user last name with multiple mes-        action plan to reduce the size of the     inactive mailboxes from spam. Our
sage stores spanning the two virtual     exchange database. One of the             low side exchange environment had
                                         things he noted was that a normal         a bigger problem; just one Microsoft
exchange servers. The first thing we
                                         “online” defragmentation of the EDB       patch away from total failure. The
noticed was that the exchange
                                         does not reduce the size of the           operating systems (C:\) partition on
cluster was not failing over as it
                                         database file.                            one of the exchange servers was
should for at least one node within
the cluster. However, even in its               The first action we took was to    down to 500 megabytes of storage
degraded state, it was providing the     conduct backups twice a week to           space left on the drive.
                                         ensure that the message store would             The servers had been installed
required mail service to the user
                                         not dismount due to log files becom-      back in 2004 when the required
base. Once we started to dig into the
                                         ing too large. We didn’t want the         partition size for Windows Server
internal workings of the cluster and
66   Spring 2008
2003 was less than current require-                                                 of inactivity; the mandatory screen
ments. After many patches and one                                                   saver. After a quick configuration
service pack later, what you end up      ... many of the problems                   management meeting with our
with is a server with a C:\ partition                                               information assurance team, we
that is almost full. To complicate       that were experienced                      promptly enable the setting and,
matters, the server was the first in     could have been                            within 90 minutes, started receiving
the exchange enterprise and hosted       avoided through con-                       calls and mail requesting we remove
the MX records for the domain.                                                      the setting. As an admin, I will do
       Another problem relating to       figuration management                      many things to help a user, but
the same exchange environment on         and enterprise docu-                       going against DoD policy is not one
the low side was Outlook Web                                                        of them. Users complained but, like
Access with Public Key Infrastruc-
                                         mentation through the                      many other things they became
ture using the Common Access             years. Network docu-                       familiar with the procedure and
Card. As it was configured at TOA,       mentation is a key ele-                    learned to survive with the safe-
only users on one of the two ex-                                                    guards in place.
change servers could get access to       ment to the overall ad-                          The last thing worth discussing
Outlook Web Access through the           ministration and data                      was the previous unit’s planning for
Microsoft Internet Security and                                                     further growth of the enterprise and
Acceleration server.
                                         management of an en-                       their continuity of operations plan.
       An action plan was developed      terprise environment.                      Planning for this aspect of the
to overcome both of the problems in                                                 enterprise was done well however,
one configuration change cycle. The                                                 the plan totally unraveled when the
plan called for a third exchange                                                    building slated for the COOP site
                                         end trying to guess what is in a GPO
server to be brought on-line and all                                                was given to another unit. We
                                         and why it was made can be a
user accounts moved off the failing                                                 quickly found ourselves back at the
                                         daunting task. Luckily, Microsoft
server. The failing server had some                                                 initial planning phase and the
                                         came to the rescue with the Group
hard-drive space freed up once it                                                   Service Level Agreement for the
                                         Policy Management snapin for
was no longer hosting a message                                                     COOP was relooked. The amount of
                                         Microsoft Management Console.
store. The server was then con-                                                     redundancy the previous unit
                                                Even with the added benefit of
verted to act as a front-end exchange                                               promised their users changed from
                                         advanced tools, understand what all
server for the enterprise. Addition-                                                what we would be required to
                                         the GPOs are doing and why they
ally, the server was configured for                                                 provide.
                                         are doing it is still a task. For
Constrained Kerberos Delegation,                                                          The original plan called for a
                                         instance, one of the first things that
allowing all users in the enterprise                                                warm site with an amount of down-
                                         we noticed were those GPOs linked
access to Outlook Web Access. Mail                                                  time for recovering data from
                                         to organizational units, but not
could now be viewed in a web                                                        backups. The new plan was a hot
                                         enabled. So, we had to ask our-
browser using a CAC card. Our                                                       site with all services running and
                                         selves, do we feel lucky? Should we
users continued to rejoice. However,                                                ready to cut over in a moments
                                         enable the GPOs and wait for the
the rejoicing meant nothing to the                                                  notice. As with the exchange cluster,
                                         phone calls from users? (Of course
admins who asked themselves if all                                                  a Storage Area Network expert was
                                         not.)
of this could have been avoided                                                     called in from Dell to examine the
                                                We read the setting, one after
through proper configuration                                                        feasibility of creating a hot site and
                                         another and tried to guess the logic
management, enterprise documenta-                                                   an active/passive instance of three
                                         of why the GPOs were created in the
tion, and data management.                                                          separate single instance databases
                                         first place. The real problem did not
       After the dust settled on our                                                (Exchange, SharePoint, and CPOF).
                                         present itself at first but, after a few
exchange action plan, we started to                                                 We had several hurdles to overcome
                                         hours of study, it became clear. The
look closely at the Group Policy                                                    before it would be feasible to imple-
                                         method previous admins had used
Objects in active directory and what                                                ment this level of advanced configu-
                                         for exempting some users and
they really did for the enterprise.                                                 ration.
                                         computers from GPOs were to block
GPO are most notably known to                                                             First, we would need to
                                         inheritance. A better method and
users as the restrictions put on their                                              determine how to do a password
                                         BBP would have been to use GPO
office computer that prevent them                                                   reset on the fiber switches that
                                         filtering and not allow exempt
from doing things they like to do on                                                supported the SAN for the high side
                                         computers and users the ability to
their home computer. GPO manage-                                                    exchange server. Again, Dell SAN
                                         read and apply the selected GPOs.
ment is one of the things where                                                     engineers to the rescue!
                                         One of the GPOs that had been
documentation is worth one-mil-                                                           Secondly, while conducting the
                                         totally disabled was the Department
lionth to the power of infinity in its                                              password reset, the Dell engineer
                                         of Defense mandatory setting for
weight in gold. Spending hours on                                                   informed us our SAN was old and
                                         computers to lock after a set period

                                                                                    Army Communicator                  67
no longer manufactured by Dell. In
order to have an active/passive                                   ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
instance of exchange, we would
need to upgrade to a newer SAN at           ABCS – Army Battle Command Sys-         and Acceleration
both sites.                                 tem                                     LAN – Local Area Network
                                            Admin – administrators                  MMC – Microsoft Management Con-
      The last and most obvious
                                            BBP – Best Business Practice            sole
problem was the lack of a site to           CAC – Common Access Card
begin work or even conduct a site                                                   MX – Mail Exchanger
                                            COOP – Continuity of Operations         OWA – Outlook Web Access
survey. When you take into account          Plan                                    PKI – Public Key Infrastructure
the fact that the previous unit had         CPOF – Command Post of the Fu-          RIP – Relief-in-place
already purchased hardware for              ture                                    SAN – Storage Area Network
their plan, you end up with a huge          DHCP – Dynamic Host Configura-          SLA – Service Level Agreement
                                            tion Protocol                           TOA – Transition of Authority
configuration management night-
                                            DoD – Department of Defense             VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network
mare. We had hardware for a COOP            DNS – Domain Naming Service             WAN – Wide Area Network
that did not match the requested            EDB – Exchange Data Base
SLA and no building to place it into.       FSR – Field Support Representa-         Terms:
The SLA for the COOP from the               tive
previous unit was changed to be a           GPO – Group Policy Objects              NTBackup – Microsoft Technet
much higher level of availability for       IA – Information Assurance              Backup & Restore Software
                                            ISAS – Microsoft Internet Security
our user base. Users don’t know
what a COOP is so they would not
care until all their data was gone, but
even then mail would still flow.          exchange server, Sharepoint Portal,          MAJ Hayth is currently assigned
      In closing, many of the prob-       or our Army Battle Command             as the division automation officer for 4th
lems that were experienced could          Systems, proper documentation is       Infantry Division G6. His previous duty
have been avoided through configu-        the key to maintaining the network     assignment was as the brigade automa-
ration management and enterprise          and recovering from any crisis that    tion officer for 1st Brigade Combat
documentation through the years.          comes about. Our G6s and FA53s         Team, 4ID.
Network documentation is a key            must demand it.
element to the overall administration
and data management of an enter-
prise environment.
      Unfortunately, this problem is
not a military specific problem.
Many businesses go by day after day
with no enterprise documentation at
all. They do not give a second
thought as to what would happen if
all the admins quit at once. Sure,
they could hire new admins, but
how many days of downtime could
the business survive before the
network outage forces them out of
business. And the users, well they
would be out of a job and the mail
would no longer flow.
      In our case the results could be
much more catastrophic. Com-
manders and staffs rely on the
availability of the network and the
security of their data in order to
command and control combat
operations. As we continue to rotate
units in and out of the combat
theater, more attention must be paid
to properly documenting any and all
changes to the networks supporting
the division headquarters.
      It does not matter if it is the

68   Spring 2008
LandWarNet update
 Training updates from the Directorate of Training, 15th Signal Brigade and Leader College of Information Technology, Fort Gordon, Ga.


