1.    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................. 5
2.    CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN ACHIEVEMENTS TO DATE .................................................................... 7
     2.1        CONTEXT ............................................................................................................................................... 7
     2.2        RESPONSE TO DATE................................................................................................................................. 8
3.    NEEDS ANALYSIS ....................................................................................................................................... 12
     3.1        1999-2001 DZUD EXPERIENCES ............................................................................................................. 12
     3.2        PRE-EXISTING SITUATION ....................................................................................................................... 13
     3.3        SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE AND LOCATION OF AFFECTED POPULATIONS....................................................... 13
     3.4        CURRENT SITUATION .............................................................................................................................. 14
     3.5        FUTURE COORDINATION NEEDS ............................................................................................................... 17

4.    THE 2010 COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN ............................................................................... 18
     4.1        SCENARIOS .......................................................................................................................................... 18
     4.2        STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES FOR HUMANITARIAN ACTION IN 2010 ..................................................................... 19
     4.3        STRATEGIC MONITORING PLAN ................................................................................................................ 21
     4.4        CRITERIA FOR SELECTION AND PRIORITIZATION OF PROJECTS ..................................................................... 23
     4.5        SECTOR RESPONSE PLANS ..................................................................................................................... 24
      4.5.1       SURVIVAL, WASH, HEALTH AND NUTRITION SECTOR ........................................................... 24
      4.5.2       AGRICULTURE ............................................................................................................................. 30
      4.5.3       EARLY RECOVERY ...................................................................................................................... 36
      4.5.4       EDUCATION.................................................................................................................................. 40
5.    ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES................................................................................................................ 43
6.    CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................... 44
ANNEX I.        LIST OF PROJECTS ......................................................................................................................... 45
     TABLE II. SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS, COMMITMENTS/CONTRIBUTIONS ............................................................... 45
     AND PLEDGES BY APPEALING ORGANIZATION ......................................................................................................... 45
     TABLE III. LIST OF PROJECTS GROUPED BY CLUSTER ............................................................................................ 46
     TABLE V. SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS, COMMITMENTS/CONTRIBUTIONS ............................................................... 50
     AND PLEDGES BY IASC STANDARD SECTOR.......................................................................................................... 50

ANNEX II. CONTACT INFORMATION ................................................................................................................ 51
ANNEX III. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................... 52

     Figure 1. Camel seeking warmth. UNICEF/ 2010/Cullen

Please note that appeals are revised regularly. The latest version of this document is available

               Full project details can be viewed, downloaded and printed from

Figure 2. Soums (villages) are unaccessible. - UNICEF/ 2010/ Cullen

Figure 3. Dzud situation at village level. Source: NEMA update of 13 April 2010

Mongolia has one of the coldest climates in the
world, with temperatures dropping below -20ºC for
several months each year. The 2009-10 winter,
which has been extremely harsh even by
Mongolian standards, has resulted in increased
maternal     and    child  mortality,   and     an
unprecedented loss of livestock and the collapse
of thousands of people’s livelihoods and many
basic services. The disaster is known locally as a
dzud which is a complex, long-lasting natural
disaster in which a summer drought is followed by
heavy snowfalls and unusually low temperatures
in winter, and then by a dangerous spring thaw.
Fifteen of Mongolia’s 21 provinces, home to
769,106 people (28% of the country’s population),
have been declared disaster zones, and another Figure 4. For livestock, there was no escape from the
four are seriously affected. An overall lack of snow and cold; over seven million died in four months.
resources prompted the Mongolian Government to UNDP /2010/ Bunchingiv
appeal for assistance from the international

Although the winter months are over, heavy snowfall and sub-zero temperatures persist in many
areas, prolonging and intensifying the suffering for both people and their livestock. The affected
population is suffering from a range of factors caused by the dzud, including lack of access to health
care, widespread food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, risk of a mass exodus of people from rural areas
to the cities in search of alternative employment, and psychological trauma for affected herders and
their families.

The thick snow cover has also meant that livestock, vital to the lives and livelihoods of a significant
proportion of Mongolia’s population, have been unable to graze. Taken together with the summer
drought, which prevented the collection of adequate amounts of forage, and with the extreme cold, this
has resulted in widespread deaths of animals and in a range of serious consequences for the people
who depend on them. By the end of April 2010, more than 7.8 million head of livestock (some 17% of
all Mongolia’s livestock) had perished nation-wide. The loss of livestock, as well as a falling livestock
birth rate, has had a devastating impact on affected herders and rural communities. The livestock
sector provides livelihoods for 30% of Mongolia’s population and represents 16% of the country’s
gross domestic product. At present, almost 9,000 households (45,000 people) have been left without
animals and face a grim future in the coming months.

The multi-faceted concerns raised by the disaster require a greater emphasis on combining
humanitarian support, early recovery efforts and medium to longer-term interventions, as well as the
formulation of strategies to prevent a recurrence of the situation and to mitigate herders’ vulnerability
in the future. The response required for the dzud is qualitatively different from what would normally be
needed in other natural disasters. Unlike sudden onset emergencies, the dzud in Mongolia has
evolved slowly and has progressively widened its geographical reach, forcing ever-growing numbers
of people in rural areas into a battle for basic survival. While the disaster’s foundations were laid in
the summer drought, then worsened by the extreme winter, it is in the spring time and into early
summer when the worst of the impact will be felt.

This Appeal has three strategic objectives: first, to address the most critical humanitarian needs of the
vulnerable groups and institutions for the period between May 2010 and April 2011; second, to
address the protracted humanitarian and early recovery needs of the affected population by means of
livelihood-based humanitarian programming to prevent further or renewed deterioration into a
humanitarian emergency; and third, to put in place preparedness, disaster risk-reduction and
contingency planning in anticipation of worsening conditions or to deal with other disasters.

The Appeal targets two main groups: herders and their families (749,000 individuals) who will remain
in rural areas, and those who, for their own survival following the impact of the dzud, are predicted to
migrate to peri-urban areas (at least 20,000 people) where they will face employment challenges and
have limited access to basic social services. It focuses on limiting further livestock losses, providing

immediate income-generating opportunities and creating alternative livelihoods. Cutting across all
areas, there is a critical need to build capacity, and increase collaboration and coordination with the
National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and Government ministries, with a Government-
owned, sectoral approach aimed at improving disaster preparedness and response plans an ultimate
goal of this Appeal.

To support the Government, the international humanitarian community, including non-governmental
organizations (NGOs) and UN agencies, is seeking a total of $ 18,150,794 to address the immediate,
early recovery, and preparedness needs of 769,106 people affected by the dzud over a planning and
budgeting period extending to April 2011. Partners have reported funding to date of $1,375,200 to
projects and activities in this Appeal, leaving unmet requirements of $16,775,594.

    Basic humanitarian and development indicators for Mongolia
    Population                                                2.76 million people (NSO, 2009)
    Surface area                                              1,564,115.75 km
    Population density (per km )                              2 (UN, 2005)
    Agricultural land (% of land area)                        83.3 (World Bank, 2005)
    Protected areas                                           14.4% of the total territory (MNET, 2009)
    Under-five mortality                                      41 p/1,000 (UNICEF, 2008)
                                                              Women: 69.9 years
    Life expectancy
                                                              Men: 63.9 years (UN Data, 2009)
                                                              27% (Second National MDG
    Prevalence of under nourishment in total population       Implementation Report – Government of
                                                              Mongolia/ UNDP, 2007)
    Gross national income per capita                          $1,649 (NSO, 2008)
    Percentage of population living on less than $1 per
                                                              35% (NSO, 2008)
    Proportion of population without sustainable access
                                                              28% (UNDP, HDR 2007)
    to an improved drinking water source
                                                              0.727; 115 of 182 (medium human
    2009 UNDP Human Development Index (score/rank)
                   The population growth of Mongolia is 1.8% per year (NSO, 2008)
                   Infant mortality is 20.2 per 1000 live births and maternal mortality ratio is 87.4 per
                    100,000 live births (MoH/ Health Statistics - 2009)
    Also           < 0.1% of the population living with HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, 2008)
                   Total Number of livestock: 44 million (as of 31 December 2009 [National Statistics
                    Office Monthly Bulletin]) including 277,100 camels; 2,221,300 horses; 2,599,300
                    cattle; 19,274,700 sheep and 19,651,500 goats
    Population directly affected by the dzud (disaggregated data from 165 villages in 15 affected
    aimags (provinces)
                                                              769,106, of which:
                                                               43,555: herders who have lost all
                  Total population                               livestock
                                                               163,780: herders who lost half their
                                                                 livestock or more
    Affected      Total households                            217,144
    population                                                279,609 (36% of total affected population)
                                                              of which:
                  Children under 18 years
                                                               18,048: children in dormitories: 18,048
                                                               77,621: children under-five
                  Elderly aged 60 and above                   44,260 (6%)
                  Pregnant women                              8,711 (1%)

1All dollar signs in this document denote United States dollars. Funding for this appeal should be reported to the Financial Tracking
Service (FTS,, which will display its requirements and funding on the CAP 2010 page.

2.1       CONTEXT
Dzuds are the result of a confluence of seasonal factors: summer drought followed by heavy snow and
unusually low temperatures in winter. While dzuds are a natural phenomenon, their effects can be
exacerbated by levels of human development, and activities such as livestock overgrazing, and
insufficient fodder stockpiling. Dzuds are not simply livestock famines; they have profound and far-
reaching impacts on the people and communities who depend on this vital sector for their food and

While dzuds are commonly believed to be “winter emergencies”, it is in fact in the spring when the
greatest impacts are felt. Spring is traditionally a time of livestock births and the emergence of new
pasture. However, the continuation of intense cold and heavy snow means already weakened
animals will continue to perish from starvation; pregnant livestock will either miscarry or die during the
birthing process, and those offspring that do survive birth will inevitably succumb to a lack of
sustenance. The onset of warmer weather also marks the start of the thaw, which results in flash
floods caused by melting snow and further isolation and hardship for flood-bound communities.

Mongolians are accustomed to harsh winters; however this past winter was the worst in nearly half a
century. Since early January 2010, temperatures have consistently been more than 6ºC colder than
average and there has been a greater-than-average level of snowfall. This makes spring particularly
problematic for herders, who now face repeated cycles of snow thaws and refreezing, denying them
access to pasture for livestock grazing. As of the end of April 2010, more than 60% of the country
remained blanketed by a thick layer of snow. Many roads are blocked, hindering or preventing access
to people and communities in remote areas, and in turn impeding their access to health care facilities
and services. In some provinces, fuel and coal reserves have been depleted and other sources of
heating supplies have been severely compromised.

Heavy snow and snowstorms will continue into May, with night temperatures predicted to average
from -3ºC to -23ºC. The depth of snow is 61cm in several areas.

Affected area and population
Mongolia’s herders are the main population of concern for humanitarian organizations. At present,
769,106 people, or more than 28% of the population, have been affected by the dzud primarily through
the loss of their livestock. This figure represents 165 villages and comprises 217,144 families,
including 279,609 children and 8,711 pregnant women.

                                                          At the outset of the dzud, the
                                                          government initially declared localized
                                                          disasters in seven of the country’s 21
                                                          aimags (provinces), but later revised the
                                                          number to 12. At the end of April,
                                                          following assessments conducted by the
                                                          government, and confirmed by the UN
                                                          and the Red Cross, it was found that
                                                          there were widespread livestock losses
                                                          and desperate shortages of fodder for
                                                          animals and food and fuel for families,
                                                          which was further scaled up to the 15
                                                          provinces of Arkhangai, Bayankhongor,
                                                          Bayan-Ulgii. Dornod Dundgobi, Gobi-
 Figure 5. Boy carrying weak animal.                      Altai, Khentii, Khovd, Khuvsgul, Selenge,
 UNICEF/ 2010/NewsMN/Nyamsaikhan                          Tuv, Umnugobi, Uvs, Uvurkhangai and
                                                          Zavkhan. A further four provinces were
categorized as in dzud or near disaster. This prompted an urgent appeal to the UN and the
international community for support in providing fodder, fuel, food, warm clothing and blankets,
medical equipment, medicines and ambulances. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)
allocated $3,556,532 23 February, and other donor support was forthcoming to address the most
urgent of these needs.

2   Source: NEMA update, February 9, 2010.

Those who have been cut off from accessing health services are particularly vulnerable to preventable
and non-preventable diseases and malnutrition. Of particular concern are pregnant and lactating
women, the elderly and children. There has been a sharp rise in the incidence of respiratory illness,
notably in areas where there is insufficient heating or fuel and food shortages. There have been
urgent calls for support to repair failing heating systems in school dormitories, where 18,048 children
are housed, and hospitals that are unable to function as a result of the extreme cold inside buildings.
In the first three months of 2010, the Ministry of Health (MoH) reported increases in both infant and
under-five child mortality, with children dying of preventable illnesses, predominantly respiratory
problems, because their families were unable to access emergency medical care.

The situation is particularly dire for the 8,711 families or approximately 43,555 Mongolians that
assessments indicate have lost all their livestock, meaning they now have no cash flow and therefore
have no capacity to buy food or medicines, and are unable to send their children to school. The
prevailing climatic conditions also mean they are unable to dry and burn livestock manure for heating
and cooking. A further 32,756 families or more than 163,830 Mongolians have lost more than 50% of
their livestock. Many more are struggling to keep their remaining animals alive, which at present are
too weak to survive through to the summer and which have no market value for herders.
The impact of the dzud is especially acute for those families that relied on ‘child money’ , a social
welfare benefit for children’s basic survival and education. Fiscal constraints prompted the
government to adopt austerity measures just prior to the onset of the dzud to remove this social
welfare safety net. The current government social welfare budget is not sufficient to deal with the
magnitude of the problem or with the needed allocation of disaster-related funds. There are ongoing
advocacy efforts being undertaken with the government to address this issue.

Based on the aftermath of the previous dzuds in the successive winters from 1999-2001, predictions
can be made on what will occur in the wake of this winter’s dzud. Following the milder 1999-2001
dzuds, there was a mass internal migration of people from rural areas to urban centres, particularly to
the capital, Ulaanbaatar, resulting in the city’s rapid population growth, predominantly in poorly
serviced peri-urban districts. A survey conducted to identify the causes of the migration to urban
areas found that 14% of migrants were driven by the loss of livelihoods as a result of the dzuds
(United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] 2010). The government is anticipating a similar mass
migration of more than 20,000 people (United Nations Human Settlements Programme [UN Habitat])
and has identified potential land space for migrants, although it has acknowledged the challenges it
faces in the provision of basic social services.

In an attempt to better predict the next stages of the current dzud disaster, the government undertook
a follow-up assessment that confirmed the challenges to come and resulted in a renewed call for
assistance from the UN and other donors. The situation is particularly urgent in areas where snow
has begun to melt, creating flash floods, forcing the relocation of families, and isolating a number of
herders and communities until floodwaters subside, which may be as late as June 2010.

Government response
The State Emergency Commission and NEMA have implemented a number of measures, including
providing villages with hay and fodder for livestock, food, fuel, clothing, ambulances and other vehicles,
diesel power generators and essential medicines. According to NEMA, about 1.1 billion tugrig
($756,000) was initially allocated by the government from its reserve funds to procure and distribute
hay and fodder to the hardest hit provinces. The government has since allocated a further MNT Five
billion ($3,436,000). NEMA has been responsible for the overall coordination of disaster-relief
activities, while the Ministries of Agriculture, Education and Health have been the most active in
identifying and seeking humanitarian support. However, government funding remains insufficient to
meet the current demands of the affected population.

This shortfall prompted a Government appeal, in January 2010 and again in March 2010 to municipal
councils, governmental and NGOs and international agencies for the launch of a coordinated
assistance campaign to offset the impact on rural herders’ livelihoods (fodder, hay and fuel) and to
provide access to basic essential services. As a result, MNT 600 million ($415,942) was raised locally.

3   The child money programme was a social welfare payment paid monthly to every child, with additional quarterly payments.
4   A total of 70,000 people from 14,000 households in Ulaanbaatar are migrants who moved in the aftermath of the 1999-2001 dzuds.

The government also received donations of
fodder, fuel, blankets, clothing, food and
financial support from neighbouring and other
governments to meet some of the urgent
humanitarian needs triggered by this

The current dzud has exposed areas of
disaster    preparedness,     response      and
coordination that need improvement. NEMA
responded quickly to the need for an
assessment and has attempted to secure
resources and distribute goods at the
provincial level. A monitoring system was
established that included independent NGOs.
Information has flowed from the provincial
level to the national level. NEMA has also Figure 6. Dzud-affected areas are still difficult to reach in April
shared a regular situational update with - UNDP /2010/ Bunchingiv
partners, and attended donor coordination meetings. According to the latest reports, roads are slowly
being cleared and initial supplies of food, medicine and hay are reaching some of the most critically
affected areas.

