Cognitive Behavioural Coaching
Dr. Damian Davy, A.F. Ps.S.I., Reg. Psychol. Ps.S.I.,
CEAP, MBPS, IAAP, MIACP, MEAPA, MEAEF, MEACC, DWOP, DCoP, DTRiP.
Doc. Occ. Psych. UEL.
MSc. Work & Organisational Psychology, DCU
BSc. (Hons) Psychology, OU
Dipl. Counselling TCD,
Cert. EAP, Cert R.E.B.T., Cert CISM. Cert Supervision.
Registered Psychologist, Psychotherapist, Clinical Supervisor
Who I am
Psychological Society of Ireland, (Associate Fellow & Registered Member).
PSI Division of Work & Organisational Psychologists (Registered Member).
PSI Coaching Psychology Group (Member)
PSI Division of Counselling Psychologists (Registered Member)
PSI Division of Teachers and Researchers in Psychology (Member)
International Association of Applied Psychologists (Member).
British Psychological Society (Member).
Irish Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (Past President, Accredited Member, Accredited Supervisor).
Employee Assistance Professionals Association-Ireland (Founder member & Past President).
Employee Assistance Certification Commission US. (International Commissioner).
Employee Assistance European Forum (Member/Irish Representative and Researcher).
What is Coaching ?
„Coaching is the facilitation of learning and
development with the purpose of improving
performance and enhancing effective action,
goal achievement and personal satisfaction.
It invariably involves growth and change,
whether that is in perspective, attitude or
behaviour‟ – Bluckert 
“Cognitive therapy aims to adjust information-
processing and initiate positive change in all
systems by acting through the cognitive system”
“It initially addresses symptom relief, but its ultimate
goals are to remove systematic biases in thinking
and modify the core beliefs that predispose the
person to future distress”
History of CBT
Developed in the 1960s by Dr.Aaron Beck,
University of Pennsylvania.
Theory comes from three main sources:
1. Phenomenological Theory (Rogers)
2. Structured Theory (Freud)
3. Construct Theory (Kelly)
CBT in Action
As a Cognitive Therapist you are:
Types of Therapy Models
Therapy Model Focus
Client Centred Nurturing the Core Self
Interpersonal Systemic Faulty Relationship
Cognitive Behavioural Meaning-making
CBT General Characteristics
Meaning determines response
Empowers the person through self-help
Enables the person to become “mindful” and
CBT Solution Plan
Identify the Problems
Identify specific Goals
Identify strategies to address the problems
and achieve goals
Identify blocks to achieving goals
Agree number of sessions
Assess suitability for short term work
Strengths, Skills and Resources
Identify a moment in your life when
you succeeded in overcoming some
recurrent problem and reflect and
encourage the “Coachee” to reflect on
each of the following:
How would you describe your state of mind on
that occasion. How did you feel? What kind of
attitude did you take towards your situation?
How did you act to achieve a positive result?
What strengths/skills did that situation reveal
about you as an individual?
What resources did you draw on to help you
achieve a positive outcome in that situation?
How CBT Works.
CBT is based on the Cognitive Model of Emotional Response.
CBT is Briefer and Time-Limited.
A sound therapeutic relationship is necessary for effective therapy, but
not the focus.
CBT is a collaborative effort between the therapist and the client.
CBT is based on stoic philosophy.
CBT uses the Socratic Method.
CBT is structured and directive.
CBT is based on an educational model.
CBT theory and techniques rely on the Inductive Method.
Homework is a central feature of CBT.
History of REBT
Founded by Dr. Albert Ellis, 55 years ago
(September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007)
Dissatisfied with psychoanalysis.
Originally known as Rational Psychotherapy.
Later became Rational Emotive Therapy.
The philosophic origins of RET go back to
the Stoic philosophers, including Epictetus
and Marcus Aurelius.
Now known as Rational Emotive Behaviour
Therapy (because it stresses the importance
of the interaction of cognitive, emotive and
behavioural factors in human lives)
The Interaction in Human
Thought for the moment
„The unexamined life is not worth living‟
Epictetus wrote in The Enchiridion, "Men are
disturbed not by things, but by the view which
they take of them."
First century A.D.
I worried about many things in life,
much of which never came to pass.
In 1943 Abraham Maslow,
one of the founding fathers
of humanist approaches to
management, wrote an
influential paper that set out
five fundamental human
needs needs and their
The five needs
Physiological needs are to do with the maintenance of the human
body. If we are unwell, then little else matters until we recover.
Safety needs are about putting a roof over our heads and keeping
us from harm. If we are rich, strong and powerful, or have good
friends, we can make ourselves safe.
Belonging needs introduce our tribal nature. If we are helpful and
kind to others they will want us as friends.
Esteem needs are for a higher position within a group. If people
respect us, we have greater power.
Self-actualization needs are to 'become what we are capable of
becoming', which would be our greatest achievement.
Reality Therapy was
developed by Dr.
