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The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-
on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional
and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a
sharing of knowledge and information from the research
and experience of Kevin Gianni, TheRenegadeHealthShow.
com and KMG Associates, LLC. We encourage you to make
your own health care decisions based upon your research
and in partnership with a qualified health care professional.
Module 1
                                   PAGE 2 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

Kevin:	          Welcome	everyone.	My	name	is	Kevin	Gianni	from	The	Complete	Adrenal	Health	Program.	Today		we	are	
                 going	to	give	you	the	goods	on	your	adrenals.	We’re	going	to	be	talking	about	how	your	adrenals	work,	the	
                 role	they	play	in	your	health	and	how	to	help	them	health	naturally.	My	expert	guest	is	Dr.	J.E.	Williams,	
                 who	has	been	in	practice	for	30	years	and	has	had	over	100,000	patient	visits.	Today	in	module	one	we’re	
                 going	to	get	familiar	with	the	adrenal	system.	So	Dr.	Williams,	welcome.

Dr.	Williams:	 Thank	you	for	having	me	on	the	program.	I	look	forward	to	educating	and	hopefully	enlightening	our	

Kevin:	          We	talked	about	blood	tests	and	we	talked	about	the	thyroid	in	our	previous	programs	.	Today	we	have	
                 one	of	the	most	common	issues,	because	of	the	amount	of	stress	that	we	have	on	a	regular	basis.	It’s	adrenal	
                 burnout	and	the	adrenals	being	overworked.	So	why	don’t	we	start	with	explaining	what	the	adrenals	are	
                 and	how	we’re	going	to	work	through	this	specific	program.

Dr.	Williams:	 I’d	 be	 happy	 to	 do	 that.	 I	 want	 to	 remind	 our	 listeners	 that	 hormones,	 and	 this	 is	 what	 we’re	 mainly	
               looking	at	when	we	talk	about	any	of	the	endocrine	glands,	adrenals	being	one	of	the	primary	ones,	are	
               sophisticated	chemical	messengers	that	provide	information	and	help	the	processing	of	that	information	
               between	all	body	cells,	all	body	systems,	and	the	environment	outside	that	includes	stressors,	chemical,	
               psychological	and	physical,	like	colder	weather	or	exercise	or	diet,	as	well	as	the	stresses	of	daily	events,	
               whether	you	like	your	boss	or	don’t	like	your	boss,	whether	you’re	stuck	in	traffic	in	LA	or	not.	They	also	
               regulate	 biochemical	 information	 so	 that	 your	 body	 functions	 properly	 but	 also	 they	 control	 the	 life-
               sustaining	processes.	So	when	we	look	at	hormones	we’re	going	to	divide	them	into	the	key,	major	ones.	
               The	major	ones	definitely	fall	into	the	adrenal	gland	category.	That’s	going	to	be	adrenaline	and	cortisol	
               and	also	another	one	that’s	made	by	the	pancreas,	insulin,	which	interacts	a	lot	with	the	adrenal	gland.	So	
               when	the	intracellular	communication	process	falters,	when	there’s	too	much	or	too	little	of	the	hormone,	
               in	this	case	talking	about	adrenal	glands,	then	we	have	imbalance,	first	of	all.	The	body	is	very	capable	of	
               hiding	itself	and	not	allowing	the	boat	to	tip	over.	Even	if	it	does,	like	a	sailboat	you	have	the	right	ballast	
               and	the	keel	and	it	will	come	all	the	way	back	up,	a	little	worse	for	the	wear	and	shaken	and	sorry	but	it	will	
               normalize	itself.	However,	over	time	breakdown	will	occur	and	then	system-wide	dysfunction	can	happen.	

	                So	the	adrenal	gland	and	it’s	hormones	are	key	to	life,	to	health	and	to	happiness	as	well,	in	terms	of	how	
                 health	and	happiness	are	related	to	hormones.

	                With	that	said,	the	adrenal	glands,	also	called	the	supra-adrenal,	renal	meaning	kidney	and	supra	meaning	
                 on	top	of,	are	two	triangular-shaped	structures	that	sit	directly	on	top	as	caps	to	the	kidneys.	There’s	one	on	
                 each	side	of	the	body.	They	are	more	or	less	just	below	the	bottom	of	your	lowest	ribs,	towards	your	back.	
                 They	have	two	parts.	There’s	an	inner	and	outer	part.	The	outer	part	is	called	the	cortex,	like	the	bark	of	a	
                 tree.	The	inner	part	is	called	the	medulla.	Each	secretes	different	groups	of	hormones.	They	both	perform	
                 different	functions.	They	secrete	large	numbers	of	hormones	into	two	main	classes.	Those	are	steroids	and	
                 catacholines.	The	outer	part,	which	is	the	adrenal	cortex,	secretes	hormone	that	have	an	effect	on	the	body’s	
                 metabolism,	the	chemistry	in	your	blood	and	on	your	body	morphology.	That’s	how	your	body	looks,	it’s	
                 characteristics,	it’s	shape,	including	where	you	pattern	your	body	fat.	So	when	we	look	at	what	people	
                 look	like,	we’ll	talk	more	about	that	later	in	the	program,	when	they	have	adrenal	problems	a	trained	eye	
                 can	tell	if	you	have	too	much	or	too	little	of	adrenal	stress	hormones	going	on,	just	by	the	way	your	body	
                 looks.	When	people	are	trying	to	lose	weight,	control	appetite	and	so	forth,	there	is	a	significant	role	that	
                 is	played	by	adrenal	hormones	and		the	way	the	body	patterns	its	fat.

                                 Transcripts Module 1 / PAGE 3

	   The	main	hormones	that	the	adrenal	cortex	secretes	are	the	steroid	hormones,	that	includes	corticosteroids	
    and	androgens,	which	are	the	male	hormones.	They	are	secreted	directly	into	the	bloodstream,	on	demand.	
    They	flow	during	the	day	time	and	they	also	are	released	when	necessary,	and	quite	rapidly.	The	main	hor-
    mones	that	the	adrenal	cortex	secretes	are	cortisol,	which	is	going	to	play	the	key	role	in	the	adrenal	fatigue	
    phenomenon,	aldosterone,	testosterone	and	DHEA.

	   Inside	the	glands--remember,	these	are	very	small.	They’re	less	than	the	size	of	your	palm.	But	they	do	a	
    phenomenal	amount	of	work.	This	inner	part,	the	adrenal	medulla,	is	necessary	for	the	immediate	stress	
    response.	This	is	where	adrenaline,	technically	called	epinephrine,	is	secreted.	That	increases	heart	rate,	
    the	force	of	the	contractions	of	the	heart	muscle,	blood	flow	to	the	muscles	and	to	the	brain	and	also	is	
    associated	not	only	with	contraction	but	relaxation	and	very	importantly,	the	conversion	of	glycogen	into	
    glucose,	which	is	the	storage	molecule	in	the	liver	and	muscles	needed	upon	demand	during	exercise	and	
    during	stress.

	   The	other	is	norepinephrine	or	noradrenaline	and	that	has	effects	on	smooth	muscle,	metabolic	processes	
    and	cardio	output	and	causes	vasoconstriction	and	is	related	to	blood	pressure.

	   That’s	the	basic	gland	and	its	hormones.	There’s	so	much	more	to	the	adrenal	gland	and	that	is	where	we	
    take	a	look	at	its	relationships	into	the	connection,	not	just	the	downstream	effect	into	the	bloodstream	
    and	out	to	the	cells	into	the	muscles	and	to	energy	but	also	upstream,	which	is	the	connection	between	
    the	hypothalamus	and	the	pituitary.	This	is	called	the	HPA	or	the	hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal	axis.	It’s	
    well-studied	over	several	decades	and	its	relationship	to	stress	and	overall	health	and	disease.	Mainly	we’re	
    going	to	be	look	at	it	in	terms	of	adrenal	health,	how	it	controls	and	how	cortisol	interacts	back	to	the	
    pituitary	and	of	course	how	it	relates	to	the	other	stress	hormones.	But	the	main	thing	is	we’re	going	to	be	
    looking	at	cortisol.

	   This	system	acts	as	an	energy	regulator	in	the	body.	It	controls	virtually	all	hormones	but	has	a	very	close	
    relationship	with	the	adrenal	hormones	and	very	interconnected	with	the	nervous	system	and	also	with	
    energy	expenditure.	That	again	has	to	do	with	weight-loss	and	weight-gain,	as	well	as	exercise,	and	very	
    importantly,	modulates	the	entire	immune	system.