However, weaknesses in the areas of NEMA’s technical capacity, communications and emergency
coordination with government agencies and external organizations have been observed. Regional
and provincial NEMA units in particular are constrained by an overall lack of technical capacity. The
dzud has also highlighted the challenges facing NEMA’s search and rescue operations. The reliance
on occasional in-kind contributions from donors and on the ad hoc availability of items is a serious
hindrance to NEMA’s operational capabilities, whilst at the same time the resources thus far provided
by partner organizations have stretched NEMA’s resource-management capacities to the limit. While
a number of other partners have expressed interest in providing assistance, there is either little
detailed information available or conflicting information that serves only to impede the prioritizing and
targeting of responses. There is a demonstrated lack of situational analysis, information management
and mapping, all of which are compromising the overall effectiveness of the donor community’s
emergency response.

The gaps that need to be urgently addressed can be summarized as follows:
    Lack of a common and comprehensive humanitarian needs assessment tool
    Inconsistent information on the planning and distribution of government and donor aid. Also, no
     geographic mapping is available to ensure the coordination of all national and donor
    Lack of systematic coordination between NEMA and the line ministries. Line ministries were
     approached individually and received support from UN agencies and other stakeholders without
     clear coordination by NEMA
    Lack of an emergency database and information-management tools within NEMA
    Lack of a supply plan for the humanitarian response
    Lack of a contingency plan for overcoming logistical and distribution challenges
    Lack of snow-removal equipment and snow mobiles to enable contact with isolated and
     inaccessible communities
    Communication and equipment shortages; some villages cannot be contacted for extended
     periods of time
    Lack of capacity at the provincial level to comply with central NEMA instructions; and
    Lack of an inter-agency contingency plan

Building on the lessons learned during the dzud, the UN in Mongolia has offered its support to the
government throughout the coming year in addressing the longer-term issues relating to dzud
preparedness and sustainable land-management practices. Several coordination gaps, particularly in
terms of the flow of information, need to be prioritized. Tough questions related to land management,
quality of herds versus quantity, and adequate planning for the anticipated internal migration need to
be promptly addressed. These coordination gaps have been identified and addressed as far as
feasible within the terms of the response proposed in this Appeal.

Humanitarian achievements to date
The UN Resident Coordinator’s Office has ensured coordination, information gathering, management
and mapping, with the primary objectives of strengthening the sectoral approach and providing timely
information. Implementation of the system has proved to be an ongoing learning process for the UN,
the government and partner organizations. A comprehensive cluster approach that is owned by the
government continues to be a goal; however, it will require a considerable degree of capacity-building.
Using existing limited resources to the best extent, a streamlined approach was adopted to facilitate
the mobilization and coordination of emergency action.

Four sectors have been activated:
1.    Survival, WASH, Health and Nutrition (SWHN) – United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
      (lead agency)
2.    Education - UNICEF
3.    Agriculture – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
4.    Early Recovery - United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Each of the four sectors has conducted a series of needs assessments in collaboration with the
     Agriculture Sector from 26-28 February, 2010, in Uvurkhangai province
     SHN from 27 February to 8 March in Khovd and Uvs provinces. (Action Contre La Faim [ACF])
      recently (March) undertook a food assessment study in two of the worst-most affected
      provinces: Bayan-Ulgii and Uvs
     Early Recovery Sector from 3-8 March in Tuv and Dundgobi provinces
     The Education Sector benefited from assessment information provided by the Ministry of
      Education, Culture and Science (MECS) that was complemented by field visits from sector
      leads and a Save the Children assessment

    Sector                Key elements of response to date
    Survival, Water           Provision of essential medicines, sanitation/hygiene items and commodities
    Sanitation    and          (antibiotics, oral rehydration salts, zinc, oxygen concentrators)
    Hygiene                   Provision of nutritional supplements, multiple micronutrient preparations (MMP) to
    (WASH), Health             children between 6-24 months, pregnant and lactating mothers
    and Nutrition             Provision of emergency obstetric, maternal and newborn care equipment and
                               supplies to affected areas
                              Organized psycho-social support training to trainers, who will train community
                               members in four provinces. Psycho-social support to women and youth through
                               health facilities
                              Provision of food aid to affected areas
                              Funding support provided to cover outreach cost to medical service providers
                              Printing and dissemination of communication materials, growth monitoring charts,
                               radio communication and public service announcements in the affected areas
                              Food supply to reduce risks to maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in the
                               most affected provinces and villages
                              Provision of clinical delivery and midwifery kits, nutritional supplements, and warm
                               clothing, and mobile services to remote areas for check-ups and reproductive health
                               (RH) services
                              Strengthening capacity through vocational trainings, RH education, and scholarships
                               to youth from affected families for secondary and university level. In addition, support
                               in business skills, crop cultivation, herding and raising awareness on food and
                               nutrition through rural newspapers
                              Funding support for restoring livelihood of female headed households
                              CERF funding received by World Health Organization (WHO), UNFPA and UNICEF
                               to initiate action on urgent humanitarian concerns
    Education                 Small-scale rehabilitation of heating systems in the most desperate 18 schools with
                               over 17,000 children in five provinces
                              Provision of coal and firewood to schools and kindergartens in dzud-affected areas
                              Provision of blankets, warm boots, sanitary kits and recreational kits to dormitories in
                               dzud-affected areas
                              Ongoing psycho-social training to school staff and local authorities
                              Ongoing education assessment in all provinces
                              Fortified flour to school and kindergarten children

5Because the World Food Programme (WFP) does not have a presence in Mongolia, and because there were no NGOs prepared to lead
a separate food sector, it was decided that food needs would be addressed in the SWHN Sector. The grouping of issues in one sector has
not proven ideal and will be adjusted as the cluster approach is introduced in a systematic manner in the future.

    Sector                Key elements of response to date
                              CERF funding received by UNICEF to initiate action on urgent humanitarian concerns
    Agriculture               Support provided to the establishment of a Steering Committee at the Ministry of
                               Food, Agriculture and Light Industry (MoFALI) and appointment of a National
                               Coordinator on Dzud Emergency and Rehabilitation
                              Establishment of an FAO Emergency and Rehabilitation Coordination Unit (ERCU) in
                               the MoFALI
                              2,614 most vulnerable herder households identified and provided with emergency
                               assistance in the provinces of Ovorkhangai, Arkhangai, Bayankhongor, Gobi-Altai,
                               Dundgobi, Zavkhan, and Omnogobi
                              Procurement of 2,300 metric tonnes (MTs) of concentrate animal feed pellets, 1,307
                               kg of milk powder for newborn animals and veterinary medicines (including
                               Avermectin 10%, Multivitamin B,C injections and vitamin powder, syringes and
                               needles) to protect surviving livestock
                              Distribution of livestock inputs to beneficiaries in collaboration with NEMA
                              Partnership established with the NGO Rural Investment Support Centre (RISC) in
                               beneficiary selection and livestock input distribution
                              Prepare technical notes (leaflets) to assist beneficiary herder households to make
                               best use of inputs distributed
                              Agriculture Sector coordination meetings conducted and follow up made with sector
                               members to coordinate overall requirements for the Agriculture (including Livestock)
                              World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and Cambridge-Mongolian
                               Development Appeal (CAMDA) provided 130 MTs of concentrated fodder and 1.3
                               MTs of milk powder to herder households in the villages of Erdenedalai, Adaatsag
                               and Delgertsogt in Dundgovi Provinces (March 2010) to protect livestock from dzud
                               conditions and preserve herder livelihoods
    Early Recovery            Early Recovery Team to support cash-for-work (CfW) programme established to
                               support NEMA and UNDP, and commenced its function from 1 March 2010
                              Needs assessment carried out with a site visit to five provinces and survey in 21
                               villages of nine provinces, with a total of 263 respondents (82.2% men and 17.9%
                               women; 29.3% under 35 years, 61.3% between 35 and 60 and 9.5% over 60). The
                               assessment revealed urgent need for carcass removal in severely affected provinces
                               to reduce health risks, and a need to address lack of cash by dzud-hit herders for
                               daily subsistence. Another important finding of the study was the huge shortage of
                               basic search and rescue equipment by local emergency departments
                               Carcass removal (for two million carcasses ) plan completed, and the programme
                               implementation started in cooperation with NEMA, province leaders, national radio,
                               and Khaan bank in Mongolia
                              Livestock removal has already started and over 360,000 carcasses have been buried
                               through CfW programmes
                              Herder communities with over 19,000 individuals in the three provinces have
                               organized themselves into carcass removal groups, and commenced burial work in
                               their localities
                              Local Civil Society Organizations in Khovd, Umnugovi provinces were supported
                              Recruitment of professionals for an Early Recovery Support Team to assist NEMA at
                               its final stage including International Expert for Disaster Coordination and Early

6 This number was agreed upon with the NEMA. The needs are increasing day by day and it is not possible to continue updating it. Other
organizations, such as ADB and Mercy Corps, and the government itself are also working on the carcass removal. The two million figure is
the total of the three worst affected provinces.

3.1   1999-2001 DZUD EXPERIENCES
Many lessons were learnt from the previous devastating dzuds that struck Mongolia in three
consecutive winters from 1999-2001. In the course of those three years, 11.2 million livestock
perished and more than 15,000 herders lost all their animals, which had long-lasting ramifications for
herders’ livelihoods and security, particularly for women and children. Those dzuds resulted in a
deepening of poverty, a lowering of the gross domestic product (GDP) and an increase in levels of
chronic malnutrition and maternal mortality. A 2003 nutritional survey conducted after the 2001 dzud
found a greater prevalence of malnutrition in dzud-affected areas and universal foliate deficiency
among pregnant women. The survey also identified a high level of chronic malnutrition among
children under-five (<-2.0 z scores): 35.8%; half of all children had rickets; 86% of non-pregnant
mothers and 79% of children aged from 24-59 months had low serum foliate levels; and 36% of
children aged from 6-35 months had deficiencies of two micronutrients and 64% had combined
deficiencies of more than two micronutrients. Based on the national average, the maternal mortality
rate increased from 158.9 per 100,000 live births in 1998 to 169.3 per 100,000 live births in 2001.
There was also an increase in such psycho-social problems as depression, anxiety and suicide among

Past post-dzud experience has shown that many affected herders, particularly young herders, will
migrate en masse from rural areas to cities, particularly to the capital, Ulaanbaatar. According to
official statistics, between 2001 and 2002 the number of herders fell by 4.2%, which precisely
corresponded to the growth of Ulaanbaatar’s population - the final destination for about 50,000 people.
Those families that migrated to cities or provincial centres faced, and in many cases continue to face,
a dearth of basic social services. They lack access to electricity, water for drinking and household
use, sanitation, health care, and pre-schools and primary schools. Most migrants have experienced
unemployment and increases in insecurity, general violence and violence against women, and
alcoholism. A UN needs assessment survey conducted in March 2010 found that at least 6.8% of
dzud-affected families had already decided to move to urban areas in search of employment. UN
Habitat estimates that more than 20,000 people, or 5,000 families, will be forced to migrate to urban
areas in the aftermath of this dzud - predominantly to the peri-urban districts of Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan
and Orkhon – to seek out jobs, food, health care, and education services for their children.

In order to predict the expected internal migration patterns that will occur, it is necessary to examine
the patterns of movements that took place in the wake of the 1999-2001 dzuds. Migration peaked two
to three years after the end of the dzuds, when herders found they were unable to rebuild their lives,
their livelihoods and their herds.

                       Number of Registered immigrants in Ulaanbaatar from 1995 to 2007
                             (Dzud years indicated in green, other years in blue)
                                    Source: State Civil Registration Bureau)

                       1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Ulaanbaatar municipal officials are not prepared for the influx of migrants that will begin in spring. As
stated previously, there is already a critical lack of social services and basic infrastructure in peri-
urban districts that have led to pollution problems and which pose serious health risks to residents.

Prior to the dzud of 2010, disparities between rural and urban areas meant all Mongolians had not
benefited equally from the country’s recent economic growth. Until 2008, Mongolia enjoyed annual
GDP growth of about eight percent, and there were some improvements in key development
indicators, including the health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), life expectancy at birth and
the combined cross-enrolment ratio. For example, the maternal mortality rate decreased from 169.3
per 100,000 live births in 2001 to 44.3 per 100,000 live births in 2008, but rose to 81.4 in 2009 .
Similarly, the infant mortality rate decreased from 30.2 per 1,000 live births in 2001 to 19.6 in 2008,
but rose to 20.2 in 2009.

However, the level of poverty remained static at about 35%. Poverty in Mongolia is multi-dimensional
and stems from a range of core problems, including a lack of income, unemployment, poor social-
service delivery, weak civil participation, and growing disparities between men and women, between
urban and rural areas and between the rich and poor. More than 50% of rural Mongolians live in
poverty. Levels of malnutrition, stunting, anaemia, vitamin D deficiency are also all higher in rural
Mongolia – in the very provinces now increasingly affected by Dzud. The global financial crisis,
particularly the fall in commodity prices, led to a sharp slowdown in economic growth in 2009. These
external shocks exposed the underlying weaknesses of Mongolia’s economic and policy environment.
In 2009, real GDP fell by 1.6%. The social impact of the economic crisis was seen in steep inflation
and wage declines, especially in the informal sector.

While Mongolia’s booming mining sector promises substantial future economic growth, the abundance
of natural resources might not accelerate further diversification of export items and might instead
render agricultural and manufacturing goods less competitive. Mining is capital intensive and the
growth of the sector will not lead to a significant level of job creation. As a result, the anticipated
economic growth fuelled by accelerated commodity exports might not lead to the long-term
development of the country. Furthermore, Mongolia’s lack of diversity in its economic structure, its
being a landlocked country, and its high dependence on commodity exports that have low added value
make the economy extremely vulnerable to downward shifts in world market prices.

The country’s food security is also contingent upon weather conditions and is challenged by the
difficulties inherent in long-distance transport for domestic food distribution. FAO has classified
Mongolia as a Low-Income Food Deficit Country because of the low net income per person, its net
importation of basic foodstuffs for three or more years, and the lack of sufficient foreign exchange to
purchase needed food on the international market.

In Mongolia, livestock are an integral component of rural livelihoods and are an economic safety net,
particularly for poor and vulnerable herder households. For those households, livestock and livestock
products provide direct food and income. However, the role of livestock extends far beyond what is
produced for the market or for direct consumption. The Mongolian pastoralist system provides
employment to herder families and those handling and marketing such products as cashmere, meat
and dairy products, hides and skins. Livestock is a store of wealth and a form of insurance. It
contributes to gender equality by generating income opportunities for women, and products such as
milk play an important role in child nutrition. Livestock byproducts are also sources of fuel for cooking
and heating.

Livestock also have a special cultural significance: livestock ownership may form the basis for the
observation of traditional customs or may establish the status of herders. A herder with fewer than
300 head of livestock is considered to be at a subsistence level; a herder with more than 300 head
can earn a profit. Despite this, it is widely believed that current livestock numbers exceed the
country’s pastureland carrying capacity. A lack of other income-generating opportunities and the
value of cashmere have prompted many to dramatically increase their goat herds. And while it is
possible to sustain increased livestock numbers in good summers and mild winters, it is not possible
to do so in long, cold winters.

For people in rural areas, one of the main challenges is distance. Herder families must travel 100-250
km to reach health care facilities. Those facilities themselves suffer from a lack of equipment or

7   Increased MMR due largely to rapid spread of H1N1.
8   World Bank, Livestock Sector Study, 2009.

outdated and inadequate equipment. For example, in many rural areas, Russian jeeps are used as
ambulances, and there is poor heating and equipment for pregnant women and newborns. An
emergency obstetric care (EMOC)/essential newborn care (ENC) survey conducted by the WHO,
UNFPA, UNICEF and MoH in 2009 found there were shortages of essential drugs and equipment at
primary health care facilities. As a result, about 60% of pregnant women were normally referred to the
district centre for obstetric care, which was not possible for many when roads became inaccessible.
The study also found that heating in delivery rooms was insufficient, with some facilities registering
temperatures as low as 11ºC; the minimum temperature needed to ensure the survival of newborns is
25ºC. Prolonged winter conditions have further tested poorly maintained heating systems leading
many to collapse and forcing the closure of several areas within health care centres. Another survey
also found that many villages had limited numbers of trained personnel capable of dealing with
complications relating to obstetric or newborn care.

Because of their nomadic lifestyle, almost all rural children six years and above are housed in
dormitories during the school year. These children are largely from poor families, with many of the
schools are located in villages made inaccessible by the heavy snow. Over the harsh winter, the
schools have had to keep children housed over the school holiday periods, ordered not to release
them as the Government feared they would be lost attempting to return to their families. This
extended school year drained food and fuel resources. Heating systems collapsed unable to cope
with prolonged and deeper-than-usual cold temperatures. Psychological symptoms and trauma began
to manifest as children witnessed the suffering and heart break of their parents, and were unable to be
with them.

The dzud has had a profound impact on vast areas of the country and has caused severe disruptions
to the normal social, economic and cultural patterns of an already vulnerable and highly dispersed
population. The challenges will only increase with the onset of spring. The international community
alone cannot meet the needs of all vulnerable people. However, in collaboration with the Government
of Mongolia and in coordination with government-led and other international relief efforts, this
response plan is designed to target the most vulnerable of the affected population.

A review of pre-dzud and current data indicates
that 769,106 people or 28% of the total population,
in 15 provinces require urgent humanitarian
assistance. This includes 279,609 children under-
18 and 44,260 people over the age of 60.