By LandWarNet staff                                                                                   Learning experiences.
Introduction
                                                                                                      4. Army e-learning program
      The Signal Center is leading
                                                                                                      list – 11/12/2007
the way in transforming the
                                                                                                             Description: A list of all
Army’s approach to training by
                                                                                                       courses that can be accessed on
ensuring its Soldiers and leaders
                                                                                                       Army eLearning website as of
have 24x7 access to state-of-the
                                                                                                       Nov. 12, 2007. Visit Army
art distributed learning materials
                                                                                                       eLearning on the web at:
to support LandWarNet Opera-
                                                                                                       https://usarmy.skillport.com/
tions. Moreover, service mem-
                                                                                                       SkillPortFE/login/
bers across the force, regardless
                                                                                                     usarmylogin.cfm
of Army activity or service branch,
have benefited from our unique
                                                                                                  5. Distributed fact sheet
approach to and application of dL.
                                                                                                       Description: Highlights facts
      It combines traditional school-
                                                Signal. By using the materials in the             about Army dL.
house instruction and the latest dL
                                                online resource folder, Soldiers can
methodologies to create a blended
                                                improve their preparedness (or                    6. Distributed Learning delivering
environment that supports the
                                                unit’s preparedness) to maximize the              training, anywhere, anyplace
Soldier regardless of location and/or
                                                return on dL. Additionally Soldiers                     Description: Highlights the
training environment. LWN eU
                                                and Civilians can obtain the latest               role dL plays in today in improving
Signal hosts over 580 downloadable
                                                Army eLearning course offerings list              Army training, enhancing force
products in 47 separate learning
                                                from the resource folder.                         readiness, and supporting Army
areas; including 32 high-end simula-
                                                      Download these supporting                   transformation by exploiting current
tors (19 are Signal specific in content)
                                                materials from the Training/Distrib-              and emerging dL technologies and
and 100 computer based training
                                                uted Learning Resources category                  methods.
products.
                                                from the download section of LWN                         The following activities are
      The web portal also provides
                                                eU Signal:                                        encouraged at the individual and
access to Signal technical and
                                                                                                  organizational level to support dL.
professional documents, Presenta-
                                                1. How to be a successful distance
tions, and manuals that have rel-
                                                learner                                                    Distribute the support
evance to and training application
                                                      Description: How to Be a                    materials electronically to all of your
for the entire Signal Corps.
                                                Successful Distance Learner pro-                  Soldiers and Civilians
                                                vides best practices for the distance                      Post fact sheets and other
Supporting Distributed Learning
                                                learner to apply in maximizing their              resources on your bulletin boards
and the learner
                                                learning experience.                                       Read the dL Star at http://
      Supporting the learner via dL is
                                                                                                  www.dls.army.mil/DLSTAR.pdf. to
the primary focus of LWN eU
                                                2. How-to-guides for netiquette,                  find out the Army’s latest dL initia-
(https://lwn.army.mil) and LWN
                                                note taking, mind mapping, and                    tives ( Subscribe to the dL Star by
eU Signal (https://
                                                question stems                                    email at
lwneusignal.army.mil). The chal-
                                                     Description: Provides four                   distributed.learning@us.army.mil)
lenge is getting the learner ready and
                                                guides with best practices for                             Talk with Soldiers and
motivated to learn and providing
                                                communicating on the net, note                    Civilians about the merits of using
information on resources to enhance
                                                taking, mind mapping, and using                   dL resources
the skill sets of the learner.
                                                stem questions to deepen under-
      The Distance Education Branch,
                                                standing                                                For more information on dL or
University of Information Technol-
                                                                                                  to discuss ways to utilize dL to meet
ogy, Directorate of Training has risen
                                                3. Army e-learning brochure                       your training needs or challenges,
to meet those challenges by provid-
                                                      Description: Highlights the                 contact A.J. Mason, Instructional
ing a “one-stop shop” area to access
                                                training value and registration                   Systems Specialist at
a Training/Distributed Learning
                                                process for Army e-Learning. See                  aj.mason@us.army.mil / 706-791-
Resources category folder from the
                                                what other Soldiers and DA Civil-                 8674 or DSN 780-8674 at the Dis-
Download section of LWN eU
                                                ians are saying about their Army e-               tance Education Branch.
                                                                                                  Army Communicator                      69
      LWNeU Unit Universities
continue to offer customized training
for your unit’s specific training
requirements                                                                           2/348th CSS Soldiers in
                                                                                       Puerto Rico use their
What is a Unit University?
       A Unit University is a
customizable website used to provide
commanders, training staffs and
Soldiers with access to the most up-
to-date training and training products
for their unit missions. Unit Universi-
ties provide direct access to Train-
ing and Doctrine Command ap-              ment with an upload capabil-
proved military occupational skill        ity for Soldiers to upload local
training, downloadable training           and unit developed training
products (computer-based training,        content to share across the
simulators, interactive multimedia        Regiment.
instruction products), and current              Examples of training
links to other available training         content that can be immedi-
sites.                                    ately loaded onto a Unit
                                          University range from typical
What kind of training is available?       25B tasks in Information Technology     sixty units with more than 3,000
      Unit Universities provide           and networking to installing,           registered Soldiers receiving Signal
training staff and Soldiers with          operating and maintaining a Joint       training via their own customized
direct access to the same course          Network Node. All training              Unit University. Unit University
training materials, presentations and     content posted comes from resident      sizes range from brigades to squads.
documents used in the Signal              course programs of instruction at       In total, more than 7,500 Soldiers
Center’s resident school training         Fort Gordon. In addition to the         use the LandWarNet-e-University
environment. Also available to your       training content developed by Fort      training portals each month for
Unit University is the LWNeU-             Gordon, the LLC staff can link your     training.
                                                       Unit University directly         7th Signal Company RTO
                                                       to the most current        Academy, LSA Adder, Iraq – use
                                                       sources of training for    their Unit University to teach critical
                                                       Battle Command             tasks on radio and maneuver control
                                                       Systems such as ABCS,      and tracking systems to newly
                                                       ASAS, BCS3 and CPOF,       deployed Soldiers in Iraq.
                                                                   as well as,          Recent Unit University addi-
                                                                                  tions to the LWN-eU Extension
                                                                                  Campus include: XVIII Airborne
                                                                                  Corps, 11th Signal Brigade, 316th
                                                                                  Sustainment Command (Exp), 4th
                                                                                  ID, 295th Signal Network Support
                                                                                  Company, 501st Sustainment
                                                                                  Brigade(Korea), 3rd Infantry Divi-
                                                                                  sion G-6 (Iraq), C Company 1st BCT
                                                                                  10th Mountain Division, and the 7th
                                                                                  Signal Company RTO Academy,
                                                                                  LSA Adder, Iraq.
Signal knowledge repository,                                                            Unit Universities can deliver
which is a current collection of                                                  training that cannot be obtained
over 600 downloadable products                                                    locally to forces in Army Force
organized in 47 separate learning         Logistics Information Systems that      Generation reset, sustainment, or
areas including 32 high-end simula-       include MTS, PBUSE, SAAS-MOD,           deployed in Theaters of Operation.
tors, 100 CBT products, also signal       and SAMS-E.                             Individual Soldiers with a valid
technical and professional docu-                                                  Army Knowledge Online account
ments, presentations and manuals.         Who’s using the LandWarNet              can access their Unit University
The LWNeU-Signal knowledge                Portals and Unit Universities?          anywhere they can connect to the
repository also provides the Regi-             Currently there are more than      Internet.
70   Spring 2008
                                          Force Generation                                 Fielded: FEB 06
Can you add locally created unit                 Interactive multimedia instruc-   11.     Target Audience 25N
training to your Unit University?         tion greatly enhances and standard-              JNN (S1)
      Yes, many units also use their      izes instruction for AC and RC units             Fielded: OCT 05
Unit Universities to host unit            throughout the Force when self                   Target Audience 25N
created training, information briefs      development, sustainment, refresher              BN-CPN (S1)
and command briefs.                       and remedial training are conducted.             Fielded: OCT 05
                                          The following Virtual/PC Based                   Target Audience 25B
How long does it take to build a          Simulators are available or will be      12.     KU (S1)
Unit University page for my unit?         made available via LandWarNet eU                 Fielded: OCT 05
      Your Unit University can be         (https://lwn.army.mil) and                       Target Audience 25Q
fully loaded with training and            LandWarnet eU Signal (https://           13.     DTOC
operational within three days.            lwneusignal.army.mil) web portals to             Fielded: OCT 05
                                          facilitate communications equipment              Target Audience 25B
Five reasons why your unit needs a        operations training:                     14.     TIMS (ISYSCON)
Unit University:                                                                           Fielded: OCT 05
      1. Availability: The training is    FIELDED SIMS                                     Target Audience 25B
available to your unit and Soldiers       1.    Phoenix Upgrades (Alpha            15.     HCLOS
regardless of their location. Soldiers          Version)                                   Fielded OCT 05
can train at home station, in a theater         Fielded: JAN 08                            Target Audience 25Q
of operations, at their residence, or           Target Audience 25S                16.     GSC-52
anywhere there is access to the           2.    Phoenix Upgrades (Bravo                    Fielded: JAN 04
internet.                                       Version)                                   Target Audience 25S
      2. Training cost reduction: No            Fielded: JAN 08                    17.     BSN
need to spend manpower or funds to              Target Audience 25S                        Fielded: OCT 04
stand up and manage a separate            3.    JNN Upgrades (Spiral 5-7)                  Target Audience 25F, Q, P
Information Technology training                 Fielded: DEC 07                    18.     FBCB2
system for your unit – there are no             Target Audience 25N                        Fielded: OCT 03
unit costs for LandWarNet                       STT Upgrades (Spiral 5-7)                  Target Audience 25U
eUniversity unit universities.                  Fielded: DEC 07                    19.     TRC-173
      3. Reduction in training            4.    Target Audience 25Q, 25S                   Fielded: NOV 01
planning time: Fort Gordon LLC Staff            CPN Upgrades (Spiral 5-7)                  Target Audience 25P, Q
locates, organizes and loads your               Fielded: DEC 07
unit’s requested training content. Unit         Target Audience 25B                      For more information on the
Universities allow your training staff    5.    Baseband Upgrades (Spiral          status of virtual/PC based simulator
to focus on training the unit – not on          5-7)                               training products, contact MAJ Chuck
how/where to get training material.             Fielded: DEC 07                    Dugle, chief, Simulations Branch at DSN
      4. Unit training status monitor-          Target Audience 25N                780-8681 or commercial at (706) 791-
ing: Blackboard LCMS features             6.    JNN Upgrades Lot 9 (Spiral         8681.
provide commanders and training                 8)
managers the tools and ability to               Fielded: DEC 07                          ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
monitor, track, and assess training at          Target Audience 25N, 25 B
the unit or individual Soldier level.     7.    CPN Upgrades Lot 9 (Spiral           ABCS – Army Battle Command Sys-
      5. Relevant training: Unit                8)                                   tem
universities give units and Soldiers a          Fielded: DEC 07                      ARFORGEN – Army Force Genera-
single location to access the most up           Target Audience 25B                  tion
to date training developed by the         8.    Baseband Upgrades Lot 9              ASAS - All Source Analysis Sytem
                                                                                     BCKS – Battle Command Knowl-
Signal Center and the Joint Signal              (Spiral 8)
                                                                                     edge System
community.                                      Fielded: DEC 07                      BCS3 – Battle Command Support
      To find out more information or           Target Audience 25N                  Sustainment System
to request a Unit University, contact     9.    85/93                                CBT – Computer-based Training
Clark Solomon, LWN-eU Signal                    Fielded: APR 07                      CPOF – Command Post of the Fu-
Extension Campus coordinator,                   Target Audience 25B, C, F,           ture
clark.solomon@us.army.mil, DSN                  L, P, Q, S, U, W, 250N,              dL – distributed Learning
                                                                                     FBCB2 – Force XXI Battle Com-
780-2571 or commercial (706) 791-               251A, 53A, 25A, LT/CPT               mand, Brigade-and-Below
2571.                                     10.   SATCOM Hub (Spiral 5-7)              LLC – Lifelong Learning Center
                                                Fielded: MAR 07                      LWN – LandWarNet
                                                Target Audience 25S                  LWN-eU – LandWarNet eUniversity
State-of-the-art support for Army               Baseband Hub (S 2-4)                 MTS – Movement Tracking System

