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					 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices


         After completing this Lesson, you have learned
         to answer:

         1. Define intercropping system?
         2. What should be the features of an ideal
            intercropping system?
         3. List useful intercropping systems for pearl
            millet cultivation?
         4. What is mixed cropping?
         5. Why farmers practice mixed cropping?
         6. Why intercropping is a better system than
            mixed cropping?




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




        Adverse weather conditions like delay in the
        onset of rains and/or failure of rains for few
        days to weeks some time or other during the
        crop period is very common in the rainfed
        pearl millet growing areas.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




       Such situation results in economic losses to
       the farmers due to the partial or total failure
       of pearl millet crop.

       To over come this situation there is need to
       adopt or follow pearl millet based cropping
       systems like intercropping or mixed cropping
       in rainfed pearl millet growing areas.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices



       Intercropping refers to growing more than one
       crop in the same land area in rows of definite
       proportion and pattern.




                               pearl millet-
                                 Groundnut
                               Intercropping
                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




             With particular reference to dry land
             agriculture, an intercropping system
             needs to be designed in such a way
             that in the case of unfavorable
             weather, at least one crop will survive
             to give economic yields.

             Thus, intercropping system should
             provide for the necessary insurance
             against unpredictable weather.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




         In case the year happens to be normal with
         respect to rainfall, the intercropping system,
         as a whole, should prove to be more
         profitable than growing either of the crops
         alone.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices


       An ideal intercropping should aim to:

          •   Produce higher yields per unit area
              through better use of natural resources;

          •   Offer greater stability in production under
              adverse weather conditions and with
              disease and insect infestation;

          •   Meet the domestic needs of the farmer;

          •   Provide an equitable distribution of farm
              resources.



                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                             Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




      The following intercropping practices were found to
      be remunerative than sole crop of pearl millet even
      under drought or more than normal rainfall in AP.

         Pearl   millet   +   Red gram (pigeonpea)                    2:1 ratio
         Pearl   millet   +   Groundnut                               2:4 ratio
         Pearl   millet   +   Soybean                                 4:2 ratio
         Pearl   millet   +   Sunflower                               4:2 ratio

           (2:1 ratio indicates 2 rows of pearl millet and
            one row of the other crop)




                   Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                             Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




                                Pearl millet and Groundnut
                                inter cropping system is
                                recommended to farmers to
                                meet the fodder needs of cattle
                                and milch animals.



       Pearl millet-
         Groundnut
       Intercropping

                   Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




          While maintaining the yield levels of the
          sole crop of pearl millet, additional yields
          with the intercropping component have
          been realized under various systems.

          Since a food legume is involved in most of
          the systems, it will not only enhance the
          income of the farmer, but would also
          provide with the much-needed protein to
          supplement the predominantly cereal diet
          of farmers.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                               Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices


       State                          Suggesred Intercropping
       East Rajasthan                 Pearl millet + Cluster bean

                                      Pearl millet + Cow pea

                                      Pearl millet + Green gram

       Western Rajasthan              Pearl millet + Moth bean

                                      Pearl millet + Cluster bean

       Maharashtra                    Pearl millet + Pigeonpea /
                                      Soybean
                                      Pearl millet + Black gram

                                      Pearl millet + Green gram

                                      Pearl millet + Cow pea

                                      Pearl millet + Moth bean

                                      Pearl millet + Sunflowers




                     Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




      State                          Suggesred Intercropping
      Gujarat                        Pearl millet     + Green gram
                                     Pearl millet     + Cow pea
                                     Pearl millet     + Sesame
      Haryana                        Pearl millet     + Cluster bean
                                     Pearl millet     + Green gram
                                     Pearl millet     + Cow pea
      Uttar Pradesh                  Pearl millet     + Green gram
                                     Pearl millet     + Cow pea
                                     Pearl millet     + Sesame
      Madhya Pradesh                 Pearl millet     + Pigeon pea
                                     Pearl millet     + Cow pea
                                     Pearl millet     + Soybean




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                              Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices



       State                             Suggesred Intercropping
       Karnataka                         Pearl millet    + Pigeonpea /
                                         Soybean
                                         Pearl millet    + Green gram
                                         Pearl millet    + Sunflower
       Andhra Pradesh                    Pearl millet    + Pigeonpea /
                                         Soybean
                                         Pearl millet    + Green gram
       Tamil Nadu                        Pearl millet    + Pigeonpea /
                                         Soybean
                                         Pearl millet    + Green gram
                                         Pearl millet    + Cow pea
                                         Pearl millet    + Sunflower




                    Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




                                         Mixed cropping refers to
                                         simultaneously growing
                                         more than one crop in the
                                         same land area as a
                                         mixture.




           Pearl millet mixed
            with many other
                 crops
                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices


           Unlike in intercropping system, in mixed
           cropping the crops are grown without any
           definite proportion or pattern.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices




         Mixed cropping of pearl millet-pigeonpea is
         most common.

         Mixtures with green gram (mung), black
         gram (urid), cowpea and even with
         sorghum and other cereals, vegetables, etc.
         during kharif are practiced under different
         situations.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices


          Mixed cropping is practiced in traditional
          subsistence farming to meet the domestic
          needs of the farmer's family. Thus, the number
          of crops grown mixed varies depending on the
          family needs.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
 Module 7: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices



        Can you identify the number and name of the
        crops in this field?




                                                                     Click on the
                                                                     picture to
                                                                     check your
                                                                     guess.




                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
                            pearl millet
 Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                            Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices


          Even though crops in the mixed cropping
          meets the farmer’s family needs, the yield of
          crops will be very low due to the competition
          between the crops for water, light, nutrients
          etc.

          A better cropping system will be adopting
          intercropping system involving the major
          crops.

          However, the crop plants required to meet the
          family needs could still be grown on the field
          bunds, on the field borders, and in the house
          back yards.


                  Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                         Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics




          The Lesson 2 - Intercropping and Mixed
          Cropping Practices, and also this Module
          on Cropping Systems for pearl millet
          cultivation concludes.

          If you like to check your understanding
          about cropping systems for pearl millet
          cultivation, please click on “Exercise”
          button in Module VII contents.

          Next, Module VIII in this course is about
          sowing techniques in pearl millet.

          Select Module VIII from Course contents



               Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices
  Module VII: Cropping Systems
                                           Virtual Academy for the Semi Arid Tropics

Lesson 2: Intercropping and Mixed Cropping Practices



       Nine crops in the field are:                     Pearl millet
                                                        Maize,
                                                        Sunflower,
                                                        Ragi,
                                                        2 Sorghum types
                                                        Groundnut
                                                        2 Green leaf
                                                        Vegetables
                                                        a.Hibiscus(Gongura)
                                                        b.Amaranthus
      Click on the picture to go back                   (Totakura)
      to the lesson

                 Course on Pearl Millet Production Practices

				
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