While dzuds are commonly believed to be “winter
emergencies”, it is in fact in spring that the greatest
impacts are felt. The onset of warmer weather
marks the start of the thaw, which results in flash
floods caused by melting snow and further
isolation and hardship for flood-bound communities.
Flooding has already been reported in Bulgan
village in Khovd province, forcing the relocation of
up to 100 families. Wide-scale flash flooding is
expected in rural areas in late April/May.              Figure 8.                  Cattle struggling to survive amidst
                                                                        heavy snow. UNDP /2010/ Bunchingiv
A significant concern is that the warmer weather
will result in the thawing and decomposition of the
millions of animal carcasses now littering the Mongolian countryside, which will pose an immense risk
to human health, particularly in areas where carcasses are lying in close proximity to settlements or
running water. Rotting remains attract flies, rodents, insects, wild birds and dogs, which then become
transmission agents for the spread of disease, and there have been unsubstantiated media reports
that people who are desperate for food are consuming carcasses. Efforts to remove and bury
carcasses have begun, although the persistence of harsh weather conditions has hindered operations
and local capacity to remove carcasses is weak and needs urgent attention. Another factor impeding

9A 2007 Education Ministry study on school dormitory conditions found that there were difficulties in meeting health and hygiene standards
as a result of several factors, including the use of the wrong buildings for dormitories, overcrowded rooms, a lack of adequate heating and
electricity systems, a lack of proper WASH facilities, and a lack of other basic necessities.

progress in this regard is the lack of government funds needed to effectively mobilize people to work
on carcass removal and to provide them with the requisite disinfectant, protective clothing and tools.

The dzud is also the catalyst for a sharp deterioration in national food security, and in turn in the
country’s overall nutritional status. The most urgent concern is severe food shortages. At present,
8,711 herder families (approximately 43,555 people) have lost all their livestock and another 32,756
families (163,780 individuals) have lost more than half their animals. The death of livestock means
problems with cash flow, food and fuel. While food shortages were predicted, the scale is greater than
originally anticipated and the timing much earlier. The situation is now critical for many people.

Livestock are essential to food security and agricultural livelihoods, not only for rural smallholders who
directly rely on livestock for income and food, but also for urban consumers who benefit from
affordable and high-quality meat and dairy products. In the short term, urgent supplies of fodder and
the provision of veterinary care are needed to ensure the survival of the remaining livestock. In the
medium term, attention must be focused on herder capacity-building, sustainable land use and better
methods of fodder production.

This spring, the loss of livestock is expected to increase substantially. Currently, 50,000 animals are
dying every few days. This critical period, which is expected to continue until as late as June, will be
financially devastating for herders, particularly those who have no alternative means of income
generation. For many herders, their animals are like family to them, and as the death toll mounts,
trauma, fatigue and stress are also increasing. Rising numbers of herders are now reporting to
hospital with depression and viewed as being at risk of suicide.

As of the beginning of May 2010, more than 7.8 million livestock had perished nation-wide, effectively
decimating rural communities and having a particularly devastating impact on smaller-scale herders
(those with fewer than 250 animals ) who have lost more than 80% of their livestock and who face
losing even more animals in the months to come. In a normal winter, the average loss of livestock is
generally no more than two percent. The huge loss of livestock in this year’s dzud is evident in a
comparison between the worst four dzuds of the past 50 years:

                                  Table 1: Livestock losses during the past four worst dzuds
                                    Year                            No. of livestock lost
                                    1999-2000 total                        2.24 million
                                    2000-2001 total                        3.40 million
                                    2001-2002 total                        2.07 million
                                    2010 - 5 January                       0.05 million
                                    2010 - 1 February                        1.8 million
                                    2010 – 18 March                          3.8 million
                                    2010 – May                               7.8 million

The cause of the dzud and its subsequent impacts on agriculture are complex, but include the
following factors:
 No.        Causes                                        Impact
            Summer drought affecting many                 Lack of household-conserved hay production due to the drought
 1.         parts of the country (especially              Poor body condition of animals with low fat reserves
            key pastoral areas?)                          Lack of hay available on the private market
                                                          Lack of alternative income-generating opportunities led more people
                                                          to keep livestock
 2.         Increasing national herd                      Significant increase in goat population, as cashmere is a ‘cash crop’
                                                          Resultant environmental degradation and over-grazing contributed
                                                          to poor body condition of animals at the end of the summer
 3.         Unusually cold winter follows                 Temperatures below -45 C in many areas for long period
            Frequent and heavy snowfall is                Early snow thawed and refroze as an ice cover over pasture
            experienced, preventing access                Thick layer of snow affecting mobility of herders and livestock
            to winter grazing                             Frequent snowstorms
                                                          Role played by former State Fodder Reserve now left to market
            Lack of stored hay for distribution           forces
            and sale                                      A series of good summers resulted in poor market for hay, so
                                                          private merchants reduced production in summer 2009

10   According to the National Statistical Office, the minimum number of livestock required for subsistence is 200 head.

There is a danger of a significant escalation of malnutrition in dzud-affected areas. As many as 30%
of children in dzud-affected areas already suffer from stunting. The potential for broader health
problems has been exacerbated by the current socio-economic environment. The national poverty
level stands at about 36%, and in 2009 the government revoked almost all social safety nets for
families. Unless basic social services are guaranteed and employment opportunities are created, the
deterioration in access to, and quality of, such services will continue.

Health statistics from the affected provinces show increases in both morbidity and mortality. Most
alarming is the steady increase in infant and under-five child mortality recorded since January 2010
in dzud-affected areas. As of March 2010, the infant mortality rate in dzud-affected areas rose to 32.3
per 1,000 live births compared with the national average of 22.7 and the 19.6 average of the past five
years. The mortality rate for children under-five is 39.7 per 1,000 live births compared with the
national average of 28.7; in the same period in 2009, the rate was 23.4. Incidences of maternal
mortality predominantly occur in dzud-affected areas: of the six cases registered nation-wide in
January 2010, four occurred in dzud-affected provinces.

Adults are increasingly suffering from cardiac diseases, strokes, gastric diseases, urinary tract
diseases, hypertension, and such stress-related disorders as depression, anxiety, insomnia and
fatigue. As of March 2010, adult suicides had been reported in several areas and there had been a
rise in stress-related pre-term births. Pregnant and lactating mothers and their babies have been cut
off from access to health services, essential drugs and medicines, and district hospitals’ capacity for
outreach services is overstretched.

The provision of education services to rural populations has always been a challenge given the
vastness of the territory, the low population density, the traditional nomadic way of life, and poor
infrastructure development. The dzud has overstretched poorly maintained heating systems in school
dormitories that house herder children aged from six to 18. Poor heating, a lack of fuel for both
heating and cooking, and shortages of food, blankets and warm clothing have all increased the health
risks for children. A needs assessment survey conducted by Save the Children (SC) in March-April
2010 covering 74 schools and 26 kindergartens in dzud-affected and non-affected areas found there
was a significant risk that children would increasingly drop out of school to help financially support
their families.

Impact of the dzud on women
The dzud has had a particularly significant impact on female herders, who represent 51% of the total
herding population. Situational assessments have found that women are facing enormous hardships
as a result of the loss of livestock, increased workloads, the depletion of household food supplies and
the lack of adequate clothing to withstand the persistently cold weather, and are hence suffering from
anxiety, stress and psychological trauma. The depletion of food supplies has caused many women to
lose a considerable amount of weight, which places pregnant women at risk of foetal growth
retardation. It is feared that many babies born during this period will be underweight. Access to water
is another area of concern; 57.4% of the female herders questioned during the early recovery sector’s
rapid assessment reported difficulties in accessing drinking water due to blocked paths to wells, and/or
wells covered by snow or ice. The trek to wells has also become more arduous and time-

While women represent the majority of herders, they have fewer opportunities to start new businesses
and face more obstacles than men, making it difficult for them to seek alternate forms of income.
Women are also hindered by the persistence of traditional gender stereotypes that define men as
breadwinners and leaders of households. According to the rapid needs assessment, 55% of those
questioned thought men should have ownership rights over economic assets, including livestock; the
same percentage believed men were the key decision-makers in households.

Particularly vulnerable are female-headed households (FHH). According to the last Living Standard
Measurement Survey, FHH are the societal group most prone to poverty in Mongolia. At present,
24.6% of very poor households and 18.3% of the total number of poor households are headed by
females, although FHH comprise only about 12-13% of the total number.

11   Rapid Assessment Findings of the Early Recovery Sector.

The dzud is already having a negative impact on the national economy. February’s economic
figures show a sharp upturn in inflation, which rose to 8.7% and was roughly double the January
level and up from just 1.2% in December 2009. This increase has primarily been driven by a rise in
food (mainly meat) prices, which reflects the substantial livestock losses incurred during the dzud.
The rise in inflation will erode incomes and purchasing power, with low-income households likely to be
the hardest hit. More than 50% of the animals that have been lost thus far are goats, which will likely
result in a cashmere shortage during the coming season, and hence will impact heavily on those
people whose incomes depend on cashmere.

The dzud has resulted in significant setbacks in the area of poverty reduction and hence progress
toward achieving Mongolia’s MDGs, particularly MDG1. With the loss of more than 16% of the
country’s livestock, many herders have been left without a source of income. While heavy livestock
losses have occurred before in Mongolia, the magnitude of this winter’s losses – three times higher
than the previous worst dzud - makes it an extraordinary situation.

For many herders, it marks a collapse of their lives and their livelihoods. The majority of people living
in poverty are based in rural Mongolia, deepening the economic impact for already vulnerable
communities. The majority of those affected by the dzud are nomadic herders, who make up 35% of
Mongolia’s workforce and for whom livestock represents about 70% of their total assets. Many are
also saddled with the added burden of debt in the form of outstanding loans from financial
institutions.13 It is an evolving human tragedy. The indirect economic effects of the dzud will also affect
the national poverty level and exacerbate the inequality between urban and rural standards of living.
In the short term, affected herders must be given the opportunity to generate alternate forms of direct
income; in the medium term the goal must be to re-establish people’s livelihoods in ways that make
them less vulnerable to future natural disasters and that have less of an impact on the environment.

The Government of Mongolia, guided by NEMA, has provided the first line of Dzud response. Roads
are progressively being cleared and initial supplies of food, medicines and hay for animals are
beginning to reach some of the most critically-affected areas. However, provincial and regional NEMA
units remain constrained by a lack of technical capacity. NEMA’s capacity to coordinate donor-funded
assistance also needs strengthening. The resources provided by various partners have stretched
NEMA’s resource management capacities to the limit. Proper situational analyses, information
management and mapping are currently lacking.

12 World Bank: Mongolia Monthly Economic Update - February 2010.
13 Due to a lack of hay and fodder, herders have requested loans from local banks in order to buy costly the feed needed to prevent further
livestock losses.

Most-likely scenario
     As the snow and ice melts, national and international assistance will gradually be able to reach
      the affected population
     If food reaches the affected population, the food security situation will gradually stabilize and
      there will be greater access to health care
     Undernourishment, malnutrition and other health issues will need ongoing food and
      micronutrient support
     A comprehensive vaccination campaign will be needed
     The massive number of animal carcasses strewn across the country will pose a health risk,
      particularly in areas where flash floods displace the carcasses
     Flash flooding will lead to the relocation of hundreds of families for periods of up to one month
     Psycho-social problems will continue to manifest, with many people needing counselling and
     Child labour will increase as a result of families’ desperate need for income
     Many herders will struggle to continue in this employment, which will only remain viable if they
      receive immediate fodder and veterinary support.
     Many herders who have lost everything will migrate to peri-urban areas; retraining initiatives and
      alternate employment options will be needed
     At least one percent of the population will migrate and will face significant challenges in
      accessing employment and will lack access to food and basic services for a period of at least
      six months

Best-case scenario
     A rapid improvement in the weather with limited flooding from melting snow, and a long
      productive summer, will ensure that more herders than currently predicted will have access to
      sufficient food, support and medical care, their children will remain in functioning dormitories
      and their herds will gain sufficient strength to survive the year ahead
     A percentage will still migrate, however they will benefit from planning and services to ensure
      safe resettlement

Worst-case scenario
    Winter conditions will continue for longer than normal, many roads will remain blocked, with a
     mixture of mud and sludge replacing hardened snow
    This will exacerbate difficulties in reaching people living in remote areas and those cut off by
     flash floods from melting snow
    This in turn could prompt a further deterioration in food security and access to medical care
    The carcasses of dead animals that were preserved by the ice and snow will start decaying,
     with all the attendant public and environmental health risks
    Outbreaks of disease and increases in malnutrition will affect vulnerable populations, resulting
     in further increases in child and maternal mortality
    Animal deaths will continue to rise, further impoverishing those who are dependent on livestock
     for income and food
    This will lead to a greater than predicted migration to peri-urban areas, overwhelming any
     existing services and challenging efforts to meet their needs
    A shorter than normal summer will lead to low fodder production, resulting in a Dzud that lasts
     into 2011

The most dangerous period of a dzud is in the spring, when the full impact of the winter’s devastation
is realized. While humanitarian efforts to date have responded to many of the needs of those most
affected by the dzud, the full scope of the humanitarian impacts of the disaster is only now beginning
to be seen. For the affected population, these include severe food shortages, a lack of access to
basic social services, economic ruin for many herders, and emotional trauma among the affected

This Dzud Response Plan focuses on meeting three main priorities with a combination of immediate,
medium and long-term measures. It addresses the urgent humanitarian needs of the most vulnerable
groups and ensures that critical institutions such as schools and medical facilities are accessible and
remain functional throughout the coming year. It defines and supports critical early recovery actions,
specifically related to livestock, and aims to strengthen the capacity of affected populations and the
government to prepare for and deal with the consequences of the dzud and the next winter.

Strategic objectives
               Address the most critical humanitarian needs of the vulnerable groups and
               institutions for the period between April 2010 and April 2011.

               Food security, health, nutrition, WASH, psycho-social support and education are priority
               sectors for humanitarian action in 2010. Organizations involved can prevent loss of life
with relatively modest programmes to provide basic health care, psycho-social support, safe drinking
water, sanitation, food, funding support for restoring livelihood of FHH and time-critical agricultural and
livestock inputs for the affected populations. Working in these sectors, humanitarian organizations will
integrate gender-sensitive and early-recovery aspects into their programmes to help ensure a long-
term impact.

 Indicator                                                                             Target

                                                                                       (weight for height as
 Decrease of acute malnutrition among children under-five (below five percent)
                                                                                       19.6 per 1,000 live
 Infant mortality rate maintained at past five-year average
                                                                                       74.9 per 100,000 live
 Maternal mortality rate maintained at past five-year average
 Percentage of relocated children aged 5-11 enrolled in primary school and young       Primary -100%
 children in pre-school                                                                Pre-school – 60%
 Prioritized schools have functioning heating and children have access to water and    Heating – 100%
 sanitation                                                                            Water/San: 60%
 Percentage of affected herders with their remaining herds protected following 2010
 Enhanced household level food security, family income and livelihoods of the target   approximately 36,000
 beneficiary herder families                                                           herders
 Number of carcasses removed from prioritized areas                                    at least two million

                Address the protracted humanitarian and early recovery needs of the affected
                population by means of gender-sensitive livelihood-based humanitarian
                programming to prevent further or renewed deterioration into a humanitarian

Immediate attention to carcass removal to prevent the spread of disease and to alleviate the triggers
of psycho-social distress will be achieved by destitute herders who will be employed to undertake this
work. The preservation of food security and surviving animals will be achieved through fodder and
medical support to viable herds. Agricultural support to herders to recover their livelihoods through the
provision of technical assistance and essential livestock inputs will be provided. Emphasis will be
made to enhance livestock rearing practices, improve fodder production, promote more cost-effective
health care methods and strengthen access to veterinary services in rural communities. Capacity-
building and support for improved markets and product lines will be provided to viable herders.
Retraining and support for alternate forms of employment will be provided to herders, with particular
focus on women, who have lost their livestock, including approaches that will allow them to remain in
rural areas and work on the land.

 Indicator                                                                                      Target

 Area to be cleaned of carcasses                                                                128,000 km2*

                                                                                                20,000 of which 3,000
 Number of herders benefiting from CfW on carcass removal
                                                                                                are female herders

                                                                                                Minimum 80% of
 Percentage of herder groups earning additional incomes through alternate income
                                                                                                herder families
                                                                                                engaged in small-
                                                                                                scale vegetable

                                                                                                13,410 (80,460
 Number of herder families receiving critical livestock inputs

 Percentage of herder groups/cooperatives registered as formal business entities                Minimum 50%

*Note: following Government recommendations, this area will encompass the three provinces of Khovd, Dundgobi and

                Put in place preparedness, disaster risk-reduction and contingency planning
                (mainstreamed throughout sectors) in anticipation of worsening conditions
                resulting from a post-dzud spring/summer season, and preparing for the next
                winter as well as for other risks such as earthquakes.

National and local capacity will be strengthened for increased resilience, risk management and
effective response to recurrent disasters, which will lay the groundwork for long-term recovery and
improved conditions for future development. Support will also be given to NEMA in developing a
coordinated approach to early recovery response and planning.