	   My	area	of	main	interest	is	immunology.	So	I’m	always	looking	at	the	effect	of	cortisol	and	drugs	that	are	
    chemical	mimickers	of	that,	like	Prednisone,	on	the	immune	system	and	on	the	whole	body.	Keep	in	mind	
    that	these	hormones,	like	cortisol,	hydrocortisone	and	their	pharmaceutical	cousin	Prednisone,	have	pro-
    found	effects	on	all	systems	of	the	body	all	the	way	down	to	your	bone	and	up	to	your	skin.	When	we’re	
    looking	at	the	HPA	axis	a	little	bit	closer	we’re	going	to	find	that	there’s	a	feedback	loop	between	the	hypo-
    thalamus,	pituitary	and	the	adrenal	glands.	The	main	hormones	that	activate	this	are	called	corticotrophin	
    releasing	factors,	CRF,	arginine	vasopressin,	AVP,		and	adrenal	corticotropin	hormone,	ACTH.		That’s	the	
    big	one.	The	action	of	cortisol	is	to	directly	affect	the	hypothalamus	and	pituitary,	completing	the	loop	and	
    then	all	other	processes	in	between.

	   If	we	have	too	much	cortisol	we	suppress	immune	function	and	we	suppress	the	activity	of	the	HPA	axis	
    and	prevents	release	of	neurotransmitters.	Then	you	go	into	kind	of	a	quiescent	mode	and	then	when	the	
    cortisol	goes	down	it	should	trigger	a	resetting	of	that	mechanism	and	we	go	back	engaged	again.	That	
    should	happen	at	nighttime.	It	should	be	more	quiescent.	In	the	morning	your	cortisol	should	start	to	
    come	up	again	and	it	should	activate	the	system	and	become	engaged.	If	you	have	a	lot	of	stress	it	becomes	
    highly	engaged	and	then	after	the	stress	the	cortisol	level	goes	down	and	then	you	go	into	rest	mode,	al-

                                  PAGE 4 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

                most	into	kind	of	a	crash	mode	where	you	will	literally	pass	out	into	a	deep	sleep	and	some	people	repeat	
                sleeping	9,	12,	17,	sometimes	20	hours	straight	and	then	they	wake	up,	disoriented	a	little	bit	and	then	
                refreshed	and	their	system	reboots	itself.	

	               The	problem	with	the	adrenal	stress	related	HP	axis	dysfunction	disorders	is	that	this	system	is	not	regulat-
                ing	itself	effectively	anymore.	There’s	imbalances	throughout	the	system.	It’s	either	too	high	or	too	low	or	
                appropriate	release	of	the	stress	hormones,	predominantly	cortisol.	Then	you	have	either	an	overly	active	
                or	under	active	chronic	problem.

Kevin:	         I	want	to	talk	about	some	of	the	ways	the	adrenals	relate	to	other	systems	in	the	body.	But	first	I	want	to	
                ask,	because	the	adrenal	glands	sit	right	on	top	of	the	kidneys,	what’s	the	relation	between	the	two?

Dr.	Williams:	 Other	than	structural	positioning	there’s	no	direct	connection	into	the	kidneys	in	terms	of	Western	ana-
               tomical	and	physiological	view.	There	are	a	few	hormones	that,	predominantly	aldosterone,	that	have	an	
               influence	on	some	of	the	functions	of	the	kidney,	but	that’s	indirect.	The	hormone,	in	other	words,	doesn’t	
               have	the	direct	pipeline	into	the	kidney.	It	goes	into	the	bloodstream	and	then	influences	the	kidneys	in-

	               Where	it	becomes	confusing	is	the	cultural	view	between	east	and	west.	In	Chinese	medicine,	the	eastern	
                view,	they	talk	about	the	kidneys	being	the	most	important	organ		in	the	body.	All	health,	including	what	
                you’re	born	with,	your	innate	or	genetic	essence,	is	going	to	be	influenced	by	the	kidney	ching	or	the	es-
                sence	of	the	kidney,	the	inherited	essence.	That’s	going	to	dictate	how	strong	bones	are,	how	robust	you	are,	
                how	adaptable	you	are	to	the	environment,	how	good	an	athlete	you	are,	how	long	you	live,	how	sexually	
                active	you	are.	As	you	go	through	your	life	they	clearly	define	a	balance	between	what	they	call	the	kidney	
                yin	and	the	kidney	yang.	Any	deficiency		in	either	the	kidney	yin	or	yang	or	the	kidney	ching	systems	is	
                going	to	cause	fatigue.

	               So	it	matches	or	parallels	or	mirrors	the	symptoms	that	occur	from	the	adrenal	gland.	When	we	look	closer,	
                we	drill	a	little	bit	deeper,	we	find	that		anatomically	Chinese	medicine	didn’t	separate	off	this	little	cap,	
                the	supra-adrenal	structure	on	top	of	the	kidney	and	the	kidney	as	a	filtration	system	for	water	and	its	
                connection	to	the	bladder	in	terms	of	urination.	They	grouped	it	all	together.	So	you	might	say	that	the	
                kidney	yin	in	Chinese	medicine	is	the	actual	organ	of	the	kidney	and	the	urinary	function	and	the	kidney	
                yang	is	connected	to	something	also	called	the	gate	of	fire	or	the	ming	mung,	which	is	more	of	the	adrenal	

	               It’s	kind	of	the	downstream	effect	where	you	hear	one	thing	and	then	somebody	says	it	distorted	a	little	
                bit,	 somebody	 says	 it	 again,	 like	 the	 parlor	 game	 of	 describing	 and	 elephant.	 Pretty	 soon	 you	 start	 off	
                describing	an	elephant	and	as	you’ve	gone	around	the	room	you’re	talking	about	the	cotton	balls	in	your	

Kevin:	         So	let’s	talk	about	how	the	adrenals	and	the	hormones	directly	relate	to	other	systems	of	the	body.

Dr.	Williams:	 They	relate	to	all	systems	of	the	body.	That’s	highly	important	to	start	off	with.	First	of	all,	let’s	take	a	broad	
               brushstroke.	They’re	going	to	relate	to	the	higher	centers,	the	pituitary,	the	hypothalamus,	and	that’s	going	
               to	affect	every	other	hormone.	So	adrenals	go	off,	thyroid	can	go	off.	Adrenals	go	off	and	your	gonadotro-
               phic	hormones	and	your	androgenic	hormones,	testosterone	and	DHEA,	go	off.	So	the	endocrine	connec-
               tion	through	the	hypothalamic-pituitary	axis	is	first	and	foremost.

                                 Transcripts Module 1 / PAGE 5

	   Secondly,	they	also	relate	to	metabolism,	how	you	burn	and	transform	sugar,	glucose	in	the	body.	That’s	
    going	to	directly	relate	to	diet,	what	you	eat,	when	you	eat,	how	much	you	eat	and	how	you	process	that	
    and	what	type	of	foods	you	eat	and	what	type	of	foods	you	are	going	to	crave.	Salt,	for	example,	is	neces-
    sary	for	good	adrenal	function.	So	craving	salt	if	you	have	one	the	patterns	that	we	look	for	in	terms	of	the	
    minor	symptoms	or	the	tip-offs	for	adrenal	weakness,	adrenal	fatigue,	is	the	craving	for	salt.	Same	thing	
    with	sugar,	although	sugar	is	not	directly	related	to	the	function	of	the	function	of	the	adrenal	gland.	It’s	
    related	to	the	function	of	the	pancreas,	which	is	anatomically	very	close	to	the	adrenal	glands.	It	sits	in	
    between	the	middle	there,	a	little	closer	towards	the	front	of	the	body.	Even	when	you	exercise,	it’s	a	form	
    of	physiologic	stress.	So	your	body	is	going	to	need	more	insulin.	It’s	going	to	need	more	sugar	to	get	into	
    the	muscles	so	it’s	going	to	activate	the	muscles,	the	liver	and	whatever	you’ve	eaten	that’s	in	reserve	or	that	
    you’re	craving	in	reserve.	So	sugar	cravings	can	also	play	a	role	in	the	metabolism	on	the	backend	and	then	
    into	weight	issues.	So	you	see	a	person	with	dysfunctional	adrenal	gland,	they’re	going	to	be	underweight,	
    difficult	to	gain	weight.	Sometimes	they	think,	“My	metabolism	is	so	great.”	Their	adrenal	may	be	going	
    out	of	balance.	Or	people	who	can’t	lose	weight,	even	if	they	start	to	diet	a	little	bit.	They	have	low	energy	
    and	they	maybe	lose	a	little	bit,	lose	some	of	the	water	that’s	accumulated	in	the	body	but	they	can’t	lose	
    weight.	They	get	stuck	at	kind	of	a	set	point.	