                                                                                   Army Communicator                   71
Doctrine update
Updates in Signal doctrine from Directorate of Combat Developments, Army Signal Center, Fort Gordon, Ga.



FM 6-02.43, SIGNAL                               technological advances and organi-                  organic communications and net-
                                                 zational restructuring, signal doc-                 work capabilities or receive support
LEADERS GUIDE                                    trine must remain relevant, respon-                 from pooled signal theater assets.
By Roger Spears                                  sive and flexible. In order to meet                 This means that each modular
                                                 this goal the Regiment has revised                  brigade combat team will have its
       FM 6-02.43, Signal Leaders                the scope of several doctrinal                      own organic signal company for
Guide                                            products.                                           support.
       As the Army evolves into a                      A critical doctrinal reference                      With the elimination of a signal
task-organized modular fighting                  for all signal leaders at every echelon             battalion structure, the G-6 and S-6
force, with the latest technological             will be FM 6-02.43, Signal Leaders                  now become the focal point for
capabilities to fight on arrival while           Guide, which is near completion.                    signal support requirements. FM 6-
leveraging joint and coalition capa-             This manual was traditionally                       02.43, Signal Leaders Guide, will
bilities to win conflicts, our emerging          targeted to the junior signal officers              address the challenges these changes
joint, Army and signal doctrine must             and non-commissioned officers, but                  pose as the G-6 and S-6 organiza-
also evolve and remain relevant to a             with the latest revision the content                tions are restructured to support the
force that will continue to transform            has been scoped into a comprehen-                   modular construct, as well as, the
over the next decade.                            sive guide for all signal Soldiers who              responsibilities and coordination
       The Army’s transformation into            will reflect the modular require-                   now required for LandWarNet
a modular fighting force presents                ments and capabilities of the entire                employment. This FM will also
new challenges for signal organiza-              Signal Regiment. FM 6-02.43 will                    outline the roles of the signal com-
tional structure and the Soldiers                incorporate parts of FMI 6-02.45,                   pany commander and support
responsible for supporting it.                   Signal Support to Theater Operations,               personnel in relation to the G-6 and
       Army doctrine development                 and draft FMI 6-02.50, LandWarNet                   S-6.
has undergone a major transforma-                Operations: Corps and Below, to                           When WIN-T Increment 1 is
tion as lessons learned, observations            provide an all encompassing guide                   fully fielded approximately 45
and feedback from Soldiers help                  for signal leaders and Soldiers.                    percent of deploying units will not
refine and update signal publica-                      FM 6-02.43 will address the                   have organic communications.
tions. The recently published FM 3-0             Army’s portion of the Global Infor-                 These units will be supported from
(Operations) and FMI 3-0.1 (The                  mation Grid, LandWarNet, and key                    pooled theater assets and will impact
Modular Force) have codified this                roles and responsibilities that are                 operations at all levels as units are
new doctrine and unit structure at               critical to signal Soldiers at all                  attached to modular headquarters as
the Army level.                                  echelons of employment.                             the mission dictates. For instance,
        Signal doctrine must also                      Tactical networks are no longer               elements of a theater functional
capture the new signal modular                   separate from the strategic structure               brigade, which do not have organic
organization structure and the                   as the systems employed at the                      communications may, be attached to
employment of new enhanced signal                tactical level rely on strategic                    a division or corps for an operational
equipment and network capabilities.              network connectivity to operate                     mission.
       The Signal Regiment must                  effectively during all phases of                          This would entail signal
ensure the Army modular force has                operations. FM 6-02.43 will cover                   support from theater signal forces
the capability enhancements for the              signal support and the signal leader                requiring coordination between the
Army LandWarNet and remain                       roles and responsibilities at all                   supported unit G-6 or S-6 and the
focused on enabling Soldiers from                echelons from theater to the maneu-                 supporting signal unit S-3. FM 6-
the “first tactical mile” all the way            ver battalion S-6.                                  02.43 will address this strategic
back to the operational base. The                      The designation of the division               theater support structure to include
fielding of WIN-T increment 1,                   and corps as modular warfighting                    fixed regional hub nodes and
which provides the first enhanced                headquarters employing a tailored                   network service center-regional
capabilities required for                        force based on mission requirements                 elements and the impact these
LandWarNet, eliminated outmoded                  has downsized the traditional signal                elements have on the mission
communications systems and began                 battalion to a signal company                       planning at all levels as well as the
integrating emerging commercial                  supporting the division and corps                   advantages provided by strategic
and military technologies and                    headquarters elements. This tailored                forces and networks in support of
concepts.                                        modular force that makes up these                   the warfighter.
       In order to keep pace with the            corps and divisions will have its own                     FM 6-02.43 will reference
72   Spring 2008
commonly needed information on                   Organizations/TRADOC/Schools/                        Rick San Miguel, DSN 780-6506,
signal and retransmission site                   Signal Center/CRDD/Concepts &                        Commercial 706-791-6506
reconnaissance, signal input to the              Doctrine Branch/Doctrine Section
MDMP, considerations for electro-                portal at URL https://                                 Mr. Spears works for Janus
magnetic spectrum operations, and                www.us.army.mil/suite/                           Research Group, Inc. supporting the
an overview of fielded communica-                portal.do?$p=135039. (AKO                        Doctrine Section of the Signal Center’s
tions systems and network services               username and password required                   Capabilities Development and Integra-
and capabilities. The manual also                with CAC login).                                 tion Directorate. He is a retired Army
addresses C-E maintenance and                          We encourage you to contact                sergeant major with assignments
captures the impacts on maintenance              us and provide feedback on the                   including both echelons above and below
procedures and responsibilities as               doctrine products we are developing              corps signal units.
they relate to Army two-level                    to ensure that signal doctrine
maintenance policies.                            remains relevant during the transfor-
      FM 6-02.43 will be published in            mation process. As stated in past                    ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
the summer of 2008, along with                   articles, this effort is too large and
other doctrinal publications slated to           too important to be done in a                       AKO – Army Knowledge Online
be published during that same time.              vacuum. You can contact us via e-                   BCT – brigade combat team
      These publications will provide            mail at signal.doctrine@us.army.mil,                CAC – common access card
the foundation for relevant signal               or by phone.                                        C-E – communications and electron-
                                                                                                     ics
doctrine to fully support and adapt                    POCs for Signal Regiment                      FMI – field manual interim
with Army doctrine as the objective              Doctrine development are:                           MDMP – military decision making
force is reached.                                    Roger Spears, DSN 780-6506,                     process
      As we develop and refine our                   Commercial 706-791-6506                         WIN-T – Warfighter Information
products, they will be posted to the                 Rick Meredith, DSN 780-6465,                    Network-Tactical
Army Knowledge Online, U.S. Army                     Commercial 706-791-6465