 Indicator                                                                                      Target

 Number of copies of the 2010 Dzud Experience and Lessons Learned Report
 published and distributed

                                                                                                Plan officially
 National Recovery Plan developed and approved

 Clusters formed in all areas relevant to situation in Mongolia, with active Government         Cluster consultations
 participation. Consultations and training conducted, Clusters formalized, plans                co-chaired by
 developed and tested In a simulation in April 2011                                             ministries

Indicator                                                                              Target

                                                                                       Quality donor report
                                                                                       by NEMA, smoother
NEMA’s coordination and information management enhanced                                information
                                                                                       dissemination by

Medium-term framework with action plan for disaster preparedness, prevention and
                                                                                       Approved document
risk reduction prepared and endorsed by key stakeholders for implementation, with
                                                                                       with NEMA
emphasis on reducing risks of impact of dzud on herders’ livelihoods

Percentage increase in technical capacity of NEMA departments in Uvurkhangai,
Khovd, Dundgobi

Number of personnel working in local emergency departments trained for improved
search and rescue operations during dzud

Monitoring and evaluation remains a crucial component of the relief and recovery effort in Mongolia,
although it is hampered by the limited capacity of the government and international organizations to
conduct regular and accurate surveys due to the vast area affected, the current difficult conditions and
the very limited capacity of the international humanitarian community. As conditions improve,
combined UN, NGO and government monitoring teams will operate in the affected areas.

In addition, each sector will develop its own strategic plans with an emphasis on monitoring and
evaluation within the sector. Sectors will closely monitor the situation during the year providing data
by sector and also a report on the progress made towards the CAP’s strategic objectives. Sectors will
present quarterly reports to the UN Country Team meetings focusing on the progress made towards
their targets. The UN Resident Coordinator’s Office will offer support in analysis and the compiling of
relevant data, with a particular emphasis on reviewing the overall Appeal at its mid-term review.

Logical Framework for the Humanitarian Response

 Key indicators                                 Corresponding Response Plan Objectives

            Address the most critical humanitarian needs of the vulnerable groups and institutions for
            the period between April 2010 and April 2011
                                                                Prevent maternal and child morbidity and mortality
                                                                 from newborn complications, common childhood
                                                                 illnesses including diarrhoea, acute respiratory
                                                                 infection (ARI) and pneumonia
                                                                Ensure that herder families in areas severely
     Decrease of acute malnutrition among
                                                                 affected by dzud-disaster areas are provided
      children under-five below 5% (weight
                                                Survival,        with food, nutritional and essential medical
      for height as percent)
                                                WASH,            supplies
     Child mortality rate maintained at past
                                                Health and      Strengthen women’s health and resilience
      five-year average
                                                Nutrition        through psycho-social support, medical
     Maternal mortality rate maintained at     Sector           check-ups, micronutrients and livelihood
      past five-year average
                                                                Prevent water-borne diseases among
                                                                 immigrant population affected by dzud in the
                                                                 temporary resettlements by ensuring access
                                                                 to clean water sources and promoting good
                                                                 hygiene practices
     Percentage of relocated children aged                     To sustain enrolment and attendance of
      5-11 enrolled in primary school and                        rural children in schools by creating child
      young children in pre-school              Education        friendly physical and psycho-social
     Prioritized schools have functioning      Sector           environment in rural dormitories and schools
      heating and children have access to                        and expanding non-formal education
      water and sanitation                                       facilities and dormitory arrangements

                                                                      Stabilize the household level food security
                                                                      and livelihood by supporting sustainable
        Quantity and quality of delivered                            livestock production and agriculture
         critical livestock inputs in timely                        Strengthen the fodder production and animal
         manner                                                      health care immediately, supporting the
                                                                     dzud-affected herder families to protect and
                                                                     increase the quality of their surviving herd
                                                                     Remove 1.5-2 million livestock carcasses
        # of carcasses removed (at least two                        removed in the territories of 225 areas in
         million)                                                    three provinces thereby reducing health
                                                                     risks and pollution of living environment of
                                                                     rural households
                  Address the protracted humanitarian and early recovery needs of the affected population
                  by means of gender-sensitive livelihood-based humanitarian programming to prevent
                  further or renewed deterioration into a humanitarian emergency.
        Area to be cleaned from carcasses
         (128,000 km )
        # of herders benefitting from CfW on                                      Reduce health risks of rural population
         carcass removal (20,000) of which #                                        through removal of two million carcasses
         of female herders (3,000)                                                  with community involvement while providing
        Percent of herder groups earning                                           at least 30,000 herders with immediate cash
         additional incomes through alternate                Early                  income for their daily food needs
         income generation (minimum 80%)                     Recovery              Provide over 6,000 herders with alternate
         percent of herder families engaged in                                      income generation opportunities to lessen
         small-scale vegetable production                                           their dependence on livestock herding
         (minimum 80%)                                                              exposed to high risks
        Percent of herder groups/cooperatives
         registered as formal business entities
         (minimum 50%)
                                                                                   To prevent children of dzud-affected poor
        Percentage of children successfully
                                                                                    families from hazardous child labour in
         enrolled at non-formal education                    Education
                                                                                    informal mining by providing non-formal

                Put in place preparedness, disaster risk reduction, contingency planning (each
                mainstreamed throughout sectors) in anticipation of worsening conditions resulting from a
                post-dzud spring/summer season, and preparing for the next winter
                                                               Establish data collection mechanisms within
        Data system designed and functioning    WASH,
                                                                the relevant institutions at national, sub-
         in 100% of relevant institutions        Health and
                                                                national and provincial levels
        Improved knowledge and capacity of
         target beneficiary herder families in
                                                                Increase preparedness for similar situation
         disaster preparedness and risk
                                                 Agriculture     in future
                                                 Sector        Increase markets for a wider range of
        Functional Agriculture Sector with
         effective coordination and facilitation                livestock products
        # of copies 2010 Dzud Experience and
         Lessons learned report published and
         distributed (500)
                                                               Support the government emergency agency
        National Recovery Plan developed
                                                                in early recovery planning, coordination, and
         and approved                            Early
                                                                improvement of its technical capacity for
        # of users of NEMA website for GIS-     Recovery
                                                                search and rescue operations during
         based disaster loss and mapping (at     Sector
                                                                potential dzud
         least 600)
        Percent of increase in technical
         capacity of NEMA departments in
         Uvurkhangai, Khovd, Dundgobi (50%)
        Country-wide training undertaken and
                                                             Education             To strengthen coordinated Education Sector
         education sector emergency plans in                                        emergency preparedness and response
         place                                                                      capacity at all levels

14   Death toll of the livestock is expected to increase in coming spring months.


Projects were selected according to the following criteria:
    The project is consistent with the priorities identified by the relevant ministries and is consistent
     with overall sectoral strategy
    The project is designed to reach the most affected populations, without discrimination of any
    The project is in line with a human rights-based approach, with gender a key consideration
    The project does not duplicate activities implemented by other organizations
    The implementing agency and/or its implementing partners have a recognized capacity to
     implement the project
    The project takes into account logistical needs; and
    The project is cost-effective

The projects submitted were mapped geographically to avoid duplication and tested for
complementarity. Projects per sector were prioritized according to their urgency in reaching affected
populations with life-saving interventions. In this regard, food and nutrition, fodder and medical care
are considered urgent interventions.

 Lead Agency                 UNICEF
 Implementing Partners       UNFPA, MoH, provincial and district health departments, NEMA, Adventist
                             Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), Action Contre la Faim (ACF), SC
 Number of Projects          7
 Sector Objectives              Prevent maternal and child morbidity and mortality from newborn
                                 complications, common childhood illnesses including diarrhoea, ARI and
                                Ensure that herder families in areas severely affected by dzud disaster
                                 areas are provided with food, nutritional and essential medical supplies
                                Strengthen women’s health and resilience through psycho-social support,
                                 medical check-ups, micro-nutritients and livelihood support
                                Prevent water-borne diseases among immigrant population affected by dzud
                                 in the temporary resettlements by ensuring access to clean water sources
                                 and promoting good hygiene practices
                                Establish data collection mechanisms within the relevant institutions at
                                 national, sub-national and provincial levels
 Beneficiaries               Total direct beneficiaries 104,980 people, including:
                                Women 33,300
                                Children 63,680
                                Other vulnerable groups – migrants 8,000
 Funds Requested             $3,108,530
 Contact Information         Ider Dungerdorj
                             +976 11312185 ext # 118

Needs analysis
The Survival, Health and Nutrition, comprised of representatives from the government, NGOs and
multilateral and bilateral donor agencies was formed to address the health, nutrition, food, water and
sanitation needs of the dzud-affected populations. In addition to the use of baseline data and
information currently available, a needs assessment using the Inter-Agency Standing Committee
developed Initial Rapid Assessment (IRA) tool for assessing Health/Nutrition and WASH situations
was conducted in collaboration with Government representatives in March 2010 covering 165 village
health facilities of 15 provinces.

Overall: Due to the severe winter conditions, people’s access to health facilities is severely
constrained, and this is likely to remain the case through the spring, when flooding will further isolate
communities. Children and women are paying the highest price - with their lives. Disturbing increases
in infant and child mortality are now recorded. Deteriorating living conditions are resulting in a higher
incidence of acute respiratory diseases, poorer hygiene standards, increased incidence of water-borne
diseases, and the worsening of chronic diseases. These deteriorating living conditions also have an
impact on maternal health, leading to an increased incidence of preventable maternal deaths and
unsafe deliveries. Access to health facilities, including emergency obstetric and neonatal care, is also
constrained by a lack of fuel for heating and transportation and essential drugs supplies are
exhausted. Allocations of government funds to cover fuel for heating and emergency vehicles are
rapidly diminishing due to increased fuel consumption. In some instances, local hospitals were closed
partially as their heating systems were broken due to their extensive use during the extreme cold

Vulnerable groups including pregnant and lactating women, children, isolated herders and herding
communities, elderly and mentally disabled people are particularly at risk. As the herders used all
their cash reserves to purchase hay and fodder for their animals, they have nothing left to buy food or
medicines for themselves. Significant risks to human health are posed by huge numbers of
carcasses, which could be significant vectors of disease once flooding begins following the spring

Assessments confirmed that many villages have limited medical facilities and trained personnel to deal
with any complications to obstetric or newborn care. Therefore, there is a need provide obstetric
surgical and drug kits and train personnel on provision of specialized services.

Impact on children: Health statistics from the affected provinces indicate a dramatic increase in
infant and under-five mortality since January, 2010. In dzud-affected provinces, as of March, 2010,
infant mortality rate increased up to 32.3 per 1,000 live births, whereas the country average is 22.7,
and the average for the last five years is 21.9 (35% lower than current status). Under-five child
mortality (U5MR) is 39.7 per 1,000 live births, whereas the country average is 28.7. This time last
year, it was 23.4 (40% lower than the 2010 rate). Main causes of child mortality are complications of
ARIs due to inaccessibility to essential medicines and emergency/intensive care.

Infant and under-five child mortality in dzud-affected provinces, 2010
                                                     Average of dzud-            Country average    Average of last five
                                                     affected provinces               2010                years
                            January                 27.2 (excl. Dornod)               22.4                 21.3
 Infant Mortality           February                        29.6                      21.6                 21.9
                            March                           32.3                      22.7                 21.9
                            January                 31.2 (excl. Dornod)               27.3                  n/a
 Under-five mortality       February                        36.4                      27.3                  n/a
                            March                           39.7                      28.7                  n/a
Source: MoH data,

In nine provinces where data has been collected, IMR and U5MR are higher than the national
average. For instance, infant mortality rate in Uvs province has peaked in March 2010 at 50.5 per
1,000 live births comparing to the last five-year national average of 22.4 per 1,000 live births and the
last five-year average for this particular province of 30.1 per 1,000 live births.

    Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 live births in several of the worst dzud-affected provinces,
                                        January- March, 2010
                     Province name                                        Jan         Feb        March
                     Arkhangai                                            26.1        34.9       39.1
                     Bayankhongor                                         26.6        27.0       40.7
                     Bayan-Ulgii                                          39.1        36.6       39.2
                     Dundgobi                                             19.8        26.6       30.8
                     Gobi-Altai                                           15.6        16.8       16.9
                     Khovd                                                32.5        44.3       35.7
                     Khuvsgul                                             24.5        22.7       30.7
                     Tuv                                                  18.9        21.5       30.7
                     Umnugobi                                             18.7        15.5       14.2
                     Uvurkhangai                                          44.4        38.0       40.5
                     Uvs                                                  37.6        46.7       50.5
                     Zavkhan                                              23.4        19.5       15.9
                     Country average (for particular month)               22.4        21.6       -
                    Shading indicates worst affected areas
                    Source: MoH data,

U5MR is up to 62% higher than the national average. For example, in Uvs province it has reached in
70.7 per 1,000 live births in March 2010 comparing to the national average of 28.7 per 1,000 live

        Under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births in the most dzud-affected provinces
                                       January- March, 2010
                        Province name                Jan            Feb                  March
                        Arkhangai                    30.4           37.6                  44.9
                        Bayankhongor                 26.6           36.0                  46.7
                        Bayan-Ulgii                  47.8           52.2                  58.0
                        Dundgobi                     29.7           37.2                  38.5
                        Gobi-Altai                   15.5           16.8                  19.7
                        Khovd                        45.5           50.6                  43.7
                        Khuvsgul                     27.7           34.7                  39.3
                        Tuv                          18.9           21.5                  34.5
                        Uvurkhangai                  48.1           40.1                  43.4
                        Umnugobi                     28.0           25.9                  21.3
                        Uvs                          59.1           68.5                  70.7
                        Zavkhan                      29.2           22.7                  18.2
                        Country average              27.3           27.3                  28.7
                       Shading indicates worst affected areas
                       Source: MoH data,

Newborn care: Capacity of primary health care (PHC) to deliver essential services and respond to the
                                                                    emergency is weak:          A survey on
                                                                    essential newborn and emergency
                                                                    obstetric care conducted by WHO,
                                                                    UNFPA, UNICEF and MoH on
                                                                    February/April of 2009 revealed a
                                                                    shortage of essential drugs and
                                                                    equipment at PHC facilities to support
                                                                    normal delivery. The heating in delivery
                                                                    rooms was insufficient, as some had
                                                                    temperatures as low as 11 degrees
                                                                    while newborn survival is ensured at 25
                                                                    or higher degrees. Baby warmers are
                                                                    not readily available at primary and
                                                                    secondary health facilities.       Herder
                                                                    families are located at 100-250 km away
                                                                    from health facilities and transportation
                                                                    of pregnant mothers and newborns in
Figure 9. Health service providers are lacking appropriate vehicles suitably warm condition is a challenge
and clothing. UNCEF/2010/Byamba
                                                                    for most health facilities, most of which
                                                                    lack adequate vehicles for this purpose.

Lowered vaccination rates: Also, due to inaccessibility to the health services, lowered vaccination
rates are recorded in some dzud-affected areas reaching only 57% of children due for vaccinations,
whereas the child vaccination rate in Mongolia in previous years was more than 95%.

Nutrition: As many as 30% of children in dzud-affected areas suffer from stunting. Since animal
stock is the main food source for herders, the loss of animals means that increases of both severe
acute malnutrition and chronic malnutrition rate among children under-five are anticipated. Feedback
from doctors confirms an increase in chronic malnutrition figures, although this is not yet well

The preliminary food assessment conducted by Action Contre la Faim (ACF) in March 2010 indicates
that two groups are facing significant food insecurity. The first are those herders (about 25% of 2,000
herders in the affected areas) who now have less than 80 animals and are unable to pay back their
bank loans. For those who have no other sources of income (about 1,500 families) they are assessed
as food-insecure and in need of food support until at least the end of the summer – September. The
second group comprises 55% of 2,000 herders, who had up to 240 animals and no debt. Of these
around a third do not receive support from parents pensions and have no other sources of income,
and are now faced with the decision as to use their animals for food, or for breeding and eventual
replenishment of their herds. This group of herders is not predicted to survive into next year without
concerted support for both animals and their own food needs.

The assessments conducted by the sectors and the local Red Cross confirm that as Spring unfolds
the situation amongst the affected population is becoming desperate, because of the depletion of
winter food reserves of the dry meat and dairy products that are the stable food items for this
population. The significant concern remains that even if they overcome a difficult summer, herders
and non-herders will not be able to prepare sufficient food reserves for next winter, because there will
not be enough livestock to slaughter and because food prices will increase. A sharp decline in caloric
and protein intake is foreseen unless remedial actions are taken. Thus, the assessment confirms that
support to food, fortified foods and nutrition supplements for both the population that remain as
herders as well as those that migrate to peri-urban areas will be necessary for a period up to 12
months. The situation was already fragile because of the changes occurring in the social and
economic environment of the country. Unless basic social services are protected and employment
opportunities are created, the deterioration in access and quality of those services will continue.