	   Then	if	it	gets	worse	you’re	going	to	go	into	an	imbalance	between	the	salt	and	sugar	cravings	and	you’re	
    going	to	be	holding	water	and	you’re	going	to	be	holding	fat.	If	it	gets	worse	then	you’re	going	to	hold	a	
    lot	of	fat	around	the	middle	of	your	body,	so	you	lose	your	waist	and	you	collect	fat	around	the	sides	and	
    the	upper	back,	not	just	belly	fat	or	the	tire	around	the	middle	but	all	the	way	up	to	under	the	ribs,	to	
    women	up	under	the	breasts,	then	you	become	chunkier	or	more	square	in	the	center	of	your	body	and	
    in	the	periphery	where	your	big	muscles	are	you	become	weaker.	The	arms	and	legs	become	thin	and	the	
    so-called	apple	shape	body	or	the	fruit	of	the	loom	look.

	   That,	of	course,	relates	to	cardiovascular.	It’s	going	to	influence	your	blood	pressure.	One	of	the	ways	we	
    check	for	adrenal	fatigue	is	to	take	your	blood	pressure	sitting	down,	or	lying	down,	and	then	stand	up	
    quickly	but	not	too	quickly	and	then	take	it	immediately	again.	If	you	have	a	drop	in	blood	pressure	by	10	
    points	that’s	usually	a	good	indicator	that	your	adrenal	hormones	are	not	regulating	your	cardiovascular	
    function	well.	So	you	have	this	postural	hypertension.	People	who	get	up	from	a	chair	and	feel	dizzy	or	
    light-headed	often	have	that	phenomenon.	That’s	also	associated	with	adrenal.

	   Then	lastly,	the	nervous	system	is	very	connected	to	the	autonomic	nervous	system	and	people	who	have	
    imbalances	in	their	parasympathetic	and	sympathetic	responses.	One	clue	is	going	to	be	easily	sweating,	
    particularly	on	your	palms	and	bottom	of	your	feet.	People	have	that,	they’re	not	doing	anything,	maybe	
    just	lying	down,	but	they’re	autonomic	nervous	system	is	ramped	up	on	one	side	and	not	balancing	on	the	
    other.	That	also	directly	has	a	connection	to	the	adrenal	gland.	

	   One	of	the	tip-offs	for	that	with	adrenal	fatigue	phenomena	is	that	not	only	are	the	people	tired	and	fa-
    tigued	and	lethargic	but	they	can	also	be	irritable.	So	they	go	from	kind	of	snapping	out	behavior	to	very	
    tired	or	crashing	behavior.	Any	little	thing	kind	of	sets	them	off.	Sometimes	maybe	loud	noises.	It’s	not	
    loud	to	you	but	they	think	that	you’re	making	too	much	noise.	Or	everybody	shivers	when	chalk	goes	
    across	the	blackboard,	right?	These	folks	have	that	type	of	response	when	there’s	nothing	happening	other	
    than	normal	sounds	or	somebody	asking	a	question.

	   There’s	lots	of	little	keys.	We’ll	talk	about	them	more	in	the	next	modules.	The	main	thing	is	to	understand	
    how	profound	the	adrenal	glands,	even	though	they’re	very	small,	are	in	relationship	to	all	body	systems.	

                                 PAGE 6 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

	               Lastly	I	want	to	mention	skin	and	bones.	Two	much	cortisol,	or	if	you	take	too	much	Prednisone,	and	as	
                you	get	older	you’ll	also	see	this	phenomena	where	adrenal	function	part	of	it	is	too	little	and	part	of	it	may	
                be	too	much	for	the	tissue	to	handle.	The	skin	becomes	thinner.	That’s	a	problem.	If	you	have	too	much	
                cortisol	it	will	shut	down	your	hypothalamus	and	the	hypothalamus	will	actually	atrophy.	You	won’t	func-
                tion	as	well	because	other	systems	of	the	body	need	the	hypothalamus	to	be	working.	If	you	have	to	much	
                cortisol	you’ll	have	weaker	bones.	You	will	have	osteoporosis.	Same	thing	if	you	take	too	much	Prednisone.	
                If	you’re	using	that	product	for	say,	controlling	asthma,	the	pharmaceutical	effect	is	an	anti-inflammatory	
                but	it	also	suppresses	immune	function	and	creates	thinning	skin	and	weaker	bones.

	               Then,	of	course,	there’s	the	immune	function.	Too	much	cortisol	suppresses	the	immune	system.	You’re	
                more	susceptible	to	all	types	of	infection,	both	bacterial	and	viral,	including	common	cold	and	flu.

Kevin:	         When	you	talk	about	cortisol	and	its	role	in	bone	health,	is	the	cortisol	directly	affecting	the	degradation	
                of	the	bone	or	is	it	more	of	an	acidic	environment	in	the	body	or	do	we	know?

Dr.	Williams:	 It’s	the	cortisol.	The	cortisol	directly	is	doing	that.	Acid/alkaline	balance	have	little	to	do	with	direct	ad-
               renal	hormone	function.	Aldosterone	is	another	hormone	secreted	by	the	adrenal	which	influences	the	
               mineral	balance	in	your	body	and	your	urination.	If	you	have	low	aldosterone	you’ll	have	a	tendency	to	uri-
               nate	frequently	without	having	an	urge,	like	when	there’s	an	infection.	The	urine	is	usually	more	clear	and	
               you’re	more	thirsty.	You	drink	more	water	and	you	have	the	urge	to	urinate.	These	people	are	constantly	
               going	back	and	forth	to	the	bathroom	that	do	not	have	urinary	tract	irritation,	inflammation	or	infection	
               can	have	also	adrenal	issues	with	the	aldosterone.	If	that	gets	too	imbalanced	then	you	can	alter	the	acid/
               alkaline	balance.	Usually	though,	it	shifts	towards	the	alkaline	side	rather	than	the	acid	side.

Kevin:	         How	do	these	imbalances	directly	cause	poor	health?

Dr.	Williams:	 Let	me	answer	that	question	by	taking	a	step	back.	One	of	the	things	that	we	have	a	tendency	to	do	is	
               people,	doctors	are	people	too,		is	we	tend	to	look	at	things	in	black	and	white	and	direct	cause	and	effect.	
               Like	a	mosquito	bite	makes	you	itch.	But	it	took	a	long	time	to	figure	that	mosquitoes	were	carrying	yel-
               low	fever	and	malaria.	Only	about	100	years	ago	we	discovered	that.	Then	we	got	rid	of	the	mosquitoes	
               and	the	incidence	of	infections	were	less,	but	it	was	not	until	the	middle	of	the	last	century	when	we	really	
               started	to	understand	much	about	how	those	viruses	and	those	parasites	that	the	mosquitoes	carried	affect	
               the	cells	in	the	body.		I	think	we’re	kind	of	at	that	same	level	now,	with	adrenal	health.	There	are	mainly	
               indirect	but	profound	indirect	effects.

	               They’re	so	interconnected	to	everything	in	the	body	that	it’s	not	going	to	be	like	a	mosquito	bite	or	a	bruise	
                or	a	break	or	a	toxin	or	something	like	that.	They’re	going	to	be	indirectly	interlinked	into	a	vastly	com-
                plicated	system	that	includes	the	neurotransmitters,	that	includes	neuropeptides,	that	include	immune	
                molecules,	cytokines	and	so	forth	and	then	the	hormones	themselves.

	               The	 most	 direct	 relationship	 between	 adrenal	 hormones	 is	 due	 to	 stress.	 The	 adrenal	 medulla	 secretes	
                adrenaline.	When	the	stress	is	there,	there’s	a--it’s	not	instantaneous.	It	takes	a	few	seconds	up	to	a	few	min-
                utes	but	it’s	very	quick	that	the	levels	will	increase	very	rapidly	and	then	you’re	going	to	see	immediately	
                increasing	heart	rate.	The	force	of	the	heart	contractions	becomes	stronger.	Blood	flow	goes	away	from	the	
                stomach	and	out	into	the	muscles,	pushes	up	into	the	brain	so	you	become	very	alert	and	your	muscles	
                become	stronger.	They	become	filled	with	blood.	It	pulls	sugar	out	of	the	liver,	in	the	form	of	glycogen.	
                Your	body	becomes,	in	a	sense,	superhuman.	That’s	where	you	hear	about	the	mother	lifting	the	car	off	of	

                                              Transcripts Module 1 / PAGE 7

                the	infant	and	things	like	that.	People	can	actually	do	those	things,	but	for	very	short	periods	of	time.