William Glasser, a
psychiatrist who trained
People behaving in
inappropriate ways do
not need help to find a
defense for their
Reality Therapy is
The Theory (Reality Therapy)
We are born with at least two needs
1. The need to belong and be loved
2. The need for gaining self-worth and
Our Five Basic Needs
2. Love and Belonging
One of the core principles of Reality Therapy is that
whether we are aware of it or not, we are all the time
acting to meet these needs.
The Reality Therapy Circle
Getting What we Want
There are three basic questions asked in
What do you want?
What are you doing to get what you
Is it working?
Where do we get our
negative beliefs from ?
Many of our beliefs are formed in our
From care givers, relatives and
From our own incorrect
B = Beliefs and self talk
A = Situation C = Emotional Reaction
“The cream cake made me eat it”
A rigid belief where the person dogmatically insists that
certain conditions must or must not exist.
They are absolutes.
I would like to pass my driving test…and therefore I have to
do so. (I must pass my driving test)
I want you to treat me fairly… and therefore you absolutely
have to do so. (You must treat me fairly).
It would be really nice if my house did not have
subsidence…and hence it must absolutely be
subsidence free. (My house must not have subsidence).
We sometimes refer to this as MUSTERBATION
An awfulising belief is an extreme belief that
has one or more of the following meanings,
1. 100% Bad or „nothing can be worse‟
2. Worse than 100% Bad
3. No good can possibly come from this
It would be bad if I did not pass my driving
test…and therefore it would be awful. (It
would be awful to fail my driving test).
Low Frustration Tolerance
A low frustration tolerance belief asserts
that the negative event at A cannot be
tolerated and is therefore extreme (It
must absolutely not exist)
Not passing my driving test would be
hard to bear…and therefore it would be
unbearable. (Not passing my driving
test would be intolerable)
A depreciation belief tends to stem from
the following demand: I, you or life
must conform to my desires.
Not passing my driving test would be a
failing…and would prove that I am a
failure. (I would be a failure for failing
my driving test).
Five Questions to Challenge
1. What is the evidence for this belief? Looking
objectively at all of my life experiences, what is the
evidence that this is true?
2. Does this belief invariably or always hold true?
3. Does this belief look at the whole picture? Does it
take into account both positive and negative
4. Does the belief promote my well-being or peace of
5. Did I choose this belief on my own or did it develop
out of my experience of growing up in my family?
Modification of Unrealistic
Disputing the logic of thoughts (evidence)
Contradict the thoughts or beliefs e.g. talk
to people you believe dislike you
Persist in challenging thinking and behave
in ways which contradict the beliefs
Does the belief always hold true?
Does the belief look at the whole picture?
Does it promote my well-being?
Did I choose it myself or did it come from
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL COACHING
BY MICHAEL NEENAN AND STEPHEN PALMER
1. Problem identification What is the concern?
2. Goal selection What do I want?
3. Generation of alternatives What can I do?
4. Consideration of consequences What might happen?
5. Decision making What is my decision?
6. Implementation Now do it!
7. Evaluation Did it work?
What happened? What am I assuming
What am I feeling? „should be‟?
What am I thinking? Is there a real
How am I behaving? concern?
What am I telling
Am I over-reacting?
can I do about the
CORE Irrational Beliefs
Based on the work of
Dr. Albert Ellis
Perfection v Discovery
Perfection says: “Is this good enough or
not?” “Does this meet my impeccably
Discovery says: “How fascinating! What
are the possibilities here?”
Man‟s Search for Meaning
“He who has a Why to live can bear with
almost any How”
Viktor E. Frankl 1946
Right or Wrong? Failure!
Do I measure up? Do you measure up?
Life is a struggle. Life is hard work.
Mistakes are unacceptable. I have to be right.
Unbendable beliefs about Don‟t take chances!
Perfection sets up
“Winners & Losers”
Let‟s take a risk. Inquiry.
What are the possibilities? Experiment.
Everything‟s a success. How else can we look at
“Winners & Learners”
Willingness to Resolve
Projection and Shadow. (Jung)
Projection is when we see our own thoughts
and feelings in the minds and behaviours
of others and not in ourselves.
Persona describes the conscious aspects of
personality, good and bad aspects which
are known to the person.
Jung called the unknown side of who we are
To be willing to resolve we need to acknowledge
Suppressed needs: Failing to recognise my
need for companionship. I am deeply hurt when
a friend postpones time we had planned to be
Unresolved personal history: If I was seriously
let down as a child I may become really wild
when people don’t do what they promised.
Unacceptable qualities: Because I don’t accept
my own anger, I don’t accept it in others.
Conceptual clarification questions
Probing rationale, reasons and
Questioning viewpoints and
Probe implications and consequences
Questions about the question
Solution Focused Brief
Thank you for your participation and
My contact details are,
165 New Cabra Road, Cabra, Dublin 7.
Phone: 353 87-2505405