While access issues will be resolved to some degree as the snow melts later in the season, the lack of
available cash resources unquestionably will mean that food shortages, chronic malnutrition, access to
medications and treatment, and the psycho-social concerns will continue for herders. In addition, with
the predicted migration of at least one percent of the population to peri-urban areas many of these

15   Analysis undertaken by UN Habitat 2010, not yet published information.

challenges remain, with heightened concern regarding the lack of access that this population will have
to basic social services in general and to water and sanitation, clean drinking sources, health and
nutrition support.

Water, sanitation and hygiene: The needs
assessment also revealed poor hygiene practices and
facilities at household level, and in schools and
medical facilities, including provision of adequate
sanitation and safe water. Families migrating to peri-
urban areas may face limited access to water and
sanitation facilities, which will significantly increase the
risk of outbreaks of diarrhoea, and an increase in
under-five mortality. Dead animal bodies also impose
greater risk to human health as they will pollute water
sources through melting snow. Flash floods are
anticipated both in rural and peri-urban areas in
April/May and pose a contamination risk to water Figure 7. Woman collecting snow for drinking water
                                                             UNICEF /2010/NewsMN/Nyamsaikhan

Increased migration and health risks for migrant families: Based on past similar experiences, it
was anticipated that many families would migrate to the cities or provincial centres. This migration has
now begun with early evidence confirming that the families are struggling to find land to settle and face
difficulties in accessing basic social services. They lack access to electricity, water – for washing or
drinking, sanitation, health care and pre-schools or primary schools. They are joining existing
populations who already face these challenges and are experiencing unemployment, poverty, an
increase in insecurity, violence and abuse of women and children, increased alcoholism of men, and
increased stress symptoms.

Essential drugs, medical equipment, first aid kits, food and nutrition, hygiene and sanitation items,
disinfectants, health promotion material, ambulances support for outreach health services will continue
to be required in the growing peri-urban areas. Psycho-social support for stress management for
those who have migrated will also be needed.

Strategy and proposed activities
Objective 1: Prevent maternal and child morbidity and mortality from birth complications and
common childhood illnesses
     Management of severe acute malnutrition and other emergency health services including
      capacity-building for the health workers on Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood
      Illnesses (IMNCI), emergency triage assessment and micronutrient supplementation
     Provision of emergency obstetric and newborn supply items (delivery kits, baby warmers,
      incubators, baby feeding and nasal tubes, oxygen concentrators, nebulizers, etc.) and essential
      medicines (antibiotics, oral rehydration salt [ORS], zinc, salbutamol)
     Provision of solar and wind powered generators
     Provision of transportation for epidemiology and vaccination campaigns
     Establishment of additional immunization and mobile units to reach children and women in
      remote villages
     Capacity-building of health service providers to deal with obstetric and newborn-related
     Printing and distribution of communication materials (PSAs, leaflets, posters) on prevention of
      common childhood illnesses
     Develop information, education and communication (IEC) materials on infant feeding in
      emergency (IFE)
     Assistance to MoH in updating its emergency preparedness plan and guideline on infant and
      young children feeding during emergencies
     Micronutrient supplementation to children under five

Objective 2: To ensure that herder families are provided with food, nutritional and essential
medical supplies
    Provision of food aid and essential medicines packages for families and poor households in
     target areas
    Provision of multiple micronutrient supplements to pregnant/lactating mothers and children
     under five, support complementary feeding and therapeutic feeding as well as provision of
     fortified flour to schools, kindergartens and targeted households
    Information dissemination through local and social media on available livelihoods services and
     other community support programmes such as health, gender, psycho-social support,
     reproductive health, food and nutrition

Objective 3: Strengthen women’s health and resilience through psycho-social support, medical
check-ups, micro-nutritients and livelihood support
    Health education on reproductive health, medical check-ups and provision of micro-nutritients
     psycho-social support to women and youth
    Improved herding techniques by linking experienced herder families with young families and use
     the existing expertise in a participatory way
    Scholarships for youth from affected families to support them to continue their education in
     secondary and tertiary school
    Health education activities to women of reproductive age especially for those displaced families
     that will be migrating closer to the district and provincial centres
    Psycho-social support to the affected people , with a particular focus on women, through health
     service providers
    Vocational training and provision of business start-up funds to eligible women

Objective 4: To prevent water-borne diseases among immigrant population affected by dzud in
the temporary resettlements by ensuring access to clean water sources and promoting good
hygiene practices
     Construction of public latrines in Ulaanbaatar peri-urban areas in and target village for migrant
     Provision of hygiene kits (alcohol-based hand-rubs, soap, toothpaste, water purifying tablets
      and hygiene pads) to poor households and herders in village and peri-urban areas
     Provision of adequate water sanitation and hygiene interventions for schools and hospitals in
      affected areas
     Conduct public awareness campaign though local media to ensure proper hygiene practice
      among the residents in the area

Objective 5: To establish data collection mechanisms within the relevant institutions at
national, sub-national and provincial levels
     Establishment of    an emergency data management multidisciplinary team headed by
     Design new regulations, provisions and amendments to existing emergency, disaster-related
     Development and operationalization of Emergency DevInfo at national and sub-national levels:
      provision of equipments, instalment and training for NEMA and NSO

     Infant and under-five child mortality rates
     Number of children treated from acute malnutrition
     Number of children stunted
     Number of pregnant and lactating women provided with nutritional supplements
     Decrease of hospitalization due to ARI/diarrhoea complication
     Percentage of contraceptive use among herder women
     Maternal mortality rates
     Number of households received food package
     Number of affected families having access to VIP latrines and safe drinking water
     Number of migrants who practice proper hygiene focusing on hand washing and water
      treatment at household level
     Number of Emergency DevInfo training conducted

    In the dzud-affected areas child morbidity and mortality rates are maintained at average of the
     last five years
    Death rate of children under-five to be less than three percent, cure rate 90% and default rate of
     five percent
    At least 60,380 children prevented from developing anaemia, and acute malnutrition
    18,000 cases of ARI and diarrhoea are prevented at the community level and lives saved due to
     strengthened community IMCI and hand washing
    Reproductive health needs of pregnant women, lactating mothers and other vulnerable women
     in dzud-affected areas addressed
    Capacity of district hospitals and clinics to deliver health services strengthened
    Food packages provided to at least 1,900 herder and poor families in the dzud-affected areas
     (for up to 12 months in some areas)
    At least 2,000 families in resettlement in Ulaanbaatar and 4,500 families in rural areas have
     easy access to drinking water and sanitation facilities
    Real-time emergency assessment, data collection and response mechanisms of NEMA

Sectoral monitoring plan
A two-pronged monitoring strategy will be used to monitor and evaluate the implementation of the
projects under the Survival: Health, Nutrition Sector. Firstly, information and report on interventions
undertaken will be updated on a regular basis by the local governments and community members.
Secondly, monthly spot checks and monitoring/fact-finding visits will be organized by the project
implementing agencies to the most affected provinces and villages. Clear results will be regularly

4.5.2       AGRICULTURE
 Lead Agency                 FAO
 Implementing Partners       FAO, Mercy Corps, ACF, JCS International, ADRA, World Society for the
                             Protection of Animals (WSPA), MoFALI, local government authorities, NGOs,
                             Cambridge-Mongolian Development Appeal (CAMDA) NGO, Family Agricultural
                             Resources Mongolia (FARM) NGO, veterinarians and veterinarian clinics, herders
                             and herder groups
 Number of Projects          8
 Sector Objectives              Protect the declining number of livestock and livelihoods of the vulnerable
                                 herder families through supply of critical livestock inputs. Enhance the
                                 capacity of the target beneficiary households on disaster preparedness and
                                 risk reduction for future dzud disaster through input support on fodder
                                 production and technical know-how transfer
                                Supply fencing material and fodder crop seed for the production of improved
                                 variety of fodder and to enhance technical knowledge and skills on fodder
                                Prevent the livelihoods of the more vulnerable herder families from falling to
                                 the group without livelihood
                                Promote cost-effective methods of animal health and values of veterinary
                                 services for improved animal health
                                Strengthen food safety nets systems at the household level and improve
                                 capacity of herders to better adapt to the effects of climate change
                                Achieve a functional and effective coordination though the sector approach in
                                 addressing emergency and rehabilitation needs in dzud-affected areas to
                                 ensure lack of duplication, avoiding gaps and optimization of fund use for the
                                 benefit of herder families
 Beneficiaries               Total beneficiaries: 80,460 people. Emphasis will be given to marginal and
                             women-headed households with children, and migrating vulnerable families
 Funds Requested             $7,807,225
 Contact Information         Buyannemekh Chimeddorj
                             +976 99199435

Needs analysis
The Government of Mongolia requested FAO to carry out a rapid needs assessment to assess the
impact of dzud in the livestock sector and the livelihoods of the herders in the country. FAO
immediately dispatched a rapid need assessment team that carried out several consultations in
Ulaanbaatar and travelled to Ovorkhangai and Arkhangai provinces to assess the situation. The FAO
mission also consulted with the MoFALI and the NEMA). FAO carried out a more detailed technical
needs assessment in February-March 2010.

The herders in some of the visited villages confirmed the deaths of livestock from as early as
November and some reported deaths of up to 50 head on cold nights. The temperatures dropped
down so low during the day that the livestock could not move out of the shelters for almost a week in
one stretch. This resulted in the consumption of stored fodder and feed planned to last until mid-April.
By late February, the reported figure for livestock mortality (all species combined) was around 2.8
million. As of the beginning of May 2010 the livestock deaths further increased to 7.8 million deaths
or more than 16% of the total number of livestock in Mongolia.

During the field visits carried by FAO mission in January, February and March 2010 and interactions
with the local Government authorities and affected herders, it became clear that the remaining
livestock is under a constant threat of further decline. ACF needs assessment mission carried out in
March 2010 in Bayan Olgiy and Uvs provinces was informed by the herder families that they
experienced dry weather for last two years already. With this situation in these provinces, it is unlikely
that the pasture potential would recover even if there is normal precipitation this year.

The most vulnerable herders face difficulty to meet their family food and fuel needs, and are simply not
in a position to purchase any fodder or feed, which is already scarce in the villages. In any case,
supplies of staple livestock feed inputs, such as wheat bran and hay, are now short and due to supply
and demand factors, the traders are charging almost two to three times the normal price. The local
authorities lack resources to procure animal health supplements to provide to the herders. Due to the
sudden deaths of livestock, herders further face the risk of losing cash income through their normal

16   NEMA, February 2010.

means, that is, through the sale of dairy products, cashmere and meat. Due to the extremely cold
weather and heavy snowfall, the mobility of herders has sharply declined owing to inadequate
transport, labour constraints and an increasing desire for social services.

                                                       Livestock below 300 head is considered a
                                                       subsistence herd; above 300 head increases the
                                                       chances that the household will be able to make
                                                       a profit on them. The loss of significantly higher
                                                       number of livestock and possibility of further
                                                       losses has placed severe constraints on the
                                                       livelihoods of the poor and vulnerable herders,
                                                       especially those who owned about 100-300
                                                       livestock heads in the family. These families do
                                                       not have sufficient animal feed stored for winter
                                                       and spring. Added to the burden of feeding their
                                                       families and heating their Gers (traditional
                                                       dwellings used by nomadic herders), this
                                                       situation will result in food shortages and
                                                       insecurity over an extended period, often most
Figure 11. Animals frozen to death. FAO/2010/Hadrill   acutely in the spring time, which could further
                                                       result in increased malnutrition in children and
                                                       pregnant women and migration of large numbers
to other villages, provincial capitals and Ulaanbaatar.

The consequence of loss of further livestock below the minimum number required for sustainable
income is therefore clear: destitution and a lack of alternative employment opportunities in the rural
area, which would inevitably lead to increased social problems and tensions. Timely assistance
support to save the lives of the remaining livestock with supplementary fodder, feed and animal health
support, also keeping in view the current reproduction cycle (lambing and kidding), is therefore
extremely urgent.       If no timely livestock input support is provided, it is most likely that these herder
families will suffer from chronic food and livelihood insecurity, which can lead to economic deprivation,
dependence on external food aid, migration within the province and to Ulaanbaatar, and possible
social unrest. Furthermore, the indebted vulnerable herder families need support to get prepared for
the next winter, both in terms of technical assistance and input support.
An FAO detailed needs assessment mission conducted a PRA (participatory rural appraisal) session
in area #1 of Sant village, Ovorkhangai province on 27 February 2010, where herder informants were
asked to name their possible ways of earning income and rank these. The findings are shown in the
table below:

17World Bank, Livestock Sector Study, 2009.
18Uvurkhangai 2010 03.30 UNDP.
19Source: FAO Assessment Report - Mongolia Winter Disaster by David Hadrill , Livestock Expert, February to March 2010.

                    Table 1. Source of household income and their relative importance
                                Income-Earning Activities                              Relative Importance
                Cashmere                                                                              27.5%
                Meat                                                                                  25.0%
                Hides and skins                                                                       20.0%
                Sheep wool                                                                            10.0%
                Dairy products                                                                        10.0%
                Camel wool                                                                             7.5%
                Remittances (from relatives in the capital etc.)                      Negligible importance
                Sale of labour                                                        Negligible importance

The above exercise demonstrated that for the herder community there was no significant income from
any source outside livestock production. The sale of cashmere from goats was the most important
source of income, followed by sale of meat, then hides and skins.

The time in a normal year when the different forms of income generation occur was demonstrated,
using the seasonal calendar exercise carried out in Sant Village. The results are shown in the tables

Tables 2-3. Seasonal patterns of income and migration
                  Jan      Feb       Mar       Apr      May       Jun       Jul      Aug      Sep       Oct      Nov       Dec
 Hides and

 Migration        Jan      Feb       Mar      Apr       May      Jun       Jul      Aug       Sep       Oct      Nov       Dec
 At winter
 (See note 1)
 (See note 2)
 Otor due
 to dzud
 (See note 3)
1.          The herders normally stay at their winter quarters from 20 October to 20 May.
2.          However, hay is not produced in Sant village. Herders purchase it from October to May.
3.          Last year, many families migrated with their livestock to places 250 to 300 km away because of lack of winter grazing
            in the area. Otor due to dzud continues till the early grass in summer.

As a coping strategy, many families decided to migrate long distances in search of better grazing.
This migration began at the start of winter, when they would normally settle at their traditional winter
quarters. Regarding income, because of the dzud animals were in poor condition and so less valuable,
with herders reporting as a consequence that meat prices were lower. They stated that the market
was flooded in October with animals, with many herders trying to sell their livestock, and so prices
were reduced.

The needs assessments carried out by FAO, ACF and Government authorities in a number of
provinces illustrate the real picture of the dire situation faced by the herder families in these provinces,
which is also indicative to similar situation in all other affected provinces in agriculture and food
security sector, in particular the livestock sub-sector.