	               Then	on	the	backend	there’s	a	relaxation	process.	The	cardiac	output	goes	down	as	the	hormones	go	down.	
                The	rest	of	it	that	relates	to	the	fatigue	phenomenon	and	the	burnout	phenomenon	and	the	bone	and	skin	
                thinning	is	a	very	gradual,	very	slow,	indirect	process.

Kevin:	         Let’s	talk	about	some	of	the	major	health	concerns,	particularly	starting	with	the	clinical	concerns	and	then	
                talking	about	some	of	these	more	sub	clinical	issues	that	most	people	are	probably	experiencing.	

Dr.	Williams:	 The	first	is	the	clinical	concerns.	There’s	two	of	those	in	classical	western	medicine.	When	you	have	too	
               much	or	too	little	cortisol.	When	you	have	too	little	you	have	a	condition	called		Addison’s	Syndrome.	
               When	you	have	too	much	you	have	Cushing’s	Syndrome.	Basically	you’re	going	to	look	at	this	as	Addison’s	
               people	tend	to	be	very	thin	and	very	weak	and	very	droopy.		Cushing’s	Syndrome	people	tend	to	be	over-
               weight,	almost	like	they	have	no	neck.	The	fat	develops	around	their	neck,	particularly	on	the	back	of	the	
               bottom	part	of	their	neck.	They	get	a	rounder	look	to	their	face	called	a	moon	face.	They	have	difficulty	
               losing	weight.	So	those	are	the	two	clinical	syndromes	that	are	related	to	adrenal	disease.

	               There’s	also	tumors	of	the	adrenal	gland,	but	that’s	a	different	aspect	of	our	program.

	               There’s	a	third	part	of	it,	which	is	Syndrome	X.	There’s	an	ICD9	diagnostic	code	for	it,	also	called	Meta-
                bolic	Syndrome,	where	you	have	disruption	significantly	enough	between	the	adrenal	hormones	and	the	
                pancreas,	so	between	cortisol	and	insulin.	Now	you	have	a	combination	of	fat	and	thin.	Here	you	have	the	
                fat	around	the	middle	and	maybe	around	the	neck	and	maybe	rounding	more	in	the	face	and	thin	around	
                the	extremities.	That’s	the	Metabolic	Syndrome,	or	Syndrome	X.

	               The	other	types	are		not	classified	as	diseases	yet	and	that	is	what	we	talk	about	as	the	adrenal	fatigue	or	the	
                adrenal	burnout	or	the	adrenal	insufficiency.	It’s	a	continuum.	It’s	not	just	you	go	from	optimally	healthy	
                to	totally	fatigued.	It	tends	to	come	and	go.	It	tends	to	occur	gradually.	The	system	attempts	to	self-regulate	
                itself.	The	factors	that	influence	that	are	the	amount	of	stress	and	how	much	stress	and	how	often	the	stress	
                is	and	the	severity	of	the	stress,	how	close	to	home	it	is	to	you.	The	other	is	your	genetic	propensity,	if	you	
                have	strong	or	normal	or	weaker	adrenals	to	start	with	and	then	how	the	rest	of	your	body	is	working,	all	
                these	other	systems,	your	cardiovascular	system,	your	pancreas	and	insulin.	All	of	those	factors	play	a	role	
                in	the	balance	or	imbalance,	the	decline	or	rebuilding	of	your	adrenal	glands.

	               Stress,	diet	and	exercise	are	the	three	components	that	the	individual	is	going	to	be	most	faced	with	and	
                have	some	degree	of	control	over.

Kevin:	         I	want	to	talk	a	little	bit	about	the	role	of	stress	and	adrenal	burnout	and	how	stress	actually	causes	some	
                of	these	health	challenges.

Dr.	Williams:	 That’s	the	key,	Kevin.	Your	endocrine	response	to	stress,	particularly	adrenal	and	specific	the	HPA	axis.	So	
               any	stress,	physical	or	psychological,	including	exercise--remember,	stressors	can	be	positive	or	negative.	
               Some	exercise	is	a	positive	stressor	to	the	body	and	your	body	responds	at	a	moderate	level,	your	adrenal	
               glands	in	this	case	specifically,	to	exercise	just	as	it	would	to	a	stress	as	if	you	were	being	chased	by	a	lion	or	
               you	walked	into	your	kitchen	in	Arizona	and	there	was	a	rattlesnake	curled	up	in	the	middle	of	the	floor.	
               The	problem	is	that	your	body	has	mechanisms	to	respond	and	then	normalize	after	the	exercise	or	after	
               the	stresses	that	would	be	caused	by	say	an	accident,	a	slip	and	fall	injury,	falling	off	your	ladder	when	

                     PAGE 8 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

    you’re	fixing	your	roof	or	when	there’s	a	rattlesnake	on	your	kitchen	floor.	It	doesn’t	seem	to	be	that	good	at	
    modulating	or	restructuring,	rebalancing,	when	you	have	chronic	levels	of	stress,	the	modern	maladaptive	
    syndrome.	That	has	been	thought	to	have	three	phases.

	   Cortisol	secretion	occurs	in	response	to	stress,	as	does	some	epinephrine	and	nor	epinephrine.	But	it’s	the	
    cortisol	that	tracks	up	through	the	bloodstream	to	the	hypothalamus	and	the	pituitary	gland,	causes	those	
    glands	to	release	more	hormone	and	to	start	to	self-regulate.	If	there’s	too	much	cortisol,	as	I	mentioned,	
    it’s	going	to	cause	the	hypothalamus	to	atrophy	and	over	time,	if	it’s	consistent	like	that,	the	hypothalamus	
    is	not	going	to	respond	as	well	so	the	whole	HP	axis	is	going	to	breakdown.	You’re	going	to	have	a	sustained	
    release	of	cortisol	from	the	adrenal	cortex.	Prolonged	release	of	ACT,	adrenal	corticotrophin	hormone,	
    from	the	pituitary	causes	an	increase	in	size	of	the	adrenal	cortex	and	long-term	release	of	ACTH	causes	
    it	to	shrink.	So	now	you’re	going	to	have	change	in	size	of	the	structures,	both	the	hypothalamus	and	the	
    adrenal.	Eventually	it’s	not	able	to	self-regulate	so	the	HP	axis	is	wobbling,	if	not	going	dysfunctional.	
    Finally	the	adrenal	cortex	itself	will	be	unable	to	produce	sufficient	amount	of	cortisol	and	now	the	whole	
    body	system	starts	to	breakdown.	Normally	the	HPA	axis,	the	hypothalamus	would	kick	in,	but	because	of	
    the	previous	long-term	cortisol	release	it’s	now	atrophied	and	it’s	not	able	to	respond	to	the	lower.	So	now	
    you	have,	not	a	complete	shutdown,	of	course,	but	a	reduced	function	ability	of	both	the	adrenal	cortex	
    and	the	hypothalamus	and	the	pituitary	doesn’t	know	what	to	do.	It’s	kind	of	stuck	in	the	middle	and	may	
    or	may	not	be	releasing	properly.	Now	your	rhythms	of	the	cortisol	release	and	the	pattern	of	that	during	
    the	day	and	night	are		completely	off.	Then	behind	that	comes	your	other	hormones,	your	other	cortisol	
    hormones	        	and	then	behind	that,	for	women,	ovarian	hormones,	for	men	their	gonado-hormones	like	
    testosterone.	Then	the	kind	of	paired	hormone	to	cortisol,	DHEA,	will	also	become	affected	so	you	have	
    imbalances.	We’ll	talk	about	this	in	detail	in	the	program	on	testing,	between	cortisol	and	DHEA.	So	you	
    have	too	much	cortisol	and	not	enough	DHEA	or	you	have	the	opposite,	too	much	DHEA	and	lower	
    cortisol,	which	is	more	favorable.	