TCM update
 Updates from Training and Doctrine Command capabilities managers for networks and services including satellite communications, tactical radio
 and Warfighter Information Network-Tactical




            TCM-Network & Services                                       Lot 9 activities:
                                                                               In December units reported incidents of water
WIN-T INCREMENT 1 UPDATE                                                 leakage into the electronic enclosure of the satellite
By Douglas Kuehl                                                         transportable trailer. Water leakage and temperature
                                                                         fluctuation caused moisture to condense onto the
      The Joint Network Node program is now called                       electronics and other surfaces within the electronic
Increment 1 of Warfighter Information Network-                           enclosure which cause a hazardous condition, but
Tactical. This change occurred in June 2007 as a result of               fortunately there were no injuries reported. The Incre-
the Department of Defense restructuring of the WIN-T                     ment 1 Product Manager and the contractor team
program. There are now four Increments of WIN-T.                         quickly developed a kit to stop the leakage. These kits
Increment 1 (former JNN) is structured to support the                    have been distributed and installed on the effected
maturing technology insertions from the WIN-T pro-                       systems.
gram.                                                                          In February the decision was made to field JNN
                                                                         systems to the Corps level. I Corps will receive three
Increment 1: Former JNN program – Networking At-                         Spiral 9 JNN systems and STTs during a June to August
The-Halt (Spiral 1 to Lot 9)                                             2008 training and fielding window.
Increment 1a: Extended Networking At-The-Halt (Lot                             The 146th Expeditionary Signal Battalion is the
10)                                                                      first National Guard unit to receive JNN systems. The
          The former JNN program with Ka military                        146th is currently involved in their training window
satellite communications capability                                      which is conducted from February to June. ESBs are
Increment 1b: Enhanced Networking ATH                                    fielded four JNN shelters, 24 Battalion Command Post
          This is LOT 10 (above) with the addition of the                Nodes, two Single Shelter Switches and 28 Satellite
Net Centric Waveform and Colorless Core Capability                       Transportable Trailers.

                                                                                                  Army Communicator                         73
                                                            Directorate of Training are coordinating the development
Lot 10 activities:                                          of an SKL plan of instruction to integrate into the courses
      In September 2007 the Lot 10 contract was             where fill devices are taught as a peripheral piece of
awarded to General Dynamics to build and field both         equipment.
the baseband and the SATCOM systems for the Army.                 SKL training is also available on LandWarNet e-
These Increment 1a systems include the Ka SATCOM            Univerity for unit universities.
upgrade and unit fieldings are scheduled from June                The AKMS local management device with key
2008 to December 2009.                                      processor will begin a transition to the Department of
      The first fielding of these Lot 10/Increment 1a       Defense Key Management Infrastructure beginning in
systems is to 5/2 ID (previously known as SBCT 7)           fiscal year 2010 timeframe. KMI was developed to
located at Fort Lewis. Their training and fielding          accommodate the products and services that are being
window is from June to September. Following this            developed under the DoD Cryptographic Modernization
fielding, the unit will receive an Operational Assessment   Initiative. The goal is to develop an integrated, consoli-
from the Army Test and Evaluation Command in late           dated, automated capability for requesting, producing,
September and will also participate in an Initial Opera-    delivering, and monitoring the status of all cryptographic
tional Test and Evaluation in October which will also       products and related information as needed to support
include elements of I Corps and 1st CAV DIV to ensure       the uniformed military services, the intelligence commu-
interoperability and operational effectiveness of this      nity, and civilian government agencies. KMI envisions an
system.                                                     evolutionary migration from the current labor intensive,
                                                            fragmented, and closed KM architecture to one that is
     Mr. Kuehl is with TCM-NS and supports WIN-T            highly automated, unified, and extensible. The target is
Increment 1.                                                to define a single framework for modernizing and
                                                            unifying the management of keys used to encode and
                                                            decode information for services and agencies. DoD KMI
ARMY KEY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 2008                             is a supporting infrastructure.
UPDATE                                                            KMI implementation is the steady rollout of capabil-
                                                            ity increments to deliver time-phased CIs toward end-
By Allen Walton or Allen Transou
                                                            state IA objectives consistent with the overarching Global
      The Army Key Management System is a fielded           Information Grid and Cryptographic Modernization
system composed of three sub-systems, Local Communi-        capability requirements.
cations Security Management Software, Automated                   KMI CI-2 will be the first increment in creating a
Communications Engineering Software, and the Data           single framework for modernizing and unifying the
Transfer Device with Common Tier 3 software. Product        management of keys used to encode and decode informa-
Manager Network Operations-Current Force has                tion for use by the DoD and civil agencies in war and
developed a DTD replacement, the Simple Key Loader          peacetime. KMI is a critical foundation element for
that is being fielded over a five-year plan FY05-FY10.      ensuring an adequate security posture for national
AKMS was fielded to the Army under the umbrella of          security systems by providing transparent cryptographic
the objective National Security Agency Electronic Key       capabilities consistent with operational imperatives and
Management System; the AKMS fielding has involved           mission environments. The starting point for KMI CI-2
several LCMS software upgrades. LCMS version 5.1 is         will be to leverage EKMS Phase V capabilities as a
currently ongoing testing along with the Common User        baseline. New capabilities have been identified and will
Application Software and the Common Loader User             aid in a transformation from the current key management
Application Software, which are software applications       infrastructure to a new paradigm for key management
that will ride on LCMS and provide the capability to        via net-enabled operations (e.g. over-the-net keying).
implement black key distribution.                                 As the developer of KMI, NSA is responsible for
      LCMS and ACES courses are two weeks in length         developing a KMI transition plan in partnership with the
and are available via the Army Training Requirements        Services. The transition plan delineates how each compo-
and Resources System. Both courses are under going          nent is be replaced, modified or sustained as the new
revision to accommodate software enhancements               capabilities of CI-2 become available.
required to support current and future acquisitions.              The CI-2 mission is to provide key provisioning
      Pilot testing is ongoing using 11 strategic and       services for Networked End Cryptographic Units.
tactical COMSEC accounts to validate the fielding of              In the CI-3 timeframe, the intention of the DoD Key
LCMS v5.1, CLUAS v5.1, and CUAS v5.1 versus LCMS            Management Infrastructure Program Office is to discon-
v5.03, CLUAS v5.03, or CUAS v5.03. ACES version 1.9         tinue the use of EKMS Tier 0 and Tier 1 operations once
is under development to support FBCB2/BFT require-          FOC for CI-3 is achieved (Beyond FY2015.)
ments.
      The SKL training is available through Interactive                TCM N&S points of conctact for AKMS and KMI
Multimedia Instruction, provided as part of the fielding    are Mr. Allen Walton or Mr. Allen Transou.
package. PdM NETOPS-CF and the Signal Center
74   Spring 2008
NETOPS UPDATE                                                WIN-T increments are developed.
By Wade Tate and Tori Carlile
                                                                   Mr. Tate and Tori Carlile are Analysts and Systems
       The Tactical Services Manager Capability Produc-      Integrators for TCM-NS.
tion Document was initiated 2nd quarter fiscal year
2008 to address a gap in providing the Warfighter            SERVICES MANAGER CAPABILITIES
service management functionality. The effort will
consolidate services management capabilities required        PRODUCTION DOCUMENT
to support Battle Command and Force XXI Battle                     The modernization of U.S. Army Forces with rapid
Command, Brigade-and-Below. TCM serves as an                 deployment of state-of-the-art communications net-
integrated service management system tailored to             works, information processing systems and the
simplify, streamline and consolidate tactical service        Warfighter’s ever increasing need for critical informa-
management and associated NetOps required to                 tion available only through direct access to remote, web-
establish, enable and maintain the changed modular           based distributed infrastructures has created a capabil-
field operations environment. TCM will manage net-           ity gap to monitor and actively manage these extremely
centric enterprise services, application interoperability,   technical networks, systems, processes and the associ-
infrastructure and network services to provide the full      ated applications which enable access to and the flow of
range of network-enabled service management capabili-        critically needed information.
ties across the LandWarNet to support Army opera-                  Through the Joint Capabilities Integration and
tions.                                                       Development System the TRADOC Capabilities Man-
       The TCM Networks and Services is in the process       ager for Networks and Services has begun developing a
of synchronizing and deconflicting Information Services      Services Manager Capabilities Production Document.
with Warfighter application and information services         The proposed Services Manager CPD was initiated in
requirements developers across TRADOC. Mobile                second quarter of fiscal year 2008 to address the gap of
Secriber Equipment and TRI-TAC, the network pro-             providing the warfighter with service management
vided only transport services. WIN-T provides trans-         functionality.
port services plus information services for the                    The effort will consolidate services management
Warfighter and his applications. The ongoing require-        capabilities required to support Battle Command and
ments synchronization and deconfliction is necessary to      Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade-and-Below, as well
prevent duplication in requirements efforts across           as, network information technology resources. The
TRADOC and materiel development efforts across               service manager will provide an integrated service
Army Security Agency (ALT).                                  management system tailored to simplify, streamline and
       The TCM just completed a crosswalk between the        consolidate tactical service management and associated
WIN-T Inc 2 CPD at the Department of the Army                network operations required establishing, enabling and
Headquarters level and the Maneuver Control System           maintaining the changed modular field operations
CPD at the Joint level. While no threshold requirements      environment.
could be modified in the MCS CPD due to completion                 The services manager will manage net-enanbled
of Joint Readiness Oversight Council staffing, some          enterprise services, application interoperability, infra-
additions and modifications were made to MCS Objec-          structure and network services to provide the full range
tive requirements. This change enables the MCS               of network-enabled service management capabilities
program to take advantage of WIN-T information               across the LandWarNet to support Army operations.
services as they become fielded capabilities in the
future.                                                            Mr. Righter is a Department of the Army Telecommu-
       The next requirements cross-walk slated to be         nications Specialist with TCM N&S directorate. He can be
conducted is between the WIN-T Inc 2 CPD and the             contacted by email at william.righter@us.army.mil or at
Mounted Battle Command on-the-Move CPD. These                TCM Networks and Services 791-2721.
two requirements documents define on-the-move
required capabilities for mobile warfighter platforms.
The requirements must be synchronized and
deconflicted to ensure the requirements captured in the
MBCOTM CPD take advantage of and do not duplicate
the network and IS requirements in the WIN-T Inc 2
CPD.
       The TCM Networks and Services requirements
cross-walk will be a continuing effort. The intent is to
synchronize and deconflict all network and IS require-
ments across the LandWarNet and Joint communities
with respect to the WIN-T Inc 2 CPD. Similar efforts
will take place in the future as the requirements for new

