Guided Reading versus Differentiated Instruction

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					Guided Reading versus
Differentiated Instruction

     Michael C. McKenna
     University of Virginia
        Sharon Walpole
     University of Delaware
Let’s start by reviewing
 three approaches to
 differentiated reading
            Approaches to
                         • Informal reading inventories
By instructional level

By fluency level

By assessed needs
        An IRI contains …
 One or more sequences of graded word lists
 One or more sequences of graded passages
 Questions accompanying each passage



    PP   P   1st   2   3   4   5   6 •••
            Approaches to
                         • Informal reading inventories
By instructional level
                         • Traditional basal instruction
By fluency level         • Groups move at same pace
                         • Groups are all but permanent
By assessed needs        • Differentiation is in all areas
                         • Parallel skill “strands” used
            Approaches to
                         • Differentiation by leveled books
By instructional level
                         • Decoding skills not a target
By fluency level         • Fountas & Pinnell

By assessed needs
            Approaches to
                          Assess for differentiation
By instructional level
                          Screening + diagnostic
By fluency level          Groups are temporary
                          Groups are flexible
By assessed needs         Target areas of greatest need
                          Goal is “upward mobility”
      To us, differentiation is …
“instruction that helps [children] accomplish
  challenging tasks that are just out of their reach”
“instruction that targets a particular group of
  children’s needs directly and temporarily”
“instruction that applies a developmental model”

 Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2007).
  Differentiated reading instruction:
  Strategies for the primary grades. New
  York: Guilford Press.
  Our Approach and Guided Reading:
        What’s the Difference?

                                For a small group that is
                                best served by a focus on
                                fluency and comprehension,
                                our approach looks very
                                much like Guided Reading.

 And yet there are important
  differences. We will begin
by making those differences
                 Determining Group

Overall leveled placement      Screening and diagnostic
assessment, such as the DRA assessments in phonological
                               awareness, phonics, sight
This process ignores the       words, and/or oral reading
specific skill deficits in the fluency.
areas of phonological
awareness and word

Running records are used to      The cognitive model of
analyze oral reading errors      reading assessment is used to
(miscues), a practice that has   systematically determine skill
been called into question in     needs on the basis of
light of current views of the    developmental stage theories
reading process.                 of reading acquisition.
                Stage models of reading
                              When children are
                              acquiring literacy –
                 Fluency      developing the skills
Oral Language

                              necessary for reading
                              comprehension – they
                Alphabetic    tend to move through
                 Principle    stages in which their
                              focus is very different.
                Phonemic      All along, during each
                Awareness     stage, they are
                              developing oral language
      Three Cuing Systems

     Semantic                Syntactic
      Context                 Context

A key distinction between our approach and
Guided Reading is how teachers approach
  the use of context in recognizing words.
            What is this word?
What information did you use to identify it?


       What does this word mean?
        What part of speech is it?
       How do you pronounce it?
          Now try again.
 What new information did you use?

That novel was a good read.
 In actual reading, information within the
   word and information in context are
        available simultaneously.

 That novel was a good read.
Proficient readers use all three cuing
systems, to be sure, but they use context
to decide among multiple meanings and
multiple pronunciations. This occurs after
decoding has allowed them to locate the
word in memory.
So what should a teacher do when a child
reads this sentence and hesitates before
the last word?

  That novel was a good read.
1.Ask the child to predict the word based on
  the previous context. or
2.Ask the child to use decoding skills to
  determine the word’s pronunciation.
We want to move children to the
point where they decode first and
then use context to select the
intended meaning of a word.

We do not want to encourage
them to predict the word from
context and only “sample” its
letters to the extent needed to
confirm this prediction.
       Three Cuing Systems

      Semantic               Syntactic
       Context                Context

The three systems are not equally important.
 Context should become a child’s last resort
               – not the first!

Fluency is always the primary   Fluency is the focus
focus.                          1. only for grade 1 and
                                2. only if decoding skills are
In guided reading, the teacher
coordinates reading            In differentiated instruction,
components (comprehension, the teacher isolates reading
word recognition, fluency).    components to address

Fluency techniques do not    Fluency techniques progress
proceed from most to least       from most to least
supportive.                      supportive:

                             1.   Echo reading
                             2.   Choral reading
                             3.   Partner reading
                             4.   Whisper reading
                       Text Types

Predictable books are         Decodable books are
preferred for beginning       preferred for beginning
readers in order to promote   readers in order to promote
fluency. Such books provide   decoding in context. Such
little basis for decoding     books provide little basis for
instruction.                  comprehension instruction–so
                              there is none.

Comprehension instruction is       In the primary grades,
based on texts at fluency          comprehension instruction is
level.                             based on small-group read-
                                   alouds for children who are at
This means that the easiest        benchmark in word
texts provide very little basis    recognition.
for asking reasonable
questions or modeling              Comprehension instruction is
strategies, but this practice is   linked with fluency or
still encouraged.                  vocabulary but not with word
                                   recognition instruction.
                  Word Recognition

Word recognition needs are      Word recognition needs are
not systematically addressed    identified through the cognitive
during guided reading.          model of assessment and are
Rather, they are addressed on   addressed on this basis.
an as-needed basis.

Running records are used to   Three-week post-assessment
determine readiness for the   focuses on areas targeted by
next text level.              instruction.

                              The assessment question is
                              whether a child should move
                              to a more advanced focus,
                              remain at current focus, or
                              move to a more basic focus.
A Stairway to Proficiency

        Vocabulary & Comprehension

        Fluency and Comprehension

    Word Recognition and Fluency

    PA and Word Recognition

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