	   So	if	your	DHEA	is	strong,	which	is	what	you	want,	but	in	my	clinical	practice,	I	think	this	is	so	impor-
    tant	to	offer	our	listeners	is	that	hundreds	and	hundreds	of	patients	that	I’ve	seen	and	tested	and	what	we	
    find,	what	my	colleagues	find	in	the	testing	is	that	normally	you	should	have	strong	DHEA	production	
    and	you	should	have	moderate	amounts	of	cortisol,	not	low,	not	high.	That’s	going	to	create	loving,	caring,	
    kind,	appreciative	person	who	is	joyful	and	their	immune	system	is	working	strong	and	they	sleep	well	and	
    their	appetite	is	good	and	their	body	weight	is	normal.	When	the	cortisol	is	too	high	and	your	DHEA	is	
    now	low,	you	have	a	frustrated,	angry,	irritable	person	who	fluctuates	back	and	forth	between	despair	and	
    depression	and	agitation.	They’re	fatigued	and	push	themselves,	drive	themselves	with	coffee	and	green	tea	
    and	ginseng.	That	leads	to	further	breakdown	of	the	system.	Rest	is	the	key	to	solving	this.	Then	finally	
    you	have	cortisol	and	DHEA	both	going	down.	So	you	have	low	cortisol	and	low	DHEA.

	   You	normally	find,	testing	people,	they	are	somewhere	in	between.	They’re	not	at	full	burnout	phenomena.	
    They	might	not	even	be	quite	into	adrenal	fatigue.	They’re	into	first	level	of	HPA	axis	imbalance.	What	
    they	have	is	normal	cortisol	in	blood	testing	and	very	low	DHEA.	They’re	moving	towards	imbalance	in	
    the	ratio	of	cortisol	and	DHEA.	So	they	have	kind	of	a	low	performance	syndrome	where	they’re	tired	
    some	of	the	time.	Rest	seems	to	help	them.	Exercise	seems	to	be	OK	but	if	they	over-exercise	their	recovery	
    is	not	great.	They’re	not	as	sharp.	Their	memory	is	not	as	good.	This	is	also	going	to	occur	in	20-some-
    things,	not	just	older	folks.	The	younger	people	are	sort	of	experiencing	what	natural	aging	process	might	
    show	up.	They	just	don’t	know	quite	what’s	wrong	with	them.	The	rest	on	the	weekend,	they	feel	better	
    and	then	they	go	back	into	the	stressful	environment	and	the	whole	process	in	a	few	days	or	weeks	starts	
    up	again.

                                              Transcripts Module 1 / PAGE 9

Kevin:	         So	in	cases	of	adrenal	burnout,	how	long	does	it	take	from	someone	to	go	from	constant	stress	to	cortisol	
                being	produced	regularly,	the	hypothalamus	shrinking	and	then	cortisol	being	unable	to	be	produced?	
                How	long	does	that	process	take?

Dr.	Williams:	 It	usually	takes	years.	The	old	way	of	looking	at	it	was	developed	by	Hans	Selye	decades	ago	in	what	he	
               called	General	Adaptation	Syndrome,	GAS	Theory	of	stress.	He	put	it	into	three	stages.	We	know	that	
               that’s	basically	true	now,	but	it’s	a	lot	more	complicated	than	that.	There’s	at	least	five	stages,	interrelated	
               stages.	But	in	Dr.	Selye’s	three	stages	he	clearly	classified	the	alarm	stage	or	phase	of	the	adrenal	cortex	reac-
               tion,	which	discharges	hormones	focused	mainly	on	cortisol,	directly	into	the	bloodstream	and	you	have	
               direct	affects	on	the	hypothalamus	and	pituitary.	If	that	continues	over	a	period	of	time,	weeks,	months,	
               years,	then	there’s	going	to	be	resistance	stage	where	the	adrenal	cortex	continues	to	put	out	not	abnor-
               mally	high	levels	but	just	higher	than	normal	levels	of	cortisol.	The	cells	become	resistant.	They	don’t	want	
               to	deal	with	that	cortisol	in	the	body	and	the	person	has	more	difficulty	dealing	with	stress.	That’s	when	
               they	start	to	typically	drink	more	coffee,	engage	in	stronger	green	tea,	taking	ginseng.	They	try	to	balance	
               it	with	different	food,	maybe	more	salty	or	sugary	foods	or	both,	fatty	foods	sometimes	or	a	combination	
               of	all	three.	Exercise	junkies	that	might	push	themselves	with	exercise.	They	feel	better	during	the	exercise,	
               particularly	high-impact	aerobics,	because	the	adrenaline	is	up.	Then	the	adrenaline	goes	down	and	finally	
               they	reach	this	third	stage	of	exhaustion	where	the	system	just	cannot	adapt	anymore.	There’s	an	inability	
               to	cope	with	stress.	The	person	is	in	bed	or	they	don’t	want	to	come	out	of	their	home	and	they	have	all	of	
               the	other	phenomena	that	starts	to	go	along	with	that.	We	look	at	it	as	a	continuum	rather	than	a	direct	
               relationship	between	stress	and	adrenal	fatigue.	It’s	a	wearing	out	of	the	system.	It’s	like	repetitive	stress,	
               carpal	tunnel.	It	doesn’t	usually	happen	the	first	day	you	start	typing	but	weeks	after	weeks	after	months	it	
               will	get	worse	and	worse	until	it	becomes	carpal	tunnel	syndrome.	If	you	have	propensity	to	have	narrow	
               wrists	or	exercise	and	you	collect	fluid	a	lot	in	your	body	then	you’ll	be	more	susceptible	to	carpal	tunnel	
               over	time.		People	are	the	same	way	with	adrenal	fatigue.	They	will	be	more	susceptible	if	they	genetically	
               don’t	have	strong	adrenal	function	or	if	the	stressors	are	particularly	insidious	and	particularly	strong,	or	
               importantly,	if	they	have	stress	their	entire	life,	if	they	had	a	stressful	childhood.	For	example,	they	may	go	
               into	the	teenage	years	already	under	stress	so	by	the	time	they’re	in	their	20s	they	go	to	college,	they	start	
               working,	now	they’re	at	burnout	phase	at	23	or	26.

Kevin:	         I	want	to	go	back	to	Addison’s	and	Cushing’s,	as	well	as	talk	a	little	bit	about	adrenal	burnout.	The	biggest	
                question	I	have	is,	are	these	clinical	issues	reversible	and	then	is	something	like	burnout	completely	revers-

Dr.	Williams:	 The	clinical	issues,	they	are	manageable.	To	little	cortisol	and		Addison’s	can	be		treated	with	hydrocorti-
               sone	or	pharmaceutical	grade	cortisol	and	patients	feel	better	and	they	can	be	normalized	with	that.	Of	
               course	in	natural	medicine	we’re	going	to	look	at	the	bigger	picture	and	try	to	kind	of	restructure	the	whole	
               HPA	axis	and	all	of	the	endocrine	system	and	the	cardiovascular	and	nervous	system,	as	well.	

	               Too	much	cortisol	being	produced	by	an	abnormally-functioning	gland,	both	of	these	are	organ-related	
                problems	and	that’s	more	difficult	to	reverse.	There’s	actually	no	drug	that	reduces	the	amount	of	cortisol	
                or	neutralizes	cortisol	in	the	body.	We’re	looking	at	different	ones	that	have	an	effect	on	too	much	cortisol	
                but	when	you’re	all	the	way	into	Cushing’s	Syndrome	there’s	nothing	that	directly	inhibits	the	cortisol.

	               The	third	clinical	entity	is	the	Metabolic	Syndrome,	which	is	kind	of	a	combination	of	that	too	fat,	too	
                thin	at	the	same	time,	with	disruption	to	the	pancreas	and	insulin	and	glucose.	That	can	be	remedied	
                through	lifestyle	changes	and	modulating	the	cortisol,	which	can	be	done,	and	regulating	exercise	and	diet.	

                           PAGE 10 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

          We	can	restructure	that	pretty	much	100	percent	of	the	time.	Adrenal	fatigue	continuum,	which	goes	all	
          the	way	to	the	burnout	phenomena,	we	might	want	to	take	a	look	at	that	extreme	phenomena	in	a	little	
          more	detail,	what	happens	in	the	body	and	this	cascade	of	events	that	cause	the	crashing.	In	some	people	
          they	will	crash,	but	not	crash	and	burn.	In	some	cases	they	go	to	the	full	so-called	burnout.	I	don’t	use	that	
          term	in	my	clinical	practice,	in	my	office,	with	my	patients.	It’s	very	dramatic.	It	sounds	like	a	Hollywood	
          movie	with	the	car	crashing	and	all	that	stuff.	It’s	dramatic	and	gets	your	attention	but	it	doesn’t	serve	the	
          patients.	I	like	to	look	at	it	as	more	of	a	continuum	and	how	we	can	restructure	and	use	bio-identical	hy-
          drocortisone	and	cortisol.	I’ll	use	adrenal	glandulars	with	low	levels	of	natural	cortisol.	We’ll	use	nutrients	
          and	vitamins.