                                                                                  Army Communicator                     75
                 ACRONYM QUICKSCAN                                                      TCM-SNE
     ACES – Automated Communications Engineering Soft-            WGS LAUNCH USHERS IN NEW INFORMATION
     ware
     AKMS – Army Key Management System                            DOMINANCE ERA
     ASA (ALT) – Army Security Agency (ALT)                       By Frank Stein
     Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics
     and Technology                                                      The U.S. Air Force launched the first of a new
     ATEC – Army Test and Evaluation Command                      generation of military communication satellites Oct. 10,
     ATH – At-The-Halt                                            2007, when an Atlas V booster carried a Wideband
     BC – Battle Command                                          Global SATCOM satellite into space. WGS is a multi-
     BFT – Blue Force Tracking                                    service program that leverages commercial methods and
     BnCPN – Battalion Command Post Nodes
                                                                  technological advances in the satellite industry to
     CI – Capability Increments
     CMI – Cryptographic Modernization Initiative                 rapidly design, build, launch, and support a constella-
     COMSEC – Communications Security                             tion of highly capable military communications satel-
     CPD – Capabilities Production Document                       lites. The WGS system is composed of three principal
     CLUAS – Common Loader User Application Software              segments: space segment (satellites), control segment
     CT3 – Common Tier 3                                          (operators) and terminal segment (users).
     CUAS – Common User Application Software                             For the Army, as well as the other services, the
     DoD – Department of Defense
     DTD – Data Transfer Device
                                                                  WGS satellite will provide a quantum leap in communi-
     ECU – End Cryptographic Unit                                 cations bandwidth. It will augment and eventually
     ESB – Expeditionary Signal Battalion                         replace the aging Defense Satellite Communication
     EKMS – Electronic Key Management System                      System which has been the Department of Defense’s
     FBCB2 – Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade-and-Below          backbone for satellite communications over the last two
     FOC – Full Operational Capability                            decades. It will also replace the one-way Ka-band
     FY – fiscal year                                             service provided by the Global Broadcast Service.
     GIG – Global Information Grid
     IA – Information Assurance                                   Additionally, WGS will provide a new two-way Ka-
     ID – Infantry Division                                       band service.
     IOTE – Intial Operational Test and Evaluation                       With its first launch into geosynchronous orbit in
     IS – Information Services                                    2007, WGS became the DoD’s highest capacity commu-
     JCIDS – Joint Capabilities Integration and Development       nications satellite. A constellation of five WGS satellites
     System                                                       will provide service in both the X and Ka-band fre-
     JNN – Joint Network Node
                                                                  quency spectrums. The second and third WGS satellites
     JROC – Joint Required Operational Capability
     KM – Key Management                                          are planned for launch later in 2008. Both the Delta IV
     KMI – Key Management Infrastructure                          and Atlas V Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles will
     LCMS – Local COMSEC Management Software                      be used to boost the satellites to the correct orbit. Satel-
     MBCOTM – Mounted Battle Command On-the-Move                  lites 4 and 5 are anticipated for launch in 2011 and 2012.
     MCS – Maneuver Control System                                       These digitally channelized transponded satellites
     MSE – mobile subscriber equipment                            provide communications capacity, connectivity and
     NCES – net-centric enterprise services
     NSA – National Security Agency
                                                                  flexibility for United States military forces, while main-
     OA – Operational Awareness                                   taining interoperability with existing and programmed
     OTNK – Over-The-Net Keying                                   X- and Ka-band terminals. WGS will provide essential
     PM NETOPS-CF – Product Manager Network Operations-           communications services for combatant commanders to
     Current Force                                                command and control their tactical forces. Tactical forces
     QFY – quarterly fiscal year                                  will rely on WGS to provide high-capacity connectivity
     SATCOM – satellite communications                            into the terrestrial portion of the Defense Information
     SKL – Simple Key Loader
     SSS – Single Shelter Switches                                Systems Network.
     STT – Satellite Transportable Trailer
     TCM N&S – TRADOC Capabilities Manager for Networks           WGS satellite general characteristics:
     and Services                                                   Primary Function: High-capacity military communi-
     TRADOC – Training and Doctrine Command                         cations satellite
     TRI-TAC – Tri Service-Tactical                                 Primary Contractor: Boeing Satellite Systems
     TSM – Tactical Services Manager
                                                                    Satellite Bus: Boeing 702
     U.S. – United States
     WIN-T – Warfighter Information Network–Tactical                Weight: Approximately 13,000 lbs at launch, 7,600
                                                                    lbs on-orbit
                                                                    Orbit altitude: 22,300 miles
                                                                    Payload: Transponded, cross-banded-X and Ka-
                                                                    band communications suite
                                                                    Antennas: eight beam, transmit and receive X-band

76      Spring 2008
                                                                Army                                 Army/Signal History




