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Ch. 22 & 23 Study Guide

Modified True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the
sentence or statement true.

____    1. All of the members of a community belong to the same species. _________________________
____    2. Individuals decrease the size of a population when they emigrate from it. _________________________
____    3. Population size generally increases if the birth rate is greater than the death rate.
____    4. The carrying capacity is the smallest number of individuals in a population that can live in one area.
____    5. An organism's specific role, or how it makes its living, is its habitat. _________________________
____    6. In an energy pyramid, the available energy increases at each feeding level compared to the level below.
____    7. Second-level consumers may be either carnivores or omnivores. _________________________
____    8. The deciduous forest biome is typically populated by many grasses, along with a few shrubs and trees.
____    9. Oak, maple, and beech trees, which lose their leaves each year, are typically found in a boreal forest.
____ 10. The series of changes that occur in an area where no ecosystem previously existed is called primary
         succession. _________________________

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 11. Which of the following is a biotic factor in the prairie ecosystem?
         a. water
         b. sunlight
         c. soil
         d. grass
____ 12. An organism's habitat must provide all of the following EXCEPT
         a. food.
         b. water.
         c. predators.
         d. shelter.
____ 13. All the different populations that live together in an area make up a(n)
         a. organism.
         b. community.
         c. species.
         d. ecosystem.
____ 14. The study of how things interact with each other and with their environment is called
         a. ecology.
         b. photosynthesis.
         c. community.
         d. biotic studies.
____ 15. Population density is defined as
         a. an approximation of a number, based on reasonable assumptions.
         b. the number of individuals of a population in a specific area.
         c. the number of individuals moving into a population.
         d. the smallest level of ecological organization.
____ 16. Counting the number of organisms in a small area and multiplying to estimate the number in a larger area
         is called
         a. direct observation.
         b. mark and recapture.
         c. population density.
         d. sampling.
____ 17. The major way in which new individuals are added to a population is through
         a. sampling.
         b. the birth of offspring.
         c. mark and recapture.
         d. emigration.
____ 18. A group of antelope leaving the herd in search of better grassland is an example of
         a. immigration.
         b. emigration.
         c. increasing birth rate.
         d. decreasing death rate.
____ 19. Which term refers to an environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing?
         a. biotic factor
         b. abiotic factor
         c. immigration
         d. limiting factor
____ 20. An organism's particular role, or how it makes its living, is called its
         a. carrying capacity.
         b. ecosystem.
         c. competition.
         d. niche.
____ 21. The behaviors and physical characteristics of species that allow them to live successfully in their
         environment are called
         a. habitats.
         b. limiting factors.
         c. biotic factors.
         d. adaptations.
____ 22. By hunting at different times of day, the hawk and owl are able to reduce
         a. predation.
         b. competition.
         c. adaptation.
         d. parasitism.
____ 23. Which of the following is an example of a predator adaptation?
         a. a porcupine's needles
           b. a shark's powerful jaws
           c. a frog's bright colors
           d. a plant's poisonous chemicals
____ 24.   When a jellyfish paralyzes a tiny fish with its poisonous tentacles, the fish is the
           a. predator.
           b. prey.
           c. host.
           d. parasite.
____ 25.   A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species is called
           a. natural selection.
           b. symbiosis.
           c. adaptation.
           d. competition.
____ 26.   When a flea is living on a dog, the dog is the
           a. parasite.
           b. host.
           c. predator.
           d. prey.
____ 27.   A hawk building its nest on an arm of the saguaro cactus is an example of
           a. commensalism.
           b. mutualism.
           c. parasitism.
           d. predation.
____ 28.   An organism that can make its own food is called a
           a. consumer.
           b. decomposer.
           c. producer.
           d. scavenger.
____ 29.   Consumers that eat both plants and animals are called
           a. omnivores.
           b. herbivores.
           c. carnivores.
           d. scavengers.
____ 30.   Vultures, which feed on the bodies of dead organisms, are
           a. first-level consumers.
           b. scavengers.
           c. producers.
           d. herbivores.
____ 31.   The first organism in a food chain is always a(n)
           a. consumer.
           b. herbivore.
           c. carnivore.
           d. producer.
____ 32.   The many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem make up a(n)
           a. food web.
           b. niche.
           c. energy pyramid.
           d. feeding level.
____ 33.   In an energy pyramid, which level has the most available energy?
           a. producer level
           b. first-level consumer level
           c. second-level consumer level
           d. third-level consumer level
____ 34.   In which process do molecules of liquid water absorb energy and change into the gas state?
           a. condensation
           b. precipitation
           c. evaporation
           d. recycling
____ 35.   Which of these is NOT an example of precipitation?
           a. rain
           b. snow
           c. groundwater
           d. hail
____ 36.   What do producers release as a result of photosynthesis?
           a. hydrogen
           b. nitrogen
           c. oxygen
           d. carbon dioxide
____ 37.   The study of where organisms live is called
           a. dispersal.
           b. biogeography.
           c. ecology.
           d. climatology.
____ 38.   The very slow movement of the continents is called
           a. continental drift.
           b. biogeography.
           c. dispersal.
           d. distribution.
____ 39.   Which of the following is NOT an example of dispersal?
           a. the wind carrying dandelion seeds to other fields
           b. a dog bringing home sticky plant burs on its fur
           c. an insect being carried down a river on a floating leaf
           d. a squirrel living in a forest on a mountain
____ 40.   Dandelions, horses, and other organisms that were brought by humans from one part of the world to
           another are examples of
           a. native species.
           b. exotic species.
           c. parasites.
           d. endangered species.
____ 41.   The ocean prevents the Australian kangaroo from dispersing throughout the world. The ocean is an
           example of which limit to dispersal?
           a. climate
           b. a physical barrier
           c. competition
           d. an exotic species
____ 42.   The typical weather pattern in an area over a long period of time is called
           a. climate.
           b. precipitation.
           c. the water cycle.
           d. weather.
____ 43.   A group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms is called a(n)
           a. energy pyramid.
           b. climate.
           c. biome.
           d. food web.
____ 44.   Which land biome receives less than 25 centimeters of rain per year?
           a. desert
           b. grassland
           c. temperate rain forest
           d. tropical rain forest
____ 45.   Which land biome is extremely cold and dry?
           a. desert
           b. tundra
           c. grassland
           d. mountains
____ 46.   Which biome is found where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean?
           a. estuary
           b. neritic zone
           c. surface zone
           d. rocky intertidal zone
____ 47.   The series of changes that occurs after a disturbance in an existing ecosystem is called
           a. primary succession.
           b. secondary succession.
           c. disturbance succession.
           d. pioneer succession.
____ 48.   Plants growing on new island formed by the eruption of an undersea volcano are an example of
           a. primary succession.
           b. secondary succession.
           c. nutrients.
           d. dispersal.
____ 49.   The first species to populate an area where primary succession is taking place are called
           a. secondary species.
           b. primary species.
           c. pioneer species.
           d. succession species.