Strategies and proposed activities
Objective 1: Protect the declining number of
livestock and livelihoods of the vulnerable
herder families through supply of critical
livestock inputs. Enhance the capacity of
the target beneficiary households on
disaster preparedness and risk reduction for
future dzud disaster through input support
on fodder production and technical know-
how transfer.
     Carry out a detailed needs assessment
      using a participatory approach to
      determine the priorities and the most
      critical livestock inputs (live animals, Figure 12. Carcasses awaiting removal - FAO/2010/Hadrill
      shelter materials, feeds, drugs, vaccines,
      husbandry tools) and development of the technical specifications, procurement of the identified
      critical livestock input packages to be carried out and delivered to the affected beneficiaries
     Strengthen pasture and livestock management capability of herders through training on
      intensive livestock farming, and pasture management, including demonstration of fodder
      production as a companion strategy for disaster preparedness

Objective 2: Supply fencing material and fodder crop seed for the production of improved
variety of fodder and to enhance technical knowledge and skills on fodder production.
     Procure appropriate fencing material, necessary equipment, supplies and tools and adapted
      seed species and varieties of fodder crops carried out and delivered to target beneficiaries
     Pilot demonstrations fodder production plots developed through provision of fencing material
      and fodder crop seeds to create reserve grazing for weak animals on 1-1.5 hectares of field
      managed at herder household level, and provide training on fodder harvesting, conservation,
      quality assessment and utilization techniques with a focus on community-based preparedness
     Provide technical and material support for the construction / repair of winter shelters

Objective 3: Promote cost-effective methods of animal health and values of veterinary services
for improved animal health.
     Procure high quality anti-parasite drugs for use in female sheep and goat after
      lambing/kidding to prevent the risk of spreading of parasites to newborns
     Identify qualified, registered veterinarians in each affected villages and provide each
      veterinarian with appropriate drugs, equipment and training. Treat livestock, train herders, and
      distribute information in affected areas through local veterinarians on a small fee-for-service
      basis to reduce misuse and encourage ownership
     Procure high quality milk powder (preferably manufactured for livestock newborns), with bottles
      and teats for distribution to herders
     Publish and distribute simple, graphic Animal Health Preparedness & Recovery Information
      leaflets for veterinarians to discuss with herders. Content will only include preparedness and
      recovery from winter problems

Objective 4: Strengthen food safety nets systems at the household level and improve capacity
of herders to better adapt to the effects of climate change.
     Strengthen food security through establishment of community vegetable gardens,
      demonstrating protected cultivation
     Provide capacity-building training and seminars on managing resources, cooking, food storage,
      building root cellar and greenhouses, and small - scale irrigated fodder production
     Promote the plantation of sea buckthorn as shelterbelt to generate small income to sustain
      livelihood of dzud-affected families through the sale of sea buckthorn juice and oil rich in
      calcium as alternative source of income

Objective 5: Achieve a functional and effective coordination though the cluster approach in
addressing emergency and rehabilitation needs in dzud-affected areas to ensure lack of
duplication, avoiding gaps and optimization of fund use for the benefit of herder families.
     Coordinate the activities with the current implementation of Government policy and programmes
      such as the “State Policy towards Herders”, the “National Programme for Food Securtiy”
      (2009-2016), “Mongolian Livestock” (2010-2021) and “Livestock Fodder” (2007-2015) national
     Build capacity of herders in emergency management, e.g. disaster management planning,
      hazard mapping, capacity vulnerability assessment
     Support to development of a comprehensive medium-term livestock rehabilitation and recovery
      programme for the dzud-affected areas with due consideration to disaster preparedness and
      risk reduction
     Strengthen Agriculture Sector coordination through regular meetings and information sharing
      involving all stakeholders including MoFALI, departments of agriculture, veterinary services, UN
      agencies, agriculture sector members and donors
     Liaise with other ongoing similar interventions supported by the international financial
      institutions such as the World Bank, and build on FAO experiences to maximize the projects
     Ensure a consultative and participatory approach to sector coordination, needs assessment,
      and identification of beneficiaries
     Optimize the use of available resources
     Organize an internal medium-term review after six months to assess progress in the
      development of activities against the sector work plan
     Organize a wrap-up sector workshop to take stock of lessons learned from the projects

Expected Outcomes
    Dzud-affected families in target provinces are immediately enabled to protect their disaster-
     affected, livestock-based livelihoods and prevent their vulnerable livestock from dying through
     supply of critical livestock inputs
    Household level food security and family income of the targeted beneficiary herder families
     protected by preventing further livestock mortalities and maintaining the herds’ productive
     capacity of milk, meat and other products
    Improved technical know-how of the target beneficiary families on better animal health practices
    Improved disaster preparedness and risk reduction of the target beneficiary families for future
     dzud disasters
    Enhanced technical knowledge and skills of the targeted beneficiary families of herders
     on community fodder production, conservation and utilization
    Livestock feed security ensured and livestock life cycle feeding management improved,
     thereby increasing productivity and household income
    Increased understanding among herders on the importance post-birthing parasite treatment.
     Veterinarians have an opportunity to take a role of the professional advisor, not just a technician
    Decreased new born livestock mortality
    Dzud-affected herder households receive Animal Health Preparedness & Recovery
    Information, training on animal health recovery, and subsidized and appropriate animal health
    Post-birthing females and newborns are treated appropriately
    Livelihoods of dzud-affected vulnerable herders are sustained through the supply of vouchers
     for fodder at less expensive prices
    Enhanced capacity of herders to adapt to climate change and to prepare for future disaster
    Improved knowledge among the herders on intensive livestock farming and pasture
    Establishment of community vegetable gardens
    Improved capacity and skills of targeted beneficiaries in farming, management of resources,
     cooking, food storage, building root-cellar and greenhouse
    Immediate impact on coordination mechanism with a functional Agriculture Sector with regular
     coordination meetings and sharing of information among the relevant stakeholders
    Agriculture Sector members supported to design and implement their immediate response and
     medium-term rehabilitation plans as necessary
    Advocacy conducted on disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction for future dzuds
    Close collaboration of the Agriculture Sector with the other ongoing livestock sector projects,
     implemented by Government of Mongolia and other relevant agencies in the country such as

      European Union, the World Bank, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit
      (GTZ) and United States Agency for International Development (USAID) enhanced with linking
      of project activities
     Close monitoring and exchange of information on the sector activities with the Government of
      Mongolia and other sector members

Sectoral monitoring plan
A medium-term evaluation will be done after six months with the main objective to assess the progress
in the development of activities against the work plan. Impact assessment to evaluate the impact of
the project as part of FAO standard method of monitoring and evaluation system and evaluate the
improvement in the food and livelihood security situation of the dzud-affected families in the target
areas will be undertaken. A final evaluation, together with a closing workshop, will be done to assess
the success of the projects. FAO through sector coordination and lead will endeavour in linking the
project activities with any ongoing projects on livestock and food security in the provinces. The
activities will be closely monitored and information shared among Agriculture Sector members, the
Government of Mongolia and other sector members.

 Lead Agency                UNDP
 Implementing Partners      ILO, UN Habitat, UNICEF, ADRA, Mercy Corps, Chamber of Commerce, NEMA,
                            Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Village Authorities, Khaan Bank
 Number of Projects         6
 Sector Objectives          To ensure effective early recovery from the dzud, three principal objectives to be
                            achieved by the Early Recovery Sector are to:
                            1) reduce health risks of rural population through removal of two million
                                carcasses with community involvement while providing at least 30,000
                                herders with immediate cash income for their daily food needs;
                            2) provide over 6,000 herders with alternate income generation opportunities to
                                lessen their dependence on livestock herding exposed to high risks;
                            3) support NEMA in early recovery planning, coordination, and improvement of
                                its technical capacity for search and rescue operations during potential dzud.
 Beneficiaries              36,000 herders, NEMA, three provincial departments
 Funds Requested            $4,430,000
 Contact Information        Akbar Usmani
                            +976 99114337

Needs analysis
The majority of the Mongolian rural populations are herders who are fully dependent on their livestock
both as direct food supply and as the main source of income. They live in remote areas far away from
major settlements and without alternatives to generate income or obtain food. Over 35% of the
country is living below the poverty line and can be considered highly vulnerable. With 7.8 million
livestock deaths, many herders no longer have any source of income or food and are forced to leave
the area they resided.

Assessments have shown that at least 8,711 families no longer have any livestock, and an additional
32,756 lost over 50%. The real figure may be much higher as it is challenging to obtain detailed
information about the local situation in many areas due to the vast territory of the country, its low
population density (the lowest in the world) and the limited resources available to the government.
This collapse of livelihood needs to be addressed urgently and support is needed as well to clear out
the enormous amount of livestock carcasses that are lying all around the country and pose health
risks as well as a depressing sight for herders. Previous dzuds, which were of a smaller magnitude,
triggered mass migration to urban areas in the months and years afterward and already a significant
part of the population is on the move. The dire situation requires much support both in the short and
long term.

Strategy and proposed activities
Timely support needs to arrive to the affected populations, who are eager to rebuild their normal lives
so that they no longer have to rely on relief assistance.         Based on needs assessments and in
consultation with partners, three main needs have been identified: (1) Removal of livestock carcasses;
(2) Support to livelihoods; and, (3) Support to early recovery planning.

Objective 1: Reduce health risks of rural population through removal of carcasses with
community involvement while providing the affected herders with immediate cash income for
their daily food needs
So far 7.8 million livestock have died: a number that
is still growing by the day during April and May
2010. These carcasses pose a threat to the health
of humans and animals. The large volume of
carcasses also creates a psychological burden for
herders, especially for the thousands of herders
who have lost all. Suicides occurred after previous
dzuds and have been reported this time as well.

The carcasses of the millions of livestock that still
remain in the open are a direct threat to the health
of herders, through both vector-borne diseases and
water/soil contamination (WHO, 2010), and have
negative impact on their psychological condition. Figure 8. Herders moving dead sheep for burial.
                                                      UNDP/2010/Bunchingiv Bazartseren
Mongolian law prescribes the burying of dead
animals in holes and NEMA has developed a


national plan to bury all carcasses in the country. However, the Government lacks sufficient funds to
mobilize people to work on the removal of such a large number of carcasses, and provide them with
adequate disinfection materials, and basic protective clothing, and tools for burial. NEMA estimated in
early April that the removal of 7.8 million carcasses would require at least five million US dollars.
Therefore, the short-term priority for early recovery addresses the current need for carcasses removal.
Recent assessment missions by UN organizations in early April, 2010 confirmed that many herders
are desperate and in state of apathy as a result of large livestock losses. Livestock removal has
already started and although over 360,000 carcasses have been buried through CfW programmes
more funding is needed to cover additional areas and because the number of livestock deaths still
rises rapidly.

Objective 2: Provide herder communities with alternate income generation opportunities to
lessen their dependence on livestock herding exposed to high risks
The loss of livestock is a direct collapse of livelihoods for many herders, as 35% of the population lives
below the poverty line (NSO 2008) with prevailing presence in rural Mongolia. According to studies
conducted by the UNDP Sustainable Land Management project in 2008, 80% of herders hold 40% of
the entire national livestock herd. This means there are many herders whose subsistence depends
solely on their small amount of livestock. These herders were not able to slaughter many animals to
obtain cash for buying extra fodder and hay. Moreover, last fall the majority of small herders borrowed
money mainly from banks to preserve more hay and fodder or to move for otor (distant migration in
search of better pastures) to save their livestock but without much success and added burden of debt.

Extensive migration of herders is anticipated as this was experienced following the dzud in 1999-2001.
Past experience has shown that this migration does not occur only directly after the disaster, but that
an increased migration pattern can be observed for a period of several years. The previous migration
waves have led to large scale unsustainable housing known locally as ‘ger areas’. These ger houses
are not connected to the water network and the large scale use of coal is the main source for severe
air pollution during the Mongolian winter.

It is also important to look at the broader environmental context, as herders are increasingly
vulnerable to the impact of climate change. According to Mongolia’s 2009 Assessment Report on
Climate Change (MNET), climate change predictions for Mongolia include further increase of air
temperatures, reduction of water resources and arable land, and augmented precipitation in some
regions. The assessment identifies the livestock sector as the most exposed to climate change. In
the background of these negative trends for climate change coupled with escalating frequency of
disasters like the current dzud, a drastic policy reform in the livestock sector is needed for climate
change adaptation towards labour force shift from this vulnerable sector to other less risky sectors,
possibly, processing of livestock products for final agricultural commodities. Therefore the response
needs to focus on decreasing the dependency on large numbers of livestock and improving pasture
management. This is something that needs to be supported for many years to come, and this Appeal
addresses the initial support.

The response needs to address the root causes that have contributed to the disaster. Several
assessments confirm that over-concentration of stock, which results in overgrazing of pastures,
reduction of land productivity, as well as weak production capacity for hay and fodder for winter
hardships all contribute significantly to the severity of dzud. Shortages of hay and fodder, poor
coordination of otor (migration in search of better pastureland towards central region) prior to an
emergency, and untrained young herders are the evidence that local government authorities and
herders have not adequately prepared for the winter, despite the warnings of the Government of
Mongolia on possible severe wintering.

During a survey by the Early Recovery Sector in 21 villages of nine provinces, 263 respondents,
including mainly affected herders and a small number of local government representatives, highlighted
an overall decrease of income by 19%. About 20% of the herders expressed an interest in developing
alternative livelihoods. Over 50% of herders are interested to start a new business if significant
support is provided. A majority of them plan to continue rearing livestock (74.5%), while 31.2% would
like to grow vegetables and other crops, some (22.1%) want like to start small-scale production and
sales businesses, few (6.8%) think of migrating to urban areas to find employment, and 4.6% would
like to do sewing/tailoring in order to sustain their livelihoods.

20It is estimated by NSO that the minimum number of livestock for subsistence of a medium-herder household (five people) is 200 sheep

To implement the above plans to restore their livelihoods, a majority (68.8%) believe that loan and
financial support are priority needs. Other needs expressed include:
 28.5% skills trainings
 24.7% small-scale equipment
 13.7% organizational support to start a business
 8% management support to expand a business
 a number of women (14.9%), twice that of men, do not know what to do to sustain their livelihoods
     in the future
These results show that to reduce the future risks and vulnerability of herders to potential natural
disasters, more essential measures will be training on business management, planning for adaptation
to climate change, and new skills for other alternate livelihood activities that can be pursued in parallel
to herding, and provision of initial seed funds to start up their businesses.

Objective 3: Support NEMA in elaborating standarized assessment tools, sector approach,
early recovery planning, coordination, and improvement of its technical capacity for search
and rescue operations during potential dzud
The recent dzud experience has highlighted several areas in need of improvement in disaster
preparedness, response and coordination in Mongolia. At the onset of dzud, NEMA guided by the
State Emergency Commission responded quickly to the need for an assessment and attempted to
mobilize resources and distribute aid to affected provinces. A monitoring system was established
including involvement of the Trade Union of Mongolia. Information has flowed from province levels to
the central level; a regular situational update has been shared with partners, and donor coordination
meetings have been attended by NEMA representatives.

A rapid field assessment for early recovery needs undertaken in March revealed the serious shortage
of basic equipment at provincial level NEMA departments specially those necessary for effective
search and rescue operations. The rescuers experienced great difficulties in searching herders who
got lost in vast steppes during snow storms trying to save their herds from being frozen and starved.
The problems occurred mainly because of the lack of radio communication tools, and transport means
to traverse heavy snow terrain, and reach those isolated from the centres by snow-blocked roads.

Most of the communication and information management issues have to be dealt with in the long-term
perspective, but for the early recovery, the priority measures required to include direct assistance in
smoothening information flow on dzud issues both domestically and internationally, improving
coordination, and creating databases on dzud loss, and aid mapping. Moreover, support to early
recovery planning and implementation and provision of basic equipment to ensure better
preparedness for the case of dzud continuation or its occurrence in the near future remain of utmost

Expected Outcomes
     At least two million carcasses will be removed cleaning almost 150,000km in the three key
     provinces of Khovd, Dundgobi and Ovorkhangai
    25,000 herders will benefit from CfW on carcass removal, of which at least 3,000 will be female
    Minimum 80% of involved herder groups will earn additional incomes through alternate income
     generation. At least 80% of these herder families will be engaged in small-scale vegetable
     production for their household consumption
    Minimum 50% of targeted herder groups/cooperatives will become registered legal business
    Overall dependency on livestock income will be decreased
    2010 Dzud Experience and Lessons learned report will be developed, published and distributed
    National Recovery Plan will be developed and approved for implementation
    NEMA will have a website for geographic information system-based disaster loss and mapping,
     and has capacity for its continuous maintenance
    Emergency coordination and humanitarian assessments, communication and information flows
     improved, with improved transparency in aid coordination and delivery reaching to the
     populations in greatest need
    Technical capacity of NEMA departments in Uvurkhangai, Khovd, Dundgobi will increase by
     50% for performing search and rescue operations during potential dzud
    Inter-agency Contingency Plan produced, owned by Government and a simulation testing it
     conducted early in 2011

Sectoral monitoring plan
Results indicators will help monitor whether strategic interventions are achieving their intended
objectives. The design of the programmes will encourage transparency and accountability in the use
of resources. Monitoring activities will include on-site surveillance, regular reporting, and financial
expenditure tracking.    Wherever applicable, communities will be engaged in monitoring the
implementation of the activities. Financial transaction will be reported through transparent financial
systems. The Paris Declaration of 2005 on Aid Effectiveness will be fully adhered to.

The monitoring framework is intended to achieve the following purposes:
    Results-Orientation: Ensure appropriate measurement and assessment of sector performance
     in order to effectively improve its management and achieve results
    Quality Assurance: Ensure quality in sector activities to ensure best possible benefit for
     beneficiaries, through monitoring delivery and identifying issues that need corrective action and
     ensure that additional assistance is provided early
    Accountability: Ensure accountability in the use of resources through the emphasis on
     financial reviews to make sure that funds are being appropriately used to achieve defined
     outputs, and that the implementing partners have sufficient controls in place to demonstrate that
     funds are being used appropriately
    Transparency: Ensure transparency in sector activities, finances, and results to all
    Learning: ensure that key lessons learnt are analysed for future response activities

To enhance coordination for all early recovery activities, the ER sector will:
    organize regular and ad hoc meetings
    update the sector response matrix on a regular basis
    carry out joint monitoring missions

The above-mentioned monitoring framework is already applied to the UNDP CfW programme. A
hotline is opened at National Radio to allow public monitoring; herders can report on procedural
violations in their areas and can give feedback on the efficiency and transparency of operations. The
beneficiary lists shall be displayed at the Information Board of the Village Government accessible by
any interested individual while village level committees will endorse and oversee implementation
within their localities.

 Appealing Agency             UNICEF
                              MECS, National Centre for Non-formal and Distance Education, Provincial
                              Education and Culture Departments, local schools
 Number of Projects           6
 Sector Objectives               To sustain enrolment and attendance of rural children in schools by creating
                                  child friendly physical and psycho-social environment in rural dormitories and
                                  schools and expanding non-formal education facilities and dormitory
                                 To protect children of dzud-affected poor families from hazardous child
                                  labour in informal mining by providing non-formal education
                                 To strengthen coordinated education sector emergency preparedness and
                                  response capacity at all levels
 Beneficiaries                Total beneficiaries
                                 Children: 69,593 (including 18,048 in 225 school dormitories in 165 villages
                                  of 15 provinces that are declared disaster and dzud-affected areas)
                                 Other vulnerable groups: 6,000
 Funds Requested              2,805,039
 Contact Information          Bolorchimeg Bor
                              +976 11 312 185 ext# 108

Needs analysis
As with other sectors, the Education Sector, especially rural education institutions, has been severely
affected by the dzud both directly and indirectly. According to the statistics from the MECS there are
approximately 18,048 students staying in dormitories in dzud-affected provinces during the 2009/2010
school year. While delivery of quality education services to rural populations is difficult and costly
during normal conditions due to the vast territory, low population density, traditional nomadic lifestyle
as well as poor infrastructure development in rural areas, the dzud has compounded the challenges.
To address the growing concerns an education sector was formed, initially consisting of UNICEF and
SC, and called particular attention to the children in dormitories as they are largely from nomadic
herder families who are hard hit by the dzud.

                                          Creation of a child-friendly learning and living environment in
                                          boarding schools that are almost entirely attended by children
                                          from herder families is one of the important pre-requisities that
                                          support children’s rights to education and development and
                                          ensure the continuation of education services in times of
                                          disaster. However, current educational facilities including the
                                          capacity and physical conditions of dormitories are not
                                          adequate to respond to such demand.

                                               The needs assessment recently conducted in March-April
                                               2010 by SC, which included 74 schools and 26 kindergartens
                                               in dzud-affected and non-affected areas, confirmed the
                                               importance of support by the sector including the repair of
                                               heating systems and supply of fuel and reinforced that the
Figure 10. School child with frost bitten nose quality of learning has been affected by the dzud. The dzud
and face. UNICEF/2010/Byambaa                  has resulted in a significant downturn in attendance, retention,
                                               and learning achievement of children due to the extremely
poor teaching/learning conditions in schools, the lack of education materials, overcrowding in boarding
facilities, parents’ inability to afford food and school expenses, and low motivation and deteriorated
competence of teachers. The plight of these children is further compounded by the fact that they
cannot get support from, or even be visited by, their parents due to the dzud. The combination of
factors makes the children more vulnerable to disease and preventable illnesses, and impacts on their
psycho-social well-being.

In addition, the assessment established that there is a significant risk that children will increasingly
drop out of school to contribute to the family income. Urgent attention to the livelihoods and food
security of families must go hand in hand with making schools safe and healthy environments for
children and their learning. Attention to these areas will mitigate against severe suffering of children in
future dzud situations.

Teachers’ recommendations to the assessment included:

     summer educational programmes for students (as students’ learning achievement has
      decreased mainly due to increased absenteeism)
     support for herders, flooding protection materials in villages in the short term, greater
      preparedness, dzud and vocational skills training for children
     economic support for teachers
     structural improvements for schools in the long term

The main concerns expressed by students related to the improvement of living and learning conditions
especially in dormitories by improvements in sanitary facilities (in-door toilets and showers),
improvements in the quality of food provided, as well as provision of entertainment materials and
equipment (such as TVs, music and books).

Regarding the migration of some herders to Ulaanbaatar as a result of the dzud, the MECS reports
that currently 26 schools in seven districts of Ulaanbaatar, representing a quarter of schools in the
capital, in particular in the districts of Songinohairhan and Bayanzurkh, are already overstretched.
Schools have to operate over three shifts every day, providing 116 classes to 5,483 students in the
third shift alone. It is likely that increased migration to peri-urban areas will add significantly to this
burden. In other cases, impoverished families may migrate with their children to mining sites where
schooling and health facilities are either non-existent or woefully inadequate to cope with the influx of
hundreds or thousands of children.

Finally, and overall, there is an increasing need to build capacity at all levels of the education system
through systematic monitoring of dzud and other emergencies, and to plan and act upon
preparedness plans for humanitarian emergencies. The Ministry understands the importance of
preparedness and has expressed interest in working with the UN to strengthen the education sector.

Strategy and proposed activities
Objective 1: To sustain enrolment and attendance of rural children in schools by creating
child-friendly physical and psycho-social environment in rural dormitories and schools and
expanding non formal education facilities and dormitory arrangements
     Create child-friendly environment at rural dormitories and schools by improving heating,
      sanitation and cooking facilities, provision of blankets, hygiene kits, and recreational kits
     Provide ger-dormitories and learning materials for about 3,000 school-age children who do not
      have access to school dormitories
     Capacity building of dormitory teachers on methodologies and skills working with younger and
      adolescent children
     Support and promote dormitories in establishing Child Development Centres for conducting
      various activities including initiatives of child-led organizations and leisure time activities for
     Provide a training of trainers (ToT) and further trainings to school teachers and social workers
      on psycho-social assessment and support
     Organize community education and awareness programme activities to ensure community
      responsiveness/preparedness to environmental issues

Objective 2: To protect children of dzud-affected poor families from hazardous child labour in
informal mining by providing non-formal education
     Provide non-formal education classes for school dropouts who have been internally displaced
      as a result of disaster and are currently living in the peri-urban areas
     Provide pre-school and non-formal basic education services to children of dzud-affected migrant
      and non-migrant families

Objective 3: To strengthen coordinated Education Sector emergency preparedness and
response capacity at all levels
    Deliver a capacity development programme for ministry officials, officials within selected
     provinces and schools to monitor the affect of the dzud and produce preparedness and
     response plans for possible humanitarian emergencies in the future
    Implement Child-Led Disaster Risk Reduction (CLDRR) programmes at rural schools and
     dormitories to minimize post-dzud-related risks and mobilize children and young people as risk
     communicators and agents of social change within their schools and respective communities
     Provide training of head teachers and teachers to enhance their knowledge and skills for
     disaster preparedness and emergency management to ensure continuity and quality of teaching
     and learning and provide psycho-social support to children in schools and communities affected
     by dzud

Expected Outcomes
    School enrolment and attendance rates for children from herder families maintained and their
     learning outcomes improved
    Second learning opportunities provided to children who dropped out of schools due to dzud
    Coordinated education emergency and response mechanism established

Sectoral monitoring plan
Local schools report the implementation of results based project activities on a monthly basis through
e-mails and phone calls, and provide feedback and comments when necessary to provincial Education
and Culture Department and appealing agencies.

Provincial Education and Culture Departments will conduct regular on-site monitoring of project
activities in close collaboration with local schools and submit a monitoring report with main highlights
to appealing agencies and the MECS every two months or when required.

Joint monitoring by appealing agencies will be conducted on a quarterly basis in close collaboration
with the MECS.

The response to the dzud disaster is being led by the Government of Mongolia. The UN was formally
requested to coordinate all donor contributions. UN have also formed an internal inter-agency
emergency working group who will coordinate joint situation reports, share programme responses, etc.
The humanitarian community is coordinating closely through the sectors with NEMA and other
Government departments.

Sector meetings have been taking place with an increasing number of partners. Sector coordination,
information collection and management and mapping have been ensured by the UN Resident
Coordinator’s Office with the primary objective of strengthening the role of the sectors and providing
timely information. Other agencies are invited to consolidate all information management (IM)
resources to provide analysis on sector response.

 Sector                                        Sector lead   Other humanitarian stakeholders

 Survival, WASH,
                       Ministry of Social
 Health and                                    UNICEF        UNFPA, ACF, SC, ADRA
                                                             SC, United Nations Educational,
                       Ministry of                           Scientific, and Cultural Organization
 Education                                     UNICEF
                       Education                             (UNESCO), International Labour
                                                             Organization (ILO)
                                                             FAO, Mercy Corps, ACF, Joint Christian
                       Ministry of Food                      Services (JCS) International, ADRA,
 Agriculture           Agriculture and light   FAO           WSPA, MoFALI, local government
                       Industry                              authorities, NGOs, CAMDA, FARM,
                                                             veterinarians and veterinarian clinics
                                                             ILO, UN Habitat, UNICEF, ADRA,
                                                             Mercy Corps, Chamber of Commerce,
 Early Recovery        NEMA                    UNDP          NEMA, Ministry of Food and
                                                             Agriculture, village authorities, Khaan

6.        CONCLUSION
Fifteen of Mongolia’s twenty-one regions, home to over 769,106 people, have now been declared
disaster zones. As a direct result of the dzud more than 7.8 million head of livestock (17% of total
numbers) have died due to the cold and lack of fodder. The famine and deaths among the livestock
has created an equally concerning human famine and lack of cash flow for the affected population.
With a significant portion of Mongolia’s employment, food security and GDP involved in and stemming
from livestock rearing, these losses are severe. Urgent targeted humanitarian and early recovery
assistance is required to mitigate against further deterioration to the lives and livelihoods of the
affected herder population.

Springtime is when the worst of the winter’s impact will be felt. The Mongolian people, the
Government, and the international community face a great challenge to respond to the growing dzud
disaster in 2010, the worst of its kind in recent history. This Appeal addresses the need for immediate
assistance, medium- and long-term rehabilitation, resettlement and coordination programmes. It will
assist the most affected herder populations to ensure food security and nutrition; access to basic
health, including reproductive health, water, sanitation, hygiene, psycho-social support, and education
services; reduce further herd depletion, and create alternative livelihoods. Women, girls, boys and
men have different priorities, roles and responsibilities and are affected in a different manner; hence,
services need to be designed to meet the needs of all.

The Appeal aims to reach the herders who will remain in rural areas, as well as those who will migrate
to peri-urban areas where they will face employment challenges as well as extremely limited access to
basic social services. Cutting across all the areas is a crucial need to build up the capacity of, and
collaboration and coordination with, NEMA and other Government ministries and departments,
developing preparedness and response plans for future disasters. The Appeal has been coordinated
with all actors, including the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
(which launched a separate appeal earlier this year ), is based on information to date (30 April) and
will be supported by additional assessments over the coming weeks and months.

The unique features of this slow onset natural disaster with man-made components make analysis
and response complex. This Appeal gives a framework to the response, based on inputs by the
Government, herders and various assessments from the international community. The situation is an
evolving one and the needs will grow further during the coming months. While important short-term
support has already been delivered, the situation has been aggravated strongly in the last months.

It is important that the victims of the dzud in Mongolia, mainly nomadic people living in remote regions,
are not forgotten, especially now that the widespread media attention received at the start of the
disaster has faded while the impacts have increased. The support of the international community
remains essential to stem growing mortality and respond to the humanitarian plight of this vulnerable

21   This appeal may be accessed at the following link:

   ANNEX I.                          LIST OF PROJECTS
           Table I. Summary of requirements, commitments/contributions and pledges by cluster

             Table I: Summary of requirements, commitments/contributions and pledges (grouped by Cluster)
                                                                        MONGOLIA - Dzud Appeal 2010
                                                                                   as of 10 May 2010

                                          Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by donors and appealing organizations

Cluste r                                                                                Original                 Funding               %             Unm et              Unc omm it ted
                                                                                      Require me nts                                 Cove re d    Requirem e nt s          Pledge s

Value in US$                                                                                   A                      B                B/A              A-B                      C

A GRICULTURE                                                                                  7 ,8 07,2 25           1,37 5,20 0        1 8%            6,43 2,02 5                           -

E ARLY RECOV ERY                                                                              4 ,4 30,0 00                       -           0%         4,43 0,00 0                           -

E DUCATION                                                                                    2 ,8 05,0 39                       -           0%         2,80 5,03 9                           -

S URVIVA L, W AS H, HEA LTH & NUTRITION                                                       3 ,1 08,5 30                       -           0%         3,10 8,53 0                           -

G rand Tota l                                                                               18 ,150 ,7 94            1,37 5,20 0             8%        16,77 5,59 4                           -

                                  Table II. Summary of requirements, commitments/contributions
                                              and pledges by appealing organization

Table II: Summary of requirements, commitments/contributions and pledges (grouped by appealing organization)
                                                                       MONGOLIA - Dzud Appeal 2010
                                                                                  as of 10 May 2010

                                         Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by donors and appealing organizations

Appea ling Organization                                                                Original                  Funding               %         Unm et                Unc omm it ted
                                                                                     Require me nts                                  Covered Re quirem ents              Pledge s

Values in US$                                                                                  A                    B                  B/A            A-B                      C

A CF                                                                                         1 ,2 80,0 00                       -        0%            1,28 0,00 0                        -
A DRA                                                                                        1 ,1 34,5 00                       -        0%            1,13 4,50 0                        -
FA O                                                                                         5 ,5 70,0 00           1,3 75,20 0         2 5%           4,19 4,80 0                        -
ILO                                                                                          1 ,2 49,6 45                       -        0%            1,24 9,64 5                        -
JCS                                                                                                80,0 00                      -        0%                 8 0,00 0                      -
Me rcy Co rps                                                                                1 ,1 12,0 00                       -        0%            1,11 2,00 0                        -
SC                                                                                              895 ,3 94                       -        0%              89 5,39 4                        -
UNDP                                                                                         2 ,3 00,0 00                       -        0%            2,30 0,00 0                        -
UNE SCO                                                                                         400 ,0 00                       -        0%              40 0,00 0                        -
UNFP A                                                                                          352 ,0 30                       -        0%              35 2,03 0                        -
UN-HA B ITAT                                                                                    550 ,0 00                       -        0%              55 0,00 0                        -
UNICEF                                                                                       2 ,8 82,0 00                       -        0%            2,88 2,00 0                        -
W SP A                                                                                          345 ,2 25                       -        0%              34 5,22 5                        -

G rand Tota l                                                                               18 ,150 ,7 94           1,3 75,20 0          8%          16,77 5,59 4                         -

NOTE: "Funding" means Co ntributions + Commi tments + Carry-over

Pledge:              a non-binding announcement of an intended contribution or allocation by the donor. ("Uncommitted pl edge" on these tables indi cates the
                     balance of original pledges not yet committed).
Commitment:          creation of a legal, contractual obli gation between the donor and recipient enti ty, speci fyi ng the amount to be contributed.

Contribution:        the actual payment of funds or transfer of in-kind goods from the do nor to the recipi ent entity.

The list of projects and the figures for their funding requirements in this document are a snapshot as of 10 May 2010. For continuously updated information on projects, funding requirements,
and contributions to date, visit the Financial Tracking Service (

                                  Table III. List of projects grouped by cluster

                                                                                           Original      Funding                  Unmet
                             Appealing                                                                                   %
      Project Code                                       Project title                   Requirements                          Requirements
                              Agency                                                                                   Covered
                                                                                              ($)          ($)                      ($)

(click on code to open full project sheet)

                                          Immediate input support to vulnerable
                                          herders affected by livestock losses in 12
MNG-10/A/32368/R/123        FAO                                                              2,920,000    1,375,200     47%        1,544,800
                                          provinces to protect their livelihoods and
                                          strengthen food security

                                          Pilot intervention to support the vulnerable
                                          herder families on Dzud disaster risk
MNG-10/A/32369/R/123        FAO           reduction and preparedness through                 2,150,000             -     0%        2,150,000
                                          community fodder production and transfer
                                          of technical skills

                                          Coordination of agricultural and livestock
MNG-10/A/32370/R/123        FAO                                                               500,000              -     0%         500,000
                                          emergency and rehabilitation interventions

                                        Strengthening livestock through improved
MNG-10/A/32371/R/5162       Mercy Corps animal health in Dundgobi, Omnogobi and               512,000              -     0%         512,000
                                        Zavkhan Provinces

                                          Prevention of erosion of livelihoods of the
MNG-10/A/32372/R/5186       ACF           most vulnerable Dzud affected herders in            900,000              -     0%         900,000
                                          Uvs and Bayan Olgiy Provinces

                                          Reducing risk and securing livelihoods of
MNG-10/A/32373/R/6579       ADRA          Dzud affected families in 6 soums of                400,000              -     0%         400,000
                                          Arkhangai Province

                                          Immediate support to prevent further
                                          deaths of livestock as a result of the Dzud,
MNG-10/A/32374/R/5516       WSPA          and to protect livelihoods of Dzud affected         345,225              -     0%         345,225
                                          herders in Erdenedalai soum (Dundgobi

                                          Fodder and farming improvements for
                                          alternative income generation and food
MNG-10/A/32375/R/7396       JCS           security in Tarialan and Ulaangom soums              80,000              -     0%          80,000
                                          (Uvs Province) and Khujirt soum
                                          (Ovorkhangai Province)

Sub total for AGRICULTURE                                                                    7,807,225    1,375,200     18%        6,432,025

                                          Early Recovery Assistance for Dzud-
MNG-10/ER/32203/776         UNDP          Affected Areas in Mongolia Focusing on             2,300,000             -     0%        2,300,000
                                          Alternative Livelihoods
                                          Medium Term Resettlement of Dzud-
MNG-10/ER/32204/7039        UN-HABITAT                                                        550,000              -     0%         550,000
                                          Affected Migrants in Ulaanbaatar
                                          Livelihoods recovery project for Dzud
MNG-10/ER/32206/5104        ILO           affected families resettling in suburban            400,000              -     0%         400,000
                                          Women & Disaster: Women taking the
MNG-10/ER/32207/6579        ADRA                                                              490,000              -     0%         490,000
                                          lead in restoring shattered lives
                                          Rapid recovery for vulnerable herder and
MNG-10/ER/32208/5162        Mercy Corps                                                       600,000              -     0%         600,000
                                          ex-herder households in 9 aimags
                                          Establishment of an effective cluster
MNG-10/CSS/32364/R/124      UNICEF        based emergency response system in                   90,000              -     0%          90,000
Sub total for EARLY RECOVERY                                                                 4,430,000             -     0%        4,430,000

                                          Creation of child friendly environment at
MNG-10/E/32272/124          UNICEF        225 rural dormitories in 166 Dzud affected          800,000              -     0%         800,000
                                          soums in 15 provinces
                                          Child-Led Disaster Risk Reduction
MNG-10/E/32273/124          UNICEF                                                            120,000              -     0%         120,000
                                          (CLDRR) program in Dzud affected areas
                                          Promoting a protective environment and
MNG-10/E/32274/124          UNICEF        psycho-social support for children in               140,000              -     0%         140,000
                                          schools, their families and communities

                                                                                       Original      Funding                  Unmet
                           Appealing                                                                                 %
       Project Code                                    Project title                 Requirements                          Requirements
                            Agency                                                                                 Covered
                                                                                          ($)          ($)                      ($)

                                       Ensuring continuity and quality of teaching
MNG-10/E/32277/5103       UNESCO       and learning in schools affected by the            400,000              -     0%         400,000
                                       Providing pre-school and non-formal basic
MNG-10/E/32278/5104       ILO          education services to children of Dzud             849,645              -     0%         849,645
                                       affected migrant and non-migrant families
                                       Strengthening coordinated education
MNG-10/E/32279/6079       SC           sector emergency preparedness and                  495,394              -     0%         495,394
                                       response capacity at all levels in Mongolia
Sub total for EDUCATION                                                                  2,805,039             -     0%        2,805,039


                                       Strengthening essential child health and
MNG-10/H/32222/124        UNICEF       nutrition services in Dzud-affected aimags        1,250,000             -     0%        1,250,000
                                       (provinces) and peri-urban areas

                                       Improved reproductive health and restored
MNG-10/H/32228/1171       UNFPA        livelihoods for women of reproductive age          352,030              -     0%         352,030
                                       and youth

                                       Establishment of mechanisms for
                                       distribution of drinking water supply and
MNG-10/WS/32234/124       UNICEF       installation of hygiene latrines for intra         332,000              -     0%         332,000
                                       migrants in re settlement area of

                                       Relief disaster and food distribution
MNG-10/F/32237/5186       ACF          program to Dzud affected herders of Uvs            380,000              -     0%         380,000
                                       and Bayan Ulgii provinces, Mongolia.

                                       Health and nutrition emergency support to
                                       children of Dzud affected herders through
MNG-10/H/32239/6079       SC                                                              400,000              -     0%         400,000
                                       the Ger kindergarten program in Arhangai,
                                       Gobi altai and Zavkhan Aimags

                                       Information and Data Management
                                       Systems facilitating coordination, rapid
MNG-10/CSS/32253/124      UNICEF                                                          150,000              -     0%         150,000
                                       assessments and monitoring and

                                       EMERGENCY FOOD & ESSENTIAL
                                       MEDICAL SUPPLY ASSISTANCE TO
MNG-10/H/32255/6579       ADRA                                                            244,500              -     0%         244,500
                                       DZUD AFFECTED FAMILIES IN
                                       ARKHANGAI PROVINCE

Sub total for SURVIVAL, WASH, HEALTH & NUTRITION                                         3,108,530             -     0%        3,108,530

Grand Total                                                                             18,150,794    1,375,200      8%       16,775,594

   Table IV. List of commitments/contributions and pledges to projects not listed in the Appeal

                 Table IV: List of commitments/contributions and pledges to projects not listed in the Appeal
                                                             Other humanitarian funding to MONGOLIA 2010
                                                                                   as of 10 May 2010

                                         Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by donors and appealing organizations.                                              Page 1 of 2

 Donor                         Appealing Organization                Description                                                                           Funding          Uncommitted
 Values in US$

 Australia                     IFRC                                  IFRC DREF                                                                                    90,171                     -
 Australia                     Mongolia RC                           Assist the MRCS to replenish emergency supplies                                            225,428                      -
 Australia                     UNFPA                                 For humanitarian/emergency relief work for health,                                         270,514                      -
                                                                     education and psycho-social support services, and targeted
                                                                     longer-term recovery activities in response to the Mongolian Dzud

 Australia                     UNICEF                                For health, education and psycho-social support services, and                              315,600                      -
                                                                     targeted longer-term recovery activities for responding to the
                                                                     Mongolia Dzud (SM100033)
 Brazil                        UNICEF                                Support to Mongolian children affected by Dzud to provide food, fuel,                      100,000                      -
                                                                     health care, education and psychosocial support (SM099906)
 Canada                        IFRC                                  Immediate food and non-food items for most vulnerable groups of                              98,328                     -
                                                                     the population
 Canada                        Mongolia RC                           Immediate food and non-food items for 230 herder families in                                 43,000                     -
                                                                     Selenge and Khuvsgul aimags
 Central Emergency             UNDP                                  CERF rapid response grant to project: Immediate removal of 1.5                           1,524,430                      -
 Response Fund                                                       million livestock carcasses in Dzud affected communities under the
                                                                     poverty line to avoid immediate health and associated risks
 Central Emergency             UNFPA                                 CERF rapid response grant to project: Provision of emergency                               242,461                      -
 Response Fund                                                       reproductive health support to Dzud affected population in Mongolia
                                                                     focusing on vulnerable women and girls (10-FPA-014)
 Central Emergency             UNICEF                                CERF rapid response grant to project: Provision of life emergency                          963,803                      -
 Response Fund                                                       medical supplies, food and fuel for most vulnerable children and
                                                                     pregnant women in 133 disaster and severely affected soums
 Central Emergency             WHO                                   CERF rapid response grant to project: Provision of psycho-social                           225,838                      -
 Response Fund                                                       support, emergency communication tools and medical supplies to
                                                                     the disaster and severely affected by Dzud aimags (10-WHO-018)
 China                         Bilateral (to affected government) Electricity generators, noodles, rice, blankets, and food                                   1,000,000                      -
 Czech Republic                ADRA                                  Relief and recovery (97648/2010-ORS)                                                       107,962                      -
 Czech Republic                CARITAS                               Relief and recovery (97648/2010-ORS)                                                       107,962                      -
 European Union                World Bank                            Humanitarian assistance                                                                    270,450                      -
 Finland                       Bilateral (to affected government) In-kind assistance                                                                               5,865                     -
 France                        Bilateral (to affected government) Réponse au phénomène DZUD                                                                       33,738                     -
 Germany                       WVI                                   Medical kits, clothing, removal of carcasses                                               134,590                      -
 Germany                       WVI                                   Safekeeping of primary health care for people in need to be of the                         131,297                      -
                                                                     coldness in winter 2009/2010 (VN05 321.50 MNG 01/10)
 Japan                         Bilateral (to affected government) Counterpart Fund of the Non-Project Aid to provide fodder, flour and                          500,000                      -
                                                                  transport cost
 Japan                         Bilateral (to affected government) Grass Root Grant aid                                                                          200,000                      -
 Luxembourg                    UNICEF                                Assistance to populations affected by the Cold Wave                                          67,477                     -
 Philippines                   Bilateral (to affected government) Humanitarian assistance                                                                         20,000                     -
 Russian Federation            Bilateral (to affected government) 25 wagons of fodder, lubricant, warm clothes, and medicines                                   320,000                      -
 Sweden                        RC/Sweden                             To ensure up to 1,800 herder families (7,200 people) in eight                              107,553                      -
                                                                     provinces receive essential food and non-food items to meet their
                                                                     immediate needs for up to three months. To ensure the health
                                                                     status of 1,800 most affected herder families in eight provinces im
                                                                     improved through the provision of psychological support and health
                                                                     education. Up to 1,600 families (6,400 people) who have lost their
                                                                     livestock will be assisted in recovery and in building resilience for a
                                                                     period of up to six months

The list of projects and the figures for their funding requirements in this document are a snapshot as of 10 May 2010. For continuously updated information on projects, funding
requirements, and contributions to date, visit the Financial Tracking Service (

                 Table IV: List of commitments/contributions and pledges to projects not listed in the Appeal
                                                             Other humanitarian funding to MONGOLIA 2010
                                                                                   as of 10 May 2010

                                         Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by donors and appealing organizations.                                              Page 2 of 2

 Donor                         Appealing Organization               Description                                                                            Funding           Uncommitted
 Values in US$

 Switzerland                   Bilateral (to affected government) Immediate relief for herder groups according to their self-defined                            470,810                      -
                                                                  priorities (e.g. cash for work, material aid, opening of roads, access
                                                                  to social services) as well as early recovery / prevention (e.g. hay
                                                                  making, alternative income opportunities)
 Turkey                        Bilateral (to affected government) In kind - A plane with humanitarian assistance arrived on 23 Feb                               50,000                      -
                                                                  with following aid: 250 Food parcels (Rice, chickpeas, flour, dry
                                                                  beans, macaroni and sugar) -750 Blankets -1000 Sleeping
                                                                  Bags -1140 Warm Clothes
 United States of America      UNICEF                               Logistics and Relief Commodities                                                             49,625                      -
 World Vision Int'l            WVI                                  Fodder, food aid, warm clothes                                                                       -                   -

 Grand Total                                                                                                                                                  7,676,902                      -

 NOTE: "Funding" means Contributions + Commitments + Carry-over
 Pledge:                       a non-binding announcement of an intended contribution or allocation by the donor. ("Uncommitted pledge" on these tables
                               indicates the balance of original pledges not yet committed).
 Commitment:                   creation of a legal, contractual obligation between the donor and recipient entity, specifying the amount to be contributed.
 Contribution:                 the actual payment of funds or transfer of in-kind goods from the donor to the recipient entity.

The list of projects and the figures for their funding requirements in this document are a snapshot as of 10 May 2010. For continuously updated information on projects, funding
requirements, and contributions to date, visit the Financial Tracking Service (

                                 Table V. Summary of requirements, commitments/contributions
                                             and pledges by IASC standard sector

 Table V: Summary of requirements, commitments/contributions and pledges (grouped by IASC standard sector)
                                                                        MONGOLIA - Dzud Appeal 2010
                                                                                   as of 10 May 2010

                                         Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by donors and appealing organizations

Sector                                                                                  Original                 Funding               %            Unmet                Uncommitted
                                                                                      Requirements                                   Covered     Requirements              Pledges

Value in US$                                                                                   A                      B                B/A              A-B                        C

AGRICULTURE                                                                                   7,807,225              1,375,200          18%             6,432,025                      -

COORDINATION AND SUPPORT SERVICES                                                               240,000                          -       0%                240,000                     -

ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND INFRASTRUCTURE                                                          4,340,000                          -       0%             4,340,000                      -

EDUCATION                                                                                     2,805,039                          -       0%             2,805,039                      -

FOOD                                                                                            380,000                          -       0%                380,000                     -

HEALTH                                                                                        2,246,530                          -       0%             2,246,530                      -

WATER AND SANITATION                                                                            332,000                          -       0%                332,000                     -

GRAND TOTAL                                                                                 18,150,794               1,375,200           8%            16,775,594                      -

NOTE: "Funding" means Contributions + Commitments + Carry-over

Pledge:     a non-binding announcement of an intended contribution or allocation by the donor. ("Uncommitted pledge" on these tables indicates the
            balance of original pledges not yet committed).
Commitment: creation of a legal, contractual obligation between the donor and recipient entity, specifying the amount to be contributed.
Contribution: the actual payment of funds or transfer of in-kind goods from the donor to the recipient entity.

The list of projects and the figures for their funding requirements in this document are a snapshot as of 10 May 2010. For continuously updated information on projects, funding
requirements, and contributions to date, visit the Financial Tracking Service (


                       Humanitarian Coordination Unit, UNRC Office Mongolia

Rana Flowers, UNRC a.i.
Cell: +976 99118274 – email:

Adiya Oyungerel
Cell: +976 99096434 – email:

Catherine Decker
Cell: +976 95799363 – email:

Rajan Gengaje (OCHA)
Cell: +66 (0) 81916 1271 – email:

                                        Sector Coordination
                                      Humanitarian Response

Sector                       Agency   Name and Cell           Email

                                      Ider Dungerdorj
Survival, Health and
                             UNICEF   +976 11312185 
                                      ext # 118

                                      Bolorchimeg Bor
Education                    UNICEF   +976 11312185 
                                      ext# 108

Agriculture                  FAO      Chimeddorj    
                                      +976 99199435

                                      Akbar Usmani
Early Recovery               UNDP                   
                                      +976 99114337

ACF          Action Contre la Faim
ADB          Asian Development Bank
ADRA         Adventist Development and Relief Agency
ARI          acute respiratory infection

CAMDA        Cambridge-Mongolian Development Appeal
CAP          Consolidated Appeal Process
CERF         Central Emergency Response Fund
CfW          cash-for-work
CLDRR        child-led disaster risk reduction

EDCM         Education Donors’ Consultative Mechanism
EMOC/ENC     Emergency Obstetric Care / Essential Newborn Care services
ENC          essential newborn care
ERC          Emergency Relief Coordinator
ERCU         Emergency and Rehabilitation Coordination Unit (FAO)

FAO          Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FARM         Family Agricultural Resources Mongolia
FHH          female-headed households

GCC          global climatic change
GDP          gross domestic product
GIS          geographic information system
GoM          Government of Mongolia
GTZ          Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit

HDI          Human Development Index
HIV/AIDS     Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome

IASC         Inter-Agency Standing Committee
IFE          infant feeding in emergency
IFRC         International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
IEC          information, education, and communication
ILO          International Labour Organization
IM           information management
IMCI         integrated management of childhood illnesses
IMNCI        integrated management of neonatal and childhood illnesses
IMR          infant mortality rate
IRA          Initial Rapid Assessment

JCS          Joint Christian Services

MDG          Millennium Development Goal
MECS         Ministry of Education, Culture and Science
MMP          multiple micronutrient preparation
MMR          maternal mortality rate
MNET         Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism
MoE          Ministry of Education
MoFALI       Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry
MoH          Ministry of Health
MRCS         Mongolian Red Cross Society
MT           metric ton

NEMA         National Emergency Management Agency of Mongolia
NGO          non-governmental organization
NSO          National Statistics Office

ORS          oral rehydration salt

PRA          participatory rural appraisal
PHC          primary health care

RH           reproductive health
RISC         Rural Investment Support Centre

SC           Save the Children
SHN          Survival, Health and Nutrition

TCP          Technical Cooperation Programme
ToT          Training of Trainers

U5MR         under-five mortality rate
UK           United Kingdom
UN           United Nations
UNAIDS       Joint United Nations Programme for HIV/AIDS
UNCT         United Nations Country Team
UNDP         United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO       United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA        United Nations Population Fund
UN Habitat   United Nations Human Settlements Programme
UNICEF       United Nations Children’s Fund
UNRC         United Nations Resident Coordinator’s Office
US           United States
USAID        United States Agency for International Development

WASH         Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
WB           World Bank
WFP          World Food Programme
WHO          World Health Organization
WSPA         World Society for the Protection of Animals

                                Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP)

The CAP is a tool for aid organizations to jointly plan, coordinate, implement and monitor their
response to disasters and emergencies, and to appeal for funds together instead of competitively.

It is the forum for developing a strategic approach to humanitarian action, focusing on close
cooperation between host governments, donors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Organization for Migration (IOM),
and United Nations agencies. As such, it presents a snapshot of the situation and response plans,
and is an inclusive and coordinated programme cycle of:

     Strategic planning leading to a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP);
     Resource mobilization leading to a Consolidated Appeal or a Flash Appeal;
     Coordinated programme implementation;
     Joint monitoring and evaluation;
     Revision, if necessary;
     Reporting on results.

The CHAP is the core of the CAP – a strategic plan for humanitarian response in a given country or
region, including the following elements:

     A common analysis of the context in which humanitarian action takes place;
     An assessment of needs;
     Best, worst, and most likely scenarios;
     A clear statement of longer-term objectives and goals;
     Prioritized response plans, including a detailed mapping of projects to cover all needs;
     A framework for monitoring the strategy and revising it if necessary.

The CHAP is the core of a Consolidated Appeal or, when crises break out or natural disasters strike, a
Flash Appeal. Under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, and in consultation with host
Governments and donors, the CHAP is developed at the field level by the Humanitarian Country Team.
This team includes IASC members and standing invitees (UN agencies, the International Organization
for Migration, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and NGOs that belong to
ICVA, Interaction, or SCHR), but non-IASC members, such as national NGOs, can also be included.

The Humanitarian Coordinator is responsible for the annual preparation of the consolidated appeal
document. The document is launched globally near the end of each year to enhance advocacy and
resource mobilization. An update, known as the Mid-Year Review, is presented to donors the
following July.

Donors generally fund appealing agencies directly in response to project proposals listed in appeals.
The Financial Tracking Service (FTS), managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a database of appeal funding needs and worldwide donor
contributions, and can be found on

In sum, the CAP is how aid agencies join forces to provide people in need the best available
protection and assistance, on time.

                 UNITED NATIONS                PALAIS DES NATIONS
           NEW YORK, N.Y. 10017                1211 GENEVA 10
                           USA                 SWITZERLAND

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