	         What’s	also	important	here	in	terms	of	restructuring	all	of	this	is	that	the	adrenal	hormones	are	built	from	
          two	molecules.	One	is	cholesterol	and	two	is	tyrosine.	Tyrosine,	as	you	remember,	was	the	molecule	that	
          built	the	thyroid	hormone.	Tyrosine	also	is	the	precursor	to	adrenaline	and	noradrenaline.	So	you	need	
          enough	tyrosine	in	the	body	to	help	rebuild	that.	Second	is	all	of	the	adrenal	hormones,	from	the	adrenal	
          cortex,	start	with	cholesterol.	The	first	one	that’s	built,	in	all	cases,	in	the	three	zones	inside	the	adrenal	cor-
          tex,	but	all	three	zones	use	cholesterol	to	build	the	first	precursor	molecule	which	is	pregnenolone.	When	
          you	look	at	blood	studies	on	patients	in	pregnenolone	you’ll	see	even	younger	people	with	unusually	low	
          levels	of	pregnenolone.	That	already	tells	us	that	they’re	not	producing,	the	adrenal	gland	is	not	producing	
          enough	of	the	main	grandmother	of	all	adrenal	hormones,	pregnenolone.	We	can	supplement	them	with	

	         You	also	want	to	look	at,	particularly	your	extreme	vegans	and	raw	foodists,	no	fats	and	very	little	carbo-
          hydrates	and	you	have	a	system	that	is	dependent	on	cholesterol	and	you’ll	often	find	that	these	folks	have	
          too	little	cholesterol.	The	cholesterol	that	the	hormones	are	built	from	are	the	low-density	so-called	bad	
          LDL	cholesterol.	Too	much	is	not	good	but	too	little	you	cannot	build	enough	adrenal	hormones.	So	over	
          time,	over	years,	you’ll	get	weaker	and	weaker.	You	will	build	hormones	but	not	enough.	

	         The	next	level	is	progesterone.	Progesterone	is	a	key	hormone,	stress	hormone.	In	the	early	days	of	pro-
          gesterone	prescribing	and	over-the-counter	use	of	wild	yam	creams	and	so	forth	is	that	progesterone	en-
          docrine	converts	into	cortisol	so	if	there’s	too	much	stress	and	a	woman	is	producing	sufficient	amount	of	
          progesterone	the	body	may	rob	that	and	put	it	back	into	cortisol	or	vice	versa.	Now	you	have	imbalance	
          between	progesterone	and	estrogen.	Now	you	have	three	layers	of	problems,	your	stress-related	adrenal	
          HPA	axis	issue,	too	little	or	too	much	cortisol.	You	have	increasing	premenstrual	syndrome	and	irritability.	
          And	you	have	problems	with	blood	sugar,	insulin,	weight	and	so	forth.	So	those	are	highly	important.

	         The	next	one,	the	father	of	all	hormones,	is	DHEA.	That’s	built	directly	from	pregnenolone	and	from	
          DHEA	you	have	another	few	steps	in	between	of	other	hormones	that	the	body	is	making,	the	adrenal	is	
          making.	Then	from	there	you	have	testosterone.	Not	all	of	testosterone	is	produced	in	the	male	gonads.	A	
          lot	of	it	is	produced	in	the	adrenal.	Women,	if	they	have	strong	testosterone	levels	in	their	blood,	you	can	
          tell	that	their	adrenals	are	working	pretty	well.	If	you	add	DHEA	and	their	DHEA	is	low	you	often	will	
          see	that		they	can	produce	more	testosterone	from	the	supplemental	DHEA.	It	gives	the	adrenal	glands	a	
          chance	to	rest	and	sometimes	recoup	and	recover.

Kevin:	   Before	we	end	this	module	I	want	to	ask,	what	are	some	of	the	truths	about	adrenal	function	and	some	of	
          the	fiction.	I	know	that	a	lot	of	people	can	get	online	and	go	to	google	MD	and	search	all	these	different	
          ideas	about	the	adrenal.	What’s	true	and	what’s	not?

                                            Transcripts Module 1 / PAGE 11

Dr.	Williams:	 The	facts	are	that	the	adrenal	produces	major	hormones	that	are	key	to	your	survival,	your	ability	to	adapt	
               to	your	environment,	including	all	types	of	stressors,	physical	and	physiological	and	to	the	functioning	of	
               their	entire	bodies.	That’s	fact.

	              Also	fact	is	that	too	much	or	too	little	in	the	extreme	produces	adrenal	gland	disease.	That’s	Addison’s	and	

	              Also	fact	is	that	serious	imbalance	produces	Syndrome	X	or	Metabolic	Syndrome,	and	everything	that’s	
               associated	with	that.

	              Also	fact	is	that	they	interplay	on	a	daily	basis	between	adrenal	hormones,	primarily	cortisol	and	DHEA.	
               It	influences	your	mood,	your	energy,	your	sex	drive,	your	sleep,	your	appetite.	The	relationship	between	
               insulin	and	pancreas	function,	adrenal	function,	is	very	important	and	also	the	connection	between	the	
               liver	and	the	liver’s	ability	to	convert	glycogen	into	glucose	in	response	to	adrenal	hormones,	also	very	

	              So	those	are	some	of	the	facts.

	              The	other	is	that	too	much	cortisol,	even	if	it’s	not	Cushing’s	Disease,	in	other	words	if	you’re	taking	Pred-
               nisone	or	even	bio-identical	hydrocortisone,	too	much	of	that,	and/or	stress	producing	too	much	cortisol,	
               it	will	cause	more	deterioration	of	your	bones	and	thinning	of	your	skin	and/or	accelerated,	more	rapid	

	              So	those	are	the	main	facts.

	              The	fiction	part	is	the	confusion	between	the	complexity	of	this	very	important	gland	and	its	hormones	in	
               the	rest	of	the	body.	There’s	direct	links.	The	only	direct	link	which	is	fact	is	that	stress	releases	adrenaline	
               immediately.	A	boxer	in	the	ring	has	to	have	enough	adrenaline	but	they	have	to	control	their	adrenaline	
               so	they	don’t	get	overly	aggressive.	They	have	to	meter	out	how	they	work	with	stress.	Their	blood	pressure	
               can’t	go	too	high.	Same	thing	with	a	soldier	in	the	battlefield.	There’s	going	to	be	a	lot	of	adrenaline	going	
               but	if	they	get	too	much	they’re	likely	to	go	into	the	fight	or	flight	effect	and	they’re	going	to	flee	or	they’re	
               going	to	overly	engage,	shoot	off	too	many	rounds,	jump	the	fence	and	attack	their	opponent	too	aggres-
               sively.	Those	are	also	facts.

	              What’s	fiction	here	is	that,	for	example,	exercise	is	a	form	of	stress	but	it’s	a	positive	stress.	If	you	over-
               exercise	or	if	you’re	not	prepared	for	exercise	and	your	body	is	not	attuned	to	that	and	you	don’t	know	
               how	to	control	that	in	a	smooth	fashion,	for	example	classical	yoga	starts	off	with	and	ends	with	rest.	You	
               start	off	standing	straight	and	relaxing	and	tuning	in	to	your	body	and	training	your	system	and	then	you	
               go	into	slow	moving,	flowing,	upward/downward	dog	postures	and	then	as	you	start	to	get	going	into	
               more	and	more	aggressive	postures,	more	intense	poses,	and	then	in	the	end	you	slow	down	and	reverse	
               the	process	and	you	lie	down	and	go	into	integration.	That’s	the	way	it’s	meant	to	be.	What	we	do	is	we	
               think	that	exercise	is	good.	We	jump	in	and	stimulate	the	adrenaline.	We	think	we’re	doing	really	good	but	
               adrenaline	now	isn’t	balancing	insulin.	People	start	to	crave	the	sugary	drinks	so	they	can	exercise	more.	
               They’re	drinking	Gatorade,	for	example,	and	then	if	they	get	tired,	if	the	adrenals	are	low,	they’re	going	to	
               drink	Red	Bull	or	caffeine	before	they	exercise	or	caffeine	in	ephedra	tablets	and	now	they’re	driving	their	
               adrenal	system	into	fatigue	syndrome.

                          PAGE 12 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

	         I	think	the	fact	versus	fiction	is	very	important	in	terms	of	exercise.	It’s	important	in	terms	of	when	you	get	
          treatment	and	how	you	get	treated.	The	level	of	adrenal	fatigue	that	you	are,	it’s	not	all	or	nothing.	It’s	a	
          continuum	and	an	interrelationship	and	good,	clear	diagnosis	is	very	important	and	the	intervention	and	
          the		supplementation	and	the	hormone	replacement	needs	to	be	individualized.