                                                                forefather’s
                                                                lessons help
                                                                shape
                                                                organization’s
                                                                future
The U.S. Air Force launched the first of a new generation
                                                                By Josh Davidson
of military communication satellites, the Wideband
Global SATCOM satellite, into space Oct. 10, 2007.                     Before making key decisions on the future of the
                                                                Program Executive Office for command, control, and
    Phased arrays and 10 Ka-band Gimbaled Dish                  communications-tactical, the Program Executive Office’s
    Antennas, one X-band Earth coverage                         management examined the Army’s beginnings at the site
    Capability: 39 125-MHz Channels via digital                 of a significant turning point of the Revolutionary War.
    channelizer/router                                                 On Nov. 12, 2007, they prepared for a staff ride that
    Launch vehicle: Delta IV and Atlas V EELVs                  would take place the next day at the site of the Battle of
    Inventory: three on contract, two more planned              Saratoga, N.Y. The battle concluded with the surrender
    Unit Cost: Approximately $300 million                       of British GEN John Burgoyne on Oct. 17, 1777.
                                                                        “Our behavior and expectations are founded in
                                                                this period of time,” BG Nick Justice, the PEO for C3T,
     Editor’s note: The MILSATCOM Systems Wing,                 told his staff during the preparations. “Even further
Space, and Missile Systems Center at Los Angeles Air            back, they’re founded in the British military.”
Force Base, Calif., is responsible for development,                    Justice asked the leaders to focus on the dynamics
acquisition, and sustainment of the WGS Program and             of the battle during the staff ride and reflect upon the
contributed to this article.                                    manner in which the battlefield actions played out. He
                                                                also requested that they examine the way actions play
      Mr. Stein is a contractor for DRS Technologies support-   out in their programs and today’s Army, as it transforms
ing Program Manager Defense Communications ans Army             its forces to modularity.
Transmission Systems and TRADOC Capabilities Manager                   Modularity is a major restructuring of the entire
SATCOM and Network Enterprise.                                  Army, involving the creation of brigade combat teams
                                                                that will have a common design and will increase the
               ACRONYM QUICKSCAN                                pool of available units for deployment.
                                                                       “I think it’s tremendously valuable for us to look
   DISN – Defense Information Systems Network                   around us and value the process that our forefathers
   DSCS – Defense Satellite Communication System                went through,” he said. “(And ask ourselves) is there a
   DSP – digital signal processor
                                                                parallel with things that happened out here to the things
   EELV – Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles
   GBS – Global Broadcast Service                               that I am experiencing today? Especially, the complexity,
   MILSATCOM – Military Satellite Communications                ambiguity and just the lack of certainty of what took
   PM DCATS – Program Manager Defense Communications            place (during the Battle of Saratoga).”
   and Army Transmission Systems                                       The PEO command, control - tactical’s systems
   RAS – Remote Access System                                   provide ways for the commander to plan his actions and
   TCM SNE – TRADOC Capabilities Manager Satellite Com-         the warfighter to coordinate logistics, track friendly
   munications and Network Enterprise-Training and Doc-
                                                                Soldiers’ movements through Global Positioning Sys-
   trine Command
   UA – Unauthorized Access                                     tems and plan fires. It also has provided support during
   U.S. – United States                                         domestic natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina.
   WGS – Wideband Global SATCOM                                         COL (Ret.) James Johnson, who led the staff ride,
   WGSMS – Wideband Global Spectrum Monitoring System           identified its main focal points as terrain, leadership,
   WSOC – Wideband SATCOM Operations Centers                    interpersonal relations, along with the outcome that
                                                                                    Army Communicator                    77
occurs when competing leaders have        need to change what we’re doing,”
differing opinions about the same         Johnson told the PEO C3T leaders.              Mr. Davidson is a writer for
organization.                             “Then, maybe you’ll get some              Symbolic Systems Inc., Team C4ISR
       “If we do our jobs out there,      insight into what this new book is        KC, Fort Monmouth, N.J.
we’re not going to be talking about       about in terms of good judgment.”
history as much as we’re going to be             Johnson also referenced lessons
talking about something that just         LTG (Ret.) Harold G. Moore passed
keyed in your head; that’s going to       on to his cadets. During the Vietnam          ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
help you understand what you’re           War, Moore was U.S. Army officer in
trying to do,” Johnson said. “In the      command of American forces at the           PAVN – People’s Army of Vietnam
discussion, we can talk about history     Battle of Ia Drang. This was one of         PEO C3T – Program Executive Of-
for a while, but then I want you to       the war’s first major battles between       fice for Command, Control and Com-
start thinking and making analogies       the U.S. Army and the People’s              munications Tactical
and drawing parallels to things that      Army of Vietnam. Moore’s son, COL
are of interest to you.”                  David Moore, who is assigned to the
       Those would be developed           PEO C3T, as Project Manager for
further during an after action review     Battle Command, was in Iraq when
and subsequent meetings, he said.         the staff ride took place. Moore’s
       “If this is going to be a staff    lessons included these four aspects
ride and not a tour, then you have to     that a commander should think
play your roles,” he said.                about during battle.
       A staff ride first involves               · Trust your instincts;
touring the site of a major battle.              · Three strikes and you’re not
After that, its participants are asked    out. “This isn’t baseball,” Johnson
to talk about the battle’s plans,         explained. “This can be changed. In
orders, events, decisions, and            other words, there is something else
individuals. They also assume the         you can do to improve the situation
persona of one of the battle’s pri-       and then there’s something else you
mary participants.                        can do to improve the situation.”
       If the staff ride’s participants          · When nothing seems to be
don’t have a stake in the process,        happening, it doesn’t mean that
Johnson said his role becomes             nothing is happening;
downgraded to that of a historian                · Take a moment for quiet
pointing out significant areas of the     reflection.
battle site.                                     Johnson compared some of
       To further prepare the staff,      Moore’s principles to those of the
Johnson illustrated proper methods        Saratoga commanders.
of decision making, by referring to              “You’re going to see that these
the book Judgment: How Winning            officers (at Saratoga) believed that
Leaders Make Great Calls by Noel          they should lead by example, which
Tichy and Warren Bennis.                  put them at high risk,” Johnson said.
       Johnson, the executive director           A portion of leadership in-
of the Hudson River Valley Institute      volves management, but it mainly is
of Marist College, Poughkeepsie,          the way someone influences their
N.Y., told the leaders numerous           staff to perform necessary tasks, he
judgment calls would be evident           said.
during the Saratoga campaign.                    Aside from organizational
       Some of the corporate execu-       issues, Johnson told the leaders to
tive officers sourced in the book         think about tactical aspects of the
identified their own instances of bad     staff ride, since they support
judgment as those where they              warfighters in battlefield campaigns.
misjudged cases during which their        He hoped to provide them with
subordinates were involved with an        insight into terrain, tactical forma-
inept or unethical action.                tions and the orchestration of three
       “Think about judgment here         simultaneous attacks coordinated by
(during the battle) and see who is        cannon fire.
willing to make course corrections               The PEO C3T held its first staff
and who’s prepared to say some-           ride in August at New Jersey’s
thing is not quite going right, we        Monmouth Battlefield State Park.
78   Spring 2008
Self-development,
professional reading
By LTC Kristin A. Ellis                                                                    “[Patton] has been celebrated
                                                                                     as a highly energized and profane
       “Crossing the Plains on an       ...Self-development,                         man of action – a doer rather than a
expedition to Utah [in the 1850s],
MAJ Charles A. May searched the
                                        consisting of individual                     thinker, many said. But he left
                                        study, research,                             behind the most complete record of
wagons in an effort to reduce
                                                                                     exhaustive professional study of
unnecessary baggage. When he            professional reading ... is                  any World War II general – or any
reached the wagons of the light
artillery battery, CPT Henry J. Hunt consistent with an
                                                                                     general in American history, for
                                                                                     that matter. ... Patton acquired and
proudly pointed out the box             officer’s personal self-                     used a military library for almost
containing the battery library.         development action plan                      daily study of his profession and
‘Books?’ May exclaimed in aston-
ishment. ‘You say books? Whoever and professional goals.
                                                                                     [employed a] system of marginal
                                                                                     notes and file cards to develop his
heard of books being hauled over        Self-development is the                      thinking about tactics, strategy,
the Plains? What in the hell are you
going to do with them?’. At that
                                        key aspect of individual                     leadership, and military organiza-
                                                                                     tion. Those thoughts were ex-
moment CPT Campbell of the              officer qualification that                   pressed in a stream of lectures, staff
Dragoons came up and asked              solidifies the Army leader                   papers, and journal articles, and
permission to carry a barrel of
whiskey. ‘Yes, anything in reason, development process.”
                                                                                     also in diaries, poetry, and finally in
                                                                                     a classic book, ‘War As I Knew It’”.
captain. You can take along the
                                               -- Chapter 2 of DA Pamphlet                 Chapter 2 of DA Pamphlet
whiskey, but damned if these books
                                        600-3 Commissioned Officer                   600-3 Commissioned Officer Profes-
shall go’.” - William Skelton, “An
                                        Professional Development and                 sional Development and Career
American Profession of Arms: The
                                        Career Management                            Management states:
Army Officer Corps, 1784-1861”
                                                                                           “Learning is a lifelong pro-
       LTG Paul K. Van Riper is a
                                                                                     cess. Institutional training and
retired Marine. Van Riper served in both Vietnam and
                                                              operational assignments alone do not ensure that Army
Desert Storm, and his personal decorations include the
                                                              officers attain and sustain the degree of competency
Silver Star with gold star, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star
                                                              needed to perform their varied missions. The profession
with “V” device, Purple Heart, and the Combat Action
                                                              of arms requires comprehensive self-study and training.
Ribbon with gold star. He is also a graduate of the U.S.
                                                              Leaders must commit to a lifetime of professional and
Army’s Airborne and Ranger Schools. Van Riper is a
                                                              personal growth to stay at the cutting edge of their
steely-eyed killer.
                                                              profession ... Every officer is responsible for his or her
       As the division commander of 18,000 Marines, Van
                                                              own self-development. Self-development programs
Riper issued the following memorandum:
                                                              include activities that stretch the individual beyond the
       “The professional reading program is a key part of
                                                              demands of on-the-job or institutional training. Self-
the continuous professional development that is neces-
                                                              development, consisting of individual study, research,
sary to develop the minds of our Marines … just as we
                                                              professional reading ... is consistent with an officer’s
expect our Marines to maintain their physical fitness, so
                                                              personal self-development action plan and professional
should we expect them to maintain their mental fitness
                                                              goals. Self-development is the key aspect of individual
through a career-long professional reading program.”
                                                              officer qualification that solidifies the Army leader
       Van Riper has also observed that:
                                                              development process.”
       “The primary ‘weapon’ that officers possess
                                                                    So, in summary, self-development solidifies the
remains their minds … books provide the ‘ammunition’
                                                              Army leader development process, professional reading
for that weapon.”
                                                              is a key aspect of the self-development process, and
       Van Riper is a steely-eyed killer with a book tucked
                                                              professional reading must be continuous, systematic, and
under his arm. He is warrior born of two main influ-
                                                              conducted over a considerable period of time.
ences; the violent existence of a Marine tempered by the
                                                                    There are dozens of great reading lists to help you
wisdom of a historian.
                                                              approach professional reading systematically.
       Roger Nye in his incisive study “The Patton Mind”
                                                                    The Chief of Staff of the Army has a reading list.
(1993), writes:
                                                                                    Army Communicator                    79
Senator Ike Skelton has a reading list. The Commandant
of the Marine Corps has a reading list (an especially                Do you want to understand the war in Iraq without
great reading list, because it starts with the E1 ... Semper   actually reading about Operation Iraqi Freedom?
Fi).                                                           Thomas E. Ricks, the author of “Fiasco: The American
                                                               Military Adventure in Iraq” has a Reading List. Ricks’
     http://www.history.army.mil/reference/                    “reading list” even includes a bonus DVD. And yes,
CSAList/CSAList.htm                                            movies should be part of your reading program: if you
     http://www.house.gov/skelton/                             have never seen Leni Riefenstahl’s 1935 movie “Triumph
book_list_summaries.pdf                                        of the Will” (“Triumph des Willens”), then watch it
     http://www.mcu.usmc.mil/ProDev/                           tomorrow.
ProfReadingPgm.htm
                                                                    http://www.amazon.com/gp/richpub/
      The Commander of the Combined Arms Center,               syltguides/fullview/6PMKABCX1QEX/
LTG William B. Caldwell, has three subject-specific
Reading Lists: one on Counterinsurgency, one on                      If you don’t think you have the time for profes-
Jihadism/ Militant Islam, and one on Cultural Aware-           sional reading, then you don’t. As George Orwell said,
ness. Many of these works can be downloaded.                   “the quickest way of ending a war is to lose it, and if one
                                                               finds the prospect of a long war intolerable, it is natural
      http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/                 to disbelieve in the possibility of victory”. Start now.
biblio/CAC_counterinsurgency.asp                                     “Read to Think; Think to Fight; Fight to Win” - the
      http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/                 U.S. Marine Corps.
biblio/CAC_militant.asp                                              “There is no excuse for any literate person to be
      http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/                 less than three-thousand years old in his or her mind.” -
biblio/CAC_cultural.asp                                        B. H. Liddell Hart, “Why We Don’t Learn From History”
                                                               (London, 1946)
     Are you deploying to Iraq or Afghanistan?
                                                                     LTC Kris Ellis is the commander of the 442nd Signal
     http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/re-                 Battalion.
sources/biblio/3acrart.asp
     http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/re-                               ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
sources/biblio/deploylist.asp
     http://www.smallwarsjournal.com/documents/                  CAC – Combined Arms Center
usmccoinreadinglist.pdf                                          U.S. – United States




