Basics of KM

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					Lecture
KM

June 2004




                           Basics of KM

                           Yale Braunstein
                              June 2004




            Basics of KM
                                             1
Lecture
                                     Agenda
KM

June 2004

                      1. What is KM?
                      2. Why is KM important?
                      3. The KM Process
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
4. KM Results
                      4. KM Result Measurement
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM
                      5. KM and Business
                      6. Problems with KM
                      7. New Trends in KM

                      Basics of KM
                                                 2
                                        What is KM?
Lecture
KM

June 2004             A newly emerging, interdisciplinary business model
                      dealing with all aspects of knowledge within all types of
                      organizations:
                             •knowledge creation
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
                             •documentation
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
                             •codification
4. KM Results                •sharing
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM
                      and how these activities promote learning, effectiveness,
                      innovation and profitability
                      In practice, KM encompasses technological tools and
                      organizational routines in overlapping parts
                                                       Sources: Gotcha Project (SIMS), www.asis.org


                        Basics of KM
                                                                                        3
                                 Why is KM important?
Lecture
KM
                      Knowledge …
June 2004
                          - is very difficult – often impossible - to
                            imitate
                          - gives its possessor an unique and
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
                            inherently protected comodity
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
                      Any techniques or methods which sustain
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
                      knowledge growth and distribution are the key
6. Problems with KM   to the success of organizations
7. New Trends in KM

                      -Therefore knowledge is the most important
                      competitive advantage of the modern firm.

                                                         Source: Gotcha Project (SIMS)
                        Basics of KM
                                                                              4
                                       Schumpeter:
Lecture
KM
                                   „Creative Destruction“
June 2004


                      „price competition“ is not „ the competition
                      which counts but the competition from the
I. Agenda
                      new commodity, the new technology, the
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?
                      new source of supply, the new type of
3. KM Process         organization“
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
                      Schumpeter understands the entrepreneur as
7. New Trends in KM   someone who destroys the market
                      equilibrium and creates a temporary
                      monopoly.


                                         Source: Schumpeter „Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy“
                        Basics of KM
                                                                                              5
                             Porter (1991): Five Forces
Lecture
KM
                       Firms resources as a basis of competitve strategy
June 2004
                      -Five Forces:

                                            Supplier Power
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
                        Barriers to Entry       Rivalry      Threat of Substitutes
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
                                             Buyer Power
6. Problems with KM


                       Barriers of Entry: e.g. Proprietary learning curve
7. New Trends in KM



                           -Knowledge restricts entry to a market / industry
                       Rivalry: Firm needs a competitive advantage

                         Basics of KM
                                                                   Source: www.quickmba.com
                                                                                  6
                                         The KM Process
Lecture
KM

June 2004
                      -All the processes (operations) that are related to
                      knowledge assets
                         -The KM process can be devided into several parts, e.g.:

I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process           Knowledge
4. KM Results           Creation,
                                          Knowledge             Knowledge                     Knowledge
5.. KM and Business
                        Generation,
6. Problems with KM                       Storage               Distribution                  Application
                        Evaluation,
7. New Trends in KM
                        Improvement,
                        Accumulation,
                        Utilization



                                                Sources: Gotcha Project (SIMS), Maryam Alavy (University of Maryland )
                          Basics of KM
                                                                                                               7
Lecture
                          Explicit vs. Tacit Knowledge
KM

June 2004
                      The difference between explicit and tacid knowledge:


I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM




                                                     Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
                         Basics of KM
                                                                                   8
                        Knowledge Creation / Generation
Lecture
KM
                                  (Nonaka)
June 2004              - a spiraling process of interactions between
                         explicit and tacit knowledge where ideas
                         form in the minds of individuals
I. Agenda
                       - interaction with others is usually a critical
1. What is KM?           step in developing the ideas
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process         Explicit
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM




                      Tacit


                                    Individual   Group    Organization             Inter-Organization
                              Basics of KM               Sources: Gotcha Project (SIMS), Maryam Alavy (University of Maryland )

                                                                                                                   9
                      Knowledge Creation / Generation
Lecture
KM
                                (Nonaka)
June 2004


                                          Tacit               Tacit


                                            1                   2




                                                                           Explicit
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?                        Socialization      Externalization
2. Why KM?                            Emphathizing        Articulating
3. KM Process
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
                                             4                  3




                                                                           Explicit
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM                     Embodying           Connecting
                                      Internalization      Combination


                                          Explicit          Explicit

                                                        Source: Book p: 192
                       Basics of KM
                                                                                      10
                      Knowledge Markets, Mergers and
Lecture
KM
                               Aquisitions
June 2004
                      Knowledge Markets
                        - Buyers: People who need answers for complex
                          problems
I. Agenda               - Sellers: People/Companies (e.g. management
1. What is KM?            consultancies)
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
                        - Problem: Incomplete information, asymmetric
4. KM Results             knowledge, localness of knowledge
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM   Mergers / Acquisitions
7. New Trends in KM
                        - Buy the embedded knowledge in work processes, core
                           functions of organization, infrastructure and systems


                                                  Source: Stephen Ruth (George Mason University)

                        Basics of KM
                                                                                              11
                             Socio-Cultural Issues
Lecture
KM

June 2004
                      Knowledge Storage
                        - Organizational memory (individuals, culture,
                          process, archives)
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
                        - Very important: Search and retrieval
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
                      Knowledge Distribution
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
                        - Organizational behavior and communication
                      - Socio-Cultural Issues
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM


                        - Subject headings, etc.