Kevin:	   Great.	This	is	the	end	of	module	one.	In	module	two	we’re	going	to	be	talking	about	how	to	identify	and	
          how	to	test	your	adrenal	health	using	medical	testing	as	well	as	self-tests	from	home.	This	is	Kevin	Gianni	
          and	Dr.	Williams.	Thank	you	so	much.

Module 2
                                   PAGE 14 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

Kevin:	          Welcome	everyone.	This	is	Kevin	Gianni	from	The	Complete	Adrenal	Health	Program.	Today	is	module	
                 two.	 In	 module	 two	 we’re	 going	 to	 be	 talking	 about	 the	 things	 you	 can	 do	 at	 home	 or	 with	 a	 health	
                 practitioner	to	help	you	identify	what	is	going	on	with	your	adrenals.	We	are	with	Dr.	J.E.	Williams	and	
                 he	is	going	to	be	your	guide	today.	Dr.	Williams,	welcome.

Dr.	Williams:	 Thank	you	for	working	with	me	on	this	important	program	on	adrenal	health.

Kevin:	          We	covered	a	lot	of	information	in	module	one	about	how	the	adrenals	work.	Now	we’re	really	going	to	
                 get	into	what	you	can	do	to	help	identify	what’s	going	on	with	your	adrenals.	Why	don’t	you	give	us	a	little	
                 bit	of	an	outline	of	what	we’re	going	to	cover	today.

Dr.	Williams:	 This	is	the	module	for	evaluating	health.	We’re	going	to	be	looking	at	the	adrenal	fatigue	continuum.	We’re	
               going	to	go	over	clues	that	you	can	do	yourself,	you	can	evaluate	or	look	at	yourself,	but	please	keep	in	
               mind	that	those	are	clues	only	and	they,	like	medical	students,	every	time	you	read	anything	in	the	book	
               you	think	you	have	the	disease.	By	the	end	of	medical	school	you	have	gone	through	about	1,475	diseases	
               and	in	fact	you	didn’t	have	any	of	them.	So	everything	has	to	be	put	into	context.

	                Then	we’re	going	to	look	at	conditions	that	relate	to	or	play	roles	in	the	adrenal	fatigue	as	well	as	conditions	
                 that	can	kind	of	overlap	and	confuse	the	evaluation,	even	from	experienced	doctors.	And	then	we’re	going	
                 to	really	focus	on	the	testing,	what	are	the	best	tests.	We’re	going	to	look	at	blood,	saliva	and	urine	and	
                 which	hormones	are	best	tested.	Then	finally	finish	up	with	the	actual	numbers	of	the	testing	so	you	have	
                 a	good	idea	when	you	do	your	own	self-testing	what	to	look	for,	the	laboratory	ranges	and	based	on	my	
                 clinical	experience	what	are	my	optimal	ranges.

Kevin:	          Let’s	start	with	adrenal	fatigue	and	then	we’ll	move	deeper	into	some	of	the	other	issues.	Let’s	identify	some	
                 of	the	things	that	someone	could	experience	that	may	be	clues	to	having	this	issue.

Dr.	Williams:	 The	 first	 thing	 I	 want	 to	 mention	 is	 just	 go	 down	 a	 bullet	 list	 of	 some	 of	 the	 take-away	 topics	 from	
               module	one.	That	is,	how	important	the	adrenal	gland	is.	It	secretes	hormones	that	are	key	to	life	itself,	to	
               sustaining	your	life.	The	three	major	hormones	in	the	body,	two	of	those	are	adrenal	hormones,	cortisol	
               and	adrenaline,	and	the	other	is	insulin,	which	comes	from	the	pancreas.	There’s	a	relationship,	and	that	
               will	become	more	and	more	clear	and	evident	as	we	go	through	each	module.	So	the	adrenal	gland	supports	
               life	and	it’s	also	necessary	for	our	energy	in	the	body,	for	managing	normal	weight	and	body	shape.	It	is	
               strongly	related	to	exercise,	mood	and	of	course	stress.	The	most	important	hormones	and	where	we’re	
               going	to	be	focusing	on	mainly	today	are	going	to	be	hormones	from	the	adrenal	cortex.	That’s	primarily	
               cortisol.	The	other	two	are	DHEA	and	pregnenolone.

	                The	adrenal	fatigue	phenomena	is	closely	related	to	cortisol	and	DHEA	and	their	relationship	to	insulin	
                 and	 all	 of	 those	 hormone’s	 relationship	 to	 neurotransmitters,	 to	 enzyme	 reactions,	 to	 how	 glucose	 is	
                 released	from	the	liver	and	the	muscles	and	blood	flow	and	blood	pressure.	It’s	just	one	of	those	amazingly	
                 wonderful,	complex	paintings	that	goes	on	inside	the	body	every	day,	in	fact	every	minute	of	every	day	
                 including	while	you’re	sleeping	at	nighttime.

	                When	the	adrenal	goes	wrong	it	starts	to	show	imbalance,	not	just	in	the	gland	itself,	not	just	in	deficiency	
                 or	excess	of	hormone.	We	talked	about	the	Cushing’s	and	Addison’s	disease	yesterday,	which	are	the	western	
                 allopathic	paradigm	of	more	than	100	years	ago,	which	is	too	much	or	too	little	of	any	hormone	causes	any	
                 disease.	That’s	absolutely	correct.	Very	well	done.	Good	job	guys.	But	the	fact	is	that	it’s	highly	complex	

                                             Transcripts Module 2 / PAGE 15

               system	and	interrelated	and	so	many	intercommunications	that	the	old	paradigm	just	doesn’t	work	in	the	
               fatigue	 continuum.	 Number	 one,	 there’s	 an	 HPA,	 a	 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal	 axis	 imbalance.	 I’d	
               like	to	talk	about	that	in	more	detail	in	another	module,	because	that’s	the	crux	of	the	issue	really.	When	
               that	starts	to	go	off,	you	don’t	feel	well.	You	feel	tired.	Your	energy	is	off.	Your	glucose	and	blood	sugar	
               metabolism	are	off.	You	have	more	PMS	for	women.	Your	sleep	is	off.	

	              If	you	regulate	that	through	lifestyle	changes,	then	you	normalize	your	adrenal	gland	and	you	come	back	
               to	balance	and	everything	is	fine.	If	that	goes	on	too	long	or	the	system,	your	body	and	genetics,	are	more	
               susceptible,	or	the	stressors	or	the	dietary	choices	that	you	make	are	too	out	of	balance	then	you’ll	end	up	
               into	a	fatigue	syndrome	where	you’re	constantly	tired	and	associated	with	fibromyalgia	and	chronic	fatigue	
               syndrome	and	stuff,	immune	system	disruption	and	that	becomes	a	chronic	condition.	That’s	still	fixable.	
               We	can	still	treat	that.	We	can	still	bring	the	person	back	to	balance.

	              The	next	level,	if	that	continues,	is	the	hormone	insufficiency.	So	now	you	have	the	HPA	axis	imbalance.	
               You’ll	 have	 the	 actual	 adrenal	 fatigue	 issue	 with	 hormones	 that	 are	 up	 and	 down	 or	 disrupted	 ratios,	
               cortisol	 to	 DHEA,	 and	 then	 finally	 the	 adrenal	 becomes	 too	 tired	 and	 it	 becomes	 unable	 to	 produce	
               enough	hormone	and	now	you’re	into	kind	of	a	permanent	state	of	deficiency	and	fatigue.	Still	fixable,	if	
               done	right.	You	may	have	to	replace	the	cortisol	with	bio-identical	hydrocortisone	and	it	will	take	more	
               complex	therapy.	It	will	take	more	time.	It	will	take	supportive	therapies	like	acupuncture,	massage	and	a	
               lot	of	rest.

	              Then	finally	you	go	into	the	full-blown	so-called	burnout.	I’d	like	to,	at	another	module,	talk	about	that	
               in	much	more	detail.	Not	only	is	the	balance	tipped	but	the	whole	seesaw	is	broken	itself.	That’s	really	a	
               problematic	and	very	difficult,	or	perhaps	sometimes	impossible	to	completely	fix.

Kevin:	        What	are	the	specific	clues	so	we	don’t	get	that	far?