80   Spring 2008
     The
                unseen
                warriors
By Gordon Van Vleet
                                           Army’s Combat Camera
                                           preservation of the actions.             A rare photo of the photographer,
                                                   “The 55th is the only active     as SGT Johnny Aragon, 55th Signal
       If you have ever seen video
                                           duty Combat Camera unit in the           Company       combat     camera
and still photos of America’s Army                                                  documenter, during a patrol in
                                           U.S. Army, making it one of the
in action while watching the nightly                                                Afghanistan while attached to
                                           lowest density and most unique
news, or while watching one of the                                                  Combined Joint Task Force - 82.
                                           units in the Army,” Reeves said.
many documentaries containing
                                           “As the company continues to grow,
archive combat footage on television
                                           it is transforming and integrating
today, then you most likely have
                                           High Definition equipment which
seen some of the extraordinary video                                                leaders while we suffered no casual-
                                           will increase and enhance the unit’s
and photos taken by one of the                                                      ties.”
                                           abilities.”
United States Army’s unseen front-                                                         Aragon, who has been in
                                                   Not only does the company
line warriors, the combat camera                                                    Southwest Asia 23 months out of the
                                           have a unique mission, it also has a
Soldier.                                                                            four years he has been with the 55th,
                                           dangerous mission. Since 2003, the
       Under the operational control                                                said joining a new unit as a combat
                                           unit has had five of its members
of the 21st Signal Brigade - the 55th                                               cameraman isn’t always easy.
                                           awarded the Purple Heart, and more
Signal Company (Combat Camera),                                                            “Embedding into a new unit
                                           than 30 Soldiers received the Bronze
located at Fort Meade Md., is the                                                   that has never worked with combat
                                           Star.”
only active duty Combat Camera                                                      camera before can be difficult
                                                   “Our cameramen are deploy-
company in the Army.                                                                sometimes because I have very little
                                           ing on missions everyday out of
       The photo documentation                                                      time to prove myself. However,
                                           forward operating bases and combat
mission of the 55th stretches back                                                  once they see that I am an asset on
                                           outposts that put them in harm’s
more than 125 years. Since the                                                      the battlefield as well as a
                                           way,” said Reeves. “Most of our
1880s, the Signal Corps has been                                                    documenter, I become one of their
                                           cameramen currently deployed in
taking photos for the Army. Then, in                                                own.”
                                           Operation Iraqi Freedom and
1917, the Army Signal Corps estab-                                                         Another combat camera
                                           Operation Enduring Freedom have
lished a Photographic Section                                                       Soldier, SGT Billy Brothers said
                                           earned a Combat Action Badge in
responsible for both ground and                                                     every combat cameraman is a
                                           their first month for being closest to
aerial photography.                                                                 Soldier first.
                                           the action.”
       Today, the mission of the 55th                                                      “Our job can be just as danger-
                                                   Although the company only
is to provide tactical visual informa-                                              ous as the Soldiers on patrol because
                                           has about 180 Soldiers assigned, it
tion support for operational and                                                    we are out their with them, we feel
                                           isn’t hard to find one who has been
contingency missions in support of                                                  the heat in Iraq with them, we feel
                                           in the thick of the fight.
the Department of the Army, the                                                     the cold in Afghanistan with them,
                                                   “There have been times when I
Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Office of the                                            we are with them when they go out,
                                           found myself in very hot situations
Secretary of Defense, and Army and                                                  and we are with them when they
                                           and had to ensure that I maintained
Unified Commands.                                                                   head back to the forward operating
                                           situational awareness and contrib-
       “In short, the mission of the                                                base.”
                                           uted to the fight,” said SGT Johnny
55th is to provide directed imagery                                                        The one thing about combat
                                           Aragon, team leader. “The most
that supports the decision making                                                   camera is their job is only half
                                           recent was when the platoon that I
from the strategic level through the                                                finished when the patrol is over.
                                           was with got in a fire fight and we
combatant commanders down to the                                                           “When you are done with the
                                           were soon surrounded. We had to
tactical level,” said MAJ Donald W.                                                 mission, unlike a lot of other Soldiers
                                           fight our way through to higher
Reeves, 55th Signal Company                                                         out there, you still have a lot of
                                           ground, so that we could secure our
commander,. “The 55th also has the                                                  digital work to do,” said Brothers,
                                           objective. We completed our
mission to document all types of                                                    who has been a combat cameraman
                                           mission taking out two Taliban
operations and events for historical
                                                                                    Army Communicator                   81
                                                                                             Combat         Camera
                                                                                             NCOIC SSG Tyffani
                                                                                             Davis shows her most
                                                                                             recent digital photo to
                                                                                             a group of children
                                                                                             during her work with
                                                                                             the Combined Joint
                                                                                             Task Force – 82 in
                                                                                             Afghanistan.




