AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPHERE by L3Yaq6O

VIEWS: 12 PAGES: 44

									AN INTRODUCTION TO
 ECOLOGY AND THE
     BIOSPHERE
                Ecology
• What is ecology?
• Study of interactions between
  organisms and their environment.
• The environment includes both biotic
  and abiotic factors.
• Biotic = living, abiotic = non-living
• Ecology therefore will incorporate biotic
  and abiotic interactions
     Four Levels of Inquiry:
    1. Organismal Ecology:
• Ways the individual meets challenges
  posed by the environment.
• What is this area of ecology concerned
  with?
• Behavioral, morphological and
  physiological developments in the
  organisms that allow them to interact
  with their environment.
     2. Population Ecology
• What is a population?
• Group of individuals of the same
  species living in the same area.
• What is this area of ecology concerned
  with?
• Factors that affect population size and
  composition.
     3. Community Ecology
• What is a community?
• All of the organisms that occupy a
  particular area.
• What is this area of ecology concerned
  with?
• Involves predator/prey relationships,
  competition and disease.
     4. Ecosystem Ecology
• What is an ecosystem?
• Includes all of the biotic and abiotic
  factors plus the community that exists in
  a specific area.
• What is this area of ecology concerned
  with?
• Energy flow, chemical cycling, primary
  productivity.
         Abiotic factors of the
              biosphere:
•   Biosphere - global ecosystem
•   temperature
•   water
•   sunlight
•   wind
•   rocks and soil
•   periodic disturbances (e.g. tornadoes,
    hurricanes…)
 Seasonal effects on climate:
For example turnover in a lake:
               Biomes:
• What is a biome?
• A major community that is classified by
  the predominant vegetation and
  characterized by the adaptations of
  organisms that live there.
                   Aquatic Biomes
• Vertical
  stratification
  is important
  in aquatic
  biomes
• Zonation in
  a Lake:
        Lake classification:
• What is an oligotrophic lake?
• Deep water and nutrient poor, water is
  very clear.
• What is a eutrophic lake?
• Shallower water, nutrient rich, murky
  water.
              Wetlands
• What are wetlands?
• Area covered with water that supports
  aquatic plants.
• Very rich biome with diverse birds,
  invertebrates, mammals, etc.
               Estuary
• What is an estuary?
• The area where freshwater merges with
  salt water.
• River nutrients enrich the estuary.
• Salinity varies throughout the estuary.
• Important source of oysters, crabs and
  fish.
          Marine Community



• Zonation in a
  marine
  environment:
          Intertidal Zone
• Rocky Shores:
• What challenges are faced by
  organisms that live here?
• Rough waves pounding the rocks
• Salinity changes
• Hard rocky substrate
             Coral Reef
• Where are the producers in this
  community?
• Symbiotic algae live in the coral, and
  are producers for this community.
• Waves bring constant supply of
  nutrients
• Water is shallow enough to allow for
  light penetration, and photosynthesis.
    Oceanic Pelagic Biome
• Temperate oceans have seasonal
  turnover of nutrients like in lakes
• Some tropical areas have stratification
  and no turnover of nutrients.
• Photic zones have phytoplankton as
  producers.
• Large animals move up to photoic zone
  to feed.
              Benthos
• Ocean bottom of neritic and pelagic
  zones
• Neritic benthic communities are very
  productive
• Deep benthic communities - abyssal
  zone - are adapted to cold water, no
  light, and low nutrient levels.
• Deep sea vents found here, producers
  are chemoautotrophs not
  photoautotrophs.
Terrestrial biomes
 Review the characteristics of
   the different biomes and
identify which biome is seen in
     the following slides...
Desert biome
Benthos
Deciduous
 Forest
Grasslands
Tundra
Desert
Deciduous forest
Tundra
Coniferous forest
Temperate grassland
Savanah
Tropical rain forest
Taiga/Tundra
Wetlands
 Where would this creature live?
What adaptations does it have for
          life here?
Where
would
these
animals
be found?
Where would these short flowers
         be found?
     Regulators/Conformers
• Cost benefit analysis of homeostasis
• What is a regulator?
• Organisms that can survive fluctuations in
  the environment through physiological
  regulations
• What is a conformer?
• Organisms that conform to their
  environment.
      Principle of Allocation
• What is the principle of allocation?
• Organisms have limited supply of
  energy that they can allocate to living.
• The way they “spend” their energy will
  affect what sort of organism they are.
Responses to Envoronmental
       Variations:
• Physiological responses:
• regulation and homeostasis are
  physiological responses
• acclimation shifts an organisms’
  tolerance to the environmental change
• For example people who attempt to
  climb Everest must acclimate to the
  higher altitude.
   Morphological Responses
• Responses that change the form or
  anatomy of the organism.
• Mammals grow heavier coats n the cold
  months
• plants are more morphologically plastic
  than animals.
     Behavioral Responses
• Instantaneous response that can be
  easily reversed.
• Moving away from unfavorable
  environment.

								
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