Dr.	Williams:	 Exactly.	The	first	thing	you	want	to	keep	in	mind	is	that	the	adrenal	is	a	tough	organ.	So	are	the	kidneys	
               upon	which	it	sits.	They	can	take	a	lot	of	abuse.	But	that’s	not	the	goal,	to	see	how	far	you	can	push	them.	
               The	idea	is	to	moderate	your	system	as	you	go.	Think	of	it	as	flying	in	a	high-efficiency,	high-altitude	
               airplane	and	you’re	the	pilot.	You	can	do	a	lot	of	things	to	that	plane	and	that	engine.	You	can	turn	it	to	
               this	side	and	that	side,	upside	down.	You	can	go	straight	up	and	straight	down.	As	long	as	you’re	in	the	
               air	you’re	still	fine.	But	if	you	overdo	the	systems	or	you	get	careless	with	your	own	maneuvering,	then	
               you’ll	crash	and	burn.	During	the	process	of	flying,	or	living,	you	have	to	moderate	all	the	time	all	the	
               instruments	and	all	of	the	systems	that	give	you	feedback.	In	other	words,	you	have	to	be	looking	at	all	the	

	              Here	are	the	clues.	These	are	the	dials	you	want	to	look	at.	Number	one,	fatigue.	Now	keeping	this	in	
               mind	throughout	the	entire	program,	the	number	one	symptom	in	these	cases	is	fatigue.	It’s	not	just	being	
               tired	after	hard	work	or	after	exercise,	you	sit	down,	you	rest	a	bit	and	have	a	good	night’s	sleep	and	you	
               feel	better.	This	is	the	type	of	fatigue	that	you	don’t	feel	better	in	the	morning,	you	don’t	feel	completely	
               rested.	You	rest	up	another	couple	days	or	a	weekend	and	you’re	still	tired.	It’s	that	type	of	fatigue.	It’s	a	
               chronic	fatigue.	It’s	a		persistent	fatigue.	If	that	fatigue	goes	away	and	you	say,	“I	guess	I’m	OK,”	but	then	
               it	returns	again	next	week	or	returns	again	next	month,	now	you	want	to	use	that	as	one	of	your	evaluation	
               mechanisms	that	some	system	is	off	and	you	need	to	make	adjustments.	When	it	gets	worse	you’re	going	
               to	be	not	only	fatigued	but	you’re	also	going	to	be	very	tired	and	weak.	So	when	you	feel	not	just	fatigued,	
               fatigue	meaning	after	stress,	after	exercise,	after	a	long	day,	but	now	you’re	really	tired.	You	just	want	to	

                      PAGE 16 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

    sit	down.	Sometimes	you	feel	like	you	have	to	lay	down.	You	also	feel	muscle	weakness.	Some	people	say	
    at	the	most	extreme	it’s	hard	to	even	hold	a	pencil	in	their	fingers.	A	pencil	will	just	fall	out	of	their	hand,	
    they	feel	so	weak.	So	tiredness	and	weakness	are	sure	clues	that	you’re	getting	adrenal	fatigue	scenario.		
    Finally,	that	goes	all	the	way	to	exhaustion.	That’s	not	where	we	want	to	get.	

	   The	second	clue	is	blood	pressure.	If	you	have	a	tendency	to	run	low	blood	pressure	on	a	normal	basis	
    you	could	also	have	some	adrenal	hormone	issues.	The	key	to	blood	pressure	is	when	you’re	lying	down	or	
    sitting	up	and	your	blood	pressure	is	taken,	you	leave	the	cuff	on	or	ask	the	nurse	or	doctor	where	you’re	
    doing	it	to	leave	the	cuff	on,	and	then	stand	up,	don’t	jump	up,	but	stand	up	quickly	and	immediately	
    take	your	blood	pressure	again.	If	the	numbers	are	ten	or	more	points	lower	than	when	you	were	lying	
    or	sitting,	that’s	one	of	the	give-aways	for	adrenal	fatigue.	The	hormones	are	not	controlling	your	blood	
    pressure	correctly.

	   The	third	one	is	dark	circles	under	the	eyes.	That’s	also	related	to	allergies	but	allergies	are	very	closely	
    related	to	adrenal	fatigue.	If	you	have	persistent	and	recurring	dark	circles,	not	just	the	little	bit	that	go	
    away	from	being	tired	or	not	getting	enough	sleep	or	you	had	a	long	drive	across	the	country	or	something	
    like	that,	that’s	not	what	I’m	talking	about.	The	very	dark,	almost	kind	of	raccoon	 	 looking	 color	 at	
    the	bottom	of	the	eyes	and	even	sometimes	on	the	eyelids	themselves.	That’s	a	clue.	Also	so	are	your	pupils.	
    People	who	have	dilated	pupils	even	in	strong	light	typically	will	have	adrenal	fatigue.	When	I	shine	the	
    exam	light	on	to	their	pupils	they	don’t	respond	as	well.	When	you	shine	the	light	the	pupils	should	shrink	
    and	then	when	you	take	the	light	off	they	should	open	up	and	dilate	again.	If	they	stay	dilated,	even	in	
    strong	light,	that’s	typically	a	problem	with	the	adrenals.

	   The	fourth	one	is	slow	morning	and	afternoon	slumps.	You	wake	up	tired	and	you’re	slow	to	start.	The	
    people	who	need	the	coffee,	they	don’t	get	started	10	o’clock,	you	can’t	talk	to	them	in	the	morning,	they’re	
    grouchy,	 they’re	 irritated,	 they	 don’t	 really	 come	 alive	 until	 10	 or	 11.	 That’s	 typically	 trouble	 with	 the	
    adrenal	glands.	They’re	not	regulating	properly	during	the	nighttime.	Then	those	people	who	crash	in	the	
    afternoon,	they’re	having	the	hypoglycemic	combined	with	adrenal	slump.	That	usually	occurs	between	
    two	and	four.	They	can	almost	clock	it.	Then	in	the	evening,	especially	after	they	eat,	they	re-regulate	their	
    blood	sugar,	their	insulin	responds	OK	and	now	they’re	awake.	Sometimes	feeling	quite	good	later	in	the	
    evening.	Of	course	then	they’re	going	to	stay	up	till	11	or	midnight	or	one	o’clock	or	later	because	they’re	
    feeling	pretty	good.	They’re	getting	stuff	done	that	they	couldn’t	get	done	during	the	day.	Now	they’re	
    tired,	their	sleep	is	off	at	that	point	and	the	cycle	all	starts	again.

	   The	 fifth	 is	 salt	 and	 sugar	 cravings.	 Certainly	 people	 with	 low	 adrenal	 and	 low	 blood	 pressure	 have	 a	
    tendency	to	crave	salt,	which	is	necessary	to	thicken	the	blood	and	increase	the	blood	pressure.	Of	course,	
    if	you	have	high	blood	pressure	you	shouldn’t	be	using	salt	at	all.	But	it’s	also	related	to	some	of	the	adrenal	
    hormones	and	how	it	regulates	sodium	and	potassium	in	the	body.	So	the	tendency	towards	salt	cravings,	
    eating	salty	foods,	always	asking	for	extra	salt	on	your	food,	can	be	a	tip-off.	Also,	sugar	cravings.	That	
    would	be	the	adrenal	hormone,	principally	cortisol,	relationship	to	the	pancreatic	hormone	insulin	and	

	   The	 sixth	 is	 increased	 appetite	 and	 the	 need	 for	 carbohydrate	 drinks	 when	 you’re	 exercising.	 If	 you’re	
    working	a	lot,	if	you’re	using	a	lot	of	mental	energy,	90	percent	of	glucose	is	burned	up	in	the	brain	so	if	
    you’re	a	create	person,	a	writer	for	example,	you’re	going	to	feel	very	exhausted	because	you’ve	used	up	so	
    much	glucose	in	the	brain	and	you’re	going	to	crave	some	food	or	some	sugary	treat	in	order	to	feel	better.	
    That	normally	is	self-regulating.	But	if	your	appetite	tends	to	be	increased	without	any	reason	and	you	can’t	

                                            Transcripts Module 2 / PAGE 17

                control	your	appetite,	often	the	stress	hormone	cortisol	has	gone	too	high.	It’s	driving	appetite.	Of	cause,	
                that’s	going	to	make	you	gain	weight	if	you’re	not	exercising	it	off.

	               The	other	is	the	need	for	carbohydrate	drinks	when	exercising.	Here’s	a	similar	thing	where	you	feel	good	
                when	you	exercise	but	you	start	to	slump	during	the	middle	of	your	workout	so	you	go	over	and	get	a	
                Gatorade	or	people	are	bringing	carbohydrate	drinks,	even	drinking	honey	and	water	and	herbal	teas	with	