                                                   Source: Stephen Ruth (George Mason University)

                         Basics of KM
                                                                                          12
                                          Technology
Lecture
KM

June 2004
                      -Three-tier Database
                      Architecture for storage,
                      evaluation and
                      publishing of
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
                      information
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process                              Top Tier
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM
                                           Middle Tier




                                           Bottom Tier


                           Basics of KM
                                                         13
                                     Technology
Lecture
KM

June 2004

                      - Data Warehouses
                      - Groupware
I. Agenda             - Workflow Management Systems
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?            - Distribution via Internet / Intranet
                      - Web Mining
3. KM Process
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM




                      Basics of KM
                                                           14
                            The KM Process (re-visited)
Lecture
KM

June 2004




                                         Socio-Cultural Issues
I. Agenda
                      Knowledge
1. What is KM?
                      Creation,
2. Why KM?                             Knowledge             Knowledge                     Knowledge
                      Generation,
3. KM Process                          Storage               Distribution                  Application
                      Evaluation,
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
                      Improvement,
6. Problems with KM
                      Accumulation,
7. New Trends in KM
                      Utilization




                                             Technology

                                            Sources: Gotcha Project (SIMS), Maryam Alavy (University of Maryland )
                        Basics of KM
                                                                                                           15
                        KM Result Measurement (1)
Lecture
KM
                      Human Capital
June 2004
                          -   Training expenditures
                          -   Organizational learning
                          -   Employee commitment
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
                          -   Management experience
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
4. KM Results
                      Innovation Capital
5.. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
                          - R&D expenditures
7. New Trends in KM
                          - Percentage of workforce envolved in
                            innovation
                          - Product freshness
                          - Copyright, trademarks/patents
                                           Source: Jochen Scholl/ Tammara Turner (Bossi & Vanyren, 2000)
                      Basics of KM
                                                                                               16
                       KM Result Measurement (2)
Lecture
KM                    Customer Capital
June 2004                -   Satisfaction
                         -   Perceived product/service quality
                         -   Duration of relationship
I. Agenda                -   Repeat orders
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?               -   Sales/customer
3. KM Process
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
                      KM Process Stage Identification
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM
                         -   Number of contacts in KM database
                         -   Number of topics in KM database
                         -   Hit rate
                         -   Productivity
                                           Source: Jochen Scholl/ Tammara Turner (Bossi & Vanyren, 2000)
                       Basics of KM
                                                                                                17
                          KM Result Measurement (3)
Lecture
KM

June 2004             KM Process Stage Elicitation
                          - Number of requests served from KM database
                          - Accessibility to other relevant resources

I. Agenda             KM Process Stage Dissemination
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?                - Push serves
3. KM Process
                          - Pull serves
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM   KM Process Stage Utilization
7. New Trends in KM
                          - System usage as percentage of all information-
                            gathering activities
                          - User satisfaction
                          - New business generated from usage

                                                    Source: Jochen Scholl/ Tammara Turner (Bossi & Vanyren, 2000)
                        Basics of KM
                                                                                                      18
                                       KM and Business
Lecture
KM
                      - A problem for KM is the abundance and
June 2004
                        vagueness of existing information
                      - Therefore: Focusing on the knowledge,
                        which is strategically relevant for the
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
                        enterprise
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process         - Management has to understand the
                        company’s core competencies
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM   - They create an added value and give the
                        company a strategic advantage in
                        competition

                        Basics of KM
                                                                  19
                                       Core Competencies
Lecture
KM

June 2004
                      Core competencies…
                        - Consist in a bundle of abilities and
                          technologies
I. Agenda               - Are integrated in products, processes
                          and in the mind of staff
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
4. KM Results           - Are the basis of economical success
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM
                         Market competition becomes
                          competition on knowledge.


                        Basics of KM
                                                                  20
                                        Problems with KM
Lecture
KM
                      - KM is expensive: firms spend 7% of its revenues
June 2004
                        on KM, However: Problem of faulty knowledge,
                        bad decisions
                      - Most summary data (scanner, customer,
I. Agenda
                        transactions, demographics) never gets used
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?
                      - Knowledge managers are more „knowledgeable“
3. KM Process           than anyone else
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business    - KM models vs. maps (e.g. categorization vs.
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM
                        market)
                      - KM market vs. hierarchies (e.g. patent vs. open
                        source)
                      - Often people don´t want to share knowledge
                        (lack of incentives)
                         Basics of KM
                                                        Davenport, Bessen&Maskin
                                                                         21
                               New Trends in KM (1)
Lecture
KM

June 2004


                      -New technology solutions
                             -Hardware with better performance
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?               -Software solutions (Groupware, Databases)
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process                -Development of the Internet
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM
                      -KM and E-Business
                              -Web based services which support KM
                              -Customer relationship
                                                       Source: Jillinda J. et al
                        Basics of KM
                                                                                   22
                               New Trends in KM (2)
Lecture
KM

June 2004


                      -KM on an enterprisewide scale
                              -Having one single successful initiative
I. Agenda
1. What is KM?
2. Why KM?
3. KM Process
                      -Advances in working with tacid knowledge
4. KM Results
5. KM and Business            -Development in business software
6. Problems with KM
7. New Trends in KM
                              -Workflow systems
                              -AI

                                                          Source: Jillinda J. et al

                        Basics of KM
                                                                                      23

				
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