since November 2005. “Sometimes        a multitude of situations based on       has to have the maturity to interact
when you do a lot of missions, you     the wide-range of missions that we       in most cases with senior military
rarely have free time to just relax    support. Our Soldiers have to be         officers and coalition partners.”
and chill out. You get back from a     ready to react to any situation in any         America’s Army will continue
mission and then you almost spend      environment; therefore, our training     to have boots on the ground wher-
that same amount of time in front of   requirements are very broad.             ever they are needed, from combat
your laptop, it can get stressful             “Our Soldiers are continuously    operations in Iraq and Afghanistan,
mentally.”                             enhancing and refining their docu-       to humanitarian and missions at
      Not only do 55th Soldiers        mentary abilities while keeping up       home and abroad.
support combat operations, they also   with technological advancements,”              And, as long as there is a need
support humanitarian missions.         Shirley said. “Not only do our           to take photos or video to help meet
      “The 55th Signal Company         Soldiers attend advanced technical       mission objectives, or for preserving
stands ready to deploy to provide      training at the Defense Information      historical actions and acts, then
combat camera support for any other    School and Syracuse University, they     Army’s combat cameramen will be
disaster world-wide, to include        are also trained on how to use a         the Army Strong Soldiers, with their
earthquakes, fires, floods, and        multitude of weapons including the       boots on the ground, who meet that
hurricanes, such as Katrina and        M16, M4, M9, M240B, M203 and MK          need.
Rita,” said MSG Samantha Shirley,      19.”
55th Signal Company first sergeant.           It takes an extremely dedicated   Mr. Van Vleet is withthe Public
“The last humanitarian mission we      and intelligent Soldier to be a          Affairs Office at Network Enterprise
supported was in Bolivia in March      Combat Cameraman, Reeves said.           Technology Command/9th Signal
2007 after heavy rains caused major           “Many of our cameramen and        Command, Fort Huachca, Ariz.
flooding throughout the country.       women already possess bachelor’s
We sent a two-person team to           degrees and many are working
document the disaster and the          toward master’s degrees in their
subsequent relief efforts.”            field.
                                                                                    ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
      Shirley believes training is a          “A combat cameraman has to
                                                                                   OEF – Operation Enduring Free-
big part of being a combat camera-     have the maturity to be able to not         dom
man.                                   only work independently of others           OIF – Operation Iraqi Freedom
      “Combat camera Soldiers face     with minimal supervision but also


82   Spring 2008
Baghdad Signal University
graduates Iraqi army Soldiers
By SGT Lewis M. Hilburn
       Camp Victory, IRAQ - Three
students sit in a classroom learning
basic networking. They are working
towards the result of graduating
from the course. Graduation was
only five days away; however, this
was day one of the course.
       The Baghdad Signal University
run by Task Force Thunderbird,
offers five day courses in basic
networking, advanced networking,
fiber, very small aperture terminal,
server administration and A plus
certification, according to SFC Juan
Rodriguez, noncommissioned officer
in charge of the university.
       “The goal of the Baghdad
Signal University is to provide
theater personnel a training opportu-
nity to enable a more proficient
execution of the mission,” he ex-
plained. He went on to say the
university is a catalyst in providing
supplemental instruction for addi-
tional team chief and supervisor
level training. The hands-on instruc-
tion for personnel enhances the
classroom training, he said.
       Rodriguez discussed the intent
of the university, “It provides
specific training on current and
future equipment and methodolo-
gies, assists units and personnel with
transitioning into theater, and
provides personnel with additional
instructor experience and knowledge
to succeed.”
        Under the new supervision of
Task Force Thunderbird, the univer-
sity recently finished its’ first course
and Rodriguez could not be any
happier. “It was a great feeling and       SFC David Mendoza explains basic networking during the class he taught
of course we feed off of our feedback      to the Iraqi Army Soldiers.
to improve each and every class
thereafter,” he said. This course is       bers, three officers from the Iraqi    challenge of teaching non-U.S.
offered to anyone in theater he said,      Army. This would be the universi-      service members was the language
all branches, services and foreign         ties first class of foreign military   barrier. Even with the use of an
militaries.                                students.                              interpreter, the instructors still had
       The BSU recently graduated its             SSG James McDavid, instructor   trouble teaching their students. “In
first class of foreign service mem-        for the university, said the biggest   the beginning we would have to
                                                                                  Army Communicator                    83
explain the block of instruction four         “These officers already had a      foreign students.
or five different ways for them to      concept of basic networking where               The university does not want to
understand it,” he said. However,       as most of the students we teach         stop there. They welcome the idea
once they got accustomed to barriers    don’t,” he stated, “they were very       of teaching other foreign military
of communication they presented         smart and picked up on the course of     members. “The goal of the university
the information at a much faster        instruction very quick.” The instruc-    is to keep growing and spreading its
pace, he added. So much so they         tors were able to give them more         knowledge base to those who want
were able to give the students more     practical exercises. According to        to learn,” stated McDavid. The
information in the same amount of       Rodriguez, the instructors felt really   university also has another goal they
time as a class comprised of U.S.       honored and blessed to have given        want to try to achieve. Last year the
service members.                        this course of instruction to the        university taught over 500 service
                                                                                 members and Rodriguez said he
                                                                                 wants to surpass that number this
                                                                                 next year. “We are on track right
                                                                                 now to train more than 600 students.
                                                                                 Not only are we training more, but
                                                                                 we have added more subjects than
                                                                                 what the university previously
                                                                                 taught; courses like A plus certifica-
                                                                                 tion and very small aperture termi-
                                                                                 nal ,” he said.

                                                                                       By SGT Lewis M. Hilburn is a
                                                                                 public affairs officer with Task Force
                                                                                 Thunderbird.


                                                                                     ACRONYM QUICKSCAN
                                                                                    BSU – Baghdad Signal University
                                                                                    U.S. – United States




2LT Zahir Abd Ali studies his notes prior to taking his exam.

84   Spring 2008
Writing for your Army Communicator
      Your interest in writing for the Army Communi-
cator is appreciated. AC is published quarterly by
                                                            Army Communicator article
the Chief of Signal at Fort Gordon, Ga.                     submission in summary
      Army Communicator is the U.S. Army Signal                  Your manuscript package should consist of these
                                                            items in this order:
Regiment’s professional magazine. The magazine
explores trends in the Regiment and provides a                    Cover letter/cover page requesting publication,
place for Signal Regiment members to share good             including work phone number, email address, snail-mail
ideas and lessons-learned with their colleagues.            address and manuscript word count;
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development magazine, is supported by article                     Manuscript: 1,000- to 3,000-word original, unpub-
contributions from Signal Regiment members; AC              lished manuscript submitted as simple word-processing
depends on noncommissioned officers, officers,              document and with proper attribution to sources;
warrant officers, and Regimental Civilian employees
to contribute quality articles on topics of interest to            CD: Manuscript on a computer disk if submitting
the entire Regiment.                                        article with hard-copy, or as an email attachment if
                                                            submitting electronically;
      We hope you consider sending us an article on
Signal work that you and your unit are doing! To be              Bio: Author biographical sentences at article’s end;
more successful in getting your manuscript from raw
manuscript to the published product, please see our              Acronym list following short author biography (in
writer’s guidance and style manual found online at          alphabetical order);
http//:www.gordon.army.mil/ocos/ac/. This informa-
tion answers many questions and concerns, and it                   Art: Photos or illustrations submitted separate from
discusses our minimum requirements. There’s a lot           the text (not embedded in the text), with each piece of
of material to absorb if you read everything, so we         “art” as an individual file in JPG or TIF format;
recommend that at a minimum, read the “How to
submit an article” section before you submit your                 Release: Letter or email with permission for use of
article. More detailed guidance beyond the general          private-sector photo or illustration and/or copyright
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guidance is found on our manuscript-formatting
webpage. If you have questions/concerns the                       Photo cutlines: Word-processing document
writer’s guidance doesn’t answer, please feel free to       containing adequate description (complete names, action
contact the editor anytime. We look forward to              in photo of each photographs/illustrations and photogra-
reading your article. (Email address below.)                pher/illustrator credits.




 Email & article submissions
 Email articles to:                                         Summer 2008: slated for publication 30 July 2008
 ACeditor@conus.army.mil                                    In production. No submissions accepted at this time.
 Web site: www.gordon.army.mil/ocos/ac/                     Fall 2008: slated for publication 20 October 2008
                                                            Manuscripts due NLT August 1 if charts/illustrations
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 the Regimental Division Community page and submit          Manuscripts due NLT December 12 if charts/illustrations
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 follow through in this process.                            Manuscripts due NLT March 6 if no illustrations or photos
86   Spring 2008

								
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