Complete each sentence or statement.

      50. The part of an ecosystem where an organism lives and feeds is called the organism's
      51. All the biotic and abiotic factors in an area together make up a(n) ____________________.
      52. The study of how living things interact with one another and with their environment is called
     53. Observing animal tracks is an example of ____________________ observation, which is used to estimate
         population size.
     54. A group of zebras breaking off from a herd decreases the size of the herd population through
     55. Ticks feed on the blood of mice in a symbiotic relationship called ____________________.
     56. A hawk building a nest on the arm of a cactus without hurting the cactus is an example of the symbiotic
         relationship called ____________________.
     57. Certain bacteria change nitrogen gas into a usable form in a process called ____________________.
     58. The distribution of species has been affected by the slow movement of Earth's continents called
     59. Mountains and deserts that are difficult for organisms to cross are ____________________ barriers to
     60. The ____________________ biome receives less than 25 centimeters of rain a year and may have large
         temperature shifts every day.
     61. The soil that is frozen all year in the tundra is called ____________________.
     62. The part of the open ocean that receives enough light for floating algae to carry out photosynthesis is
         called the ____________________ zone.
     63. The type of succession that occurs in an area where an ecosystem previously existed is called
         ____________________ succession.

Short Answer
64. Which organisms shown are producers?
65. Why are there relatively few third-level consumers like bears in an ecosystem?
Ch. 22 & 23
Answer Section


      1.   F, population
      2.   T
      3.   T
      4.   F, largest
      5.   F, niche
      6.   F, decreases
      7.   T
      8.   F, grassland
      9.   F, deciduous
     10.   T


     11.   D
     12.   C
     13.   B
     14.   A
     15.   B
     16.   D
     17.   B
     18.   B
     19.   D
     20.   D
     21.   D
     22.   B
     23.   B
     24.   B
     25.   B
     26.   B
     27.   A
     28.   C
     29.   A
     30.   B
     31.   D
     32.   A
     33.   A
     34.   C
     35.   C
     36.   C
     37.   B
     38.   A
    39.   D
    40.   B
    41.   B
    42.   A
    43.   C
    44.   A
    45.   B
    46.   A
    47.   B
    48.   A
    49.   C


    50.   habitat
    51.   ecosystem
    52.   ecology
    53.   indirect
    54.   emigration
    55.   parasitism
    56.   commensalism
    57.   nitrogen fixation
    58.   continental drift
    59.   physical
    60.   desert
    61.   permafrost
    62.   surface
    63.   secondary


    64. The grasses, trees, cattails, and other plants are all producers.
    65. So much energy is lost at each level of the food pyramid that there is not enough energy to support very
        many third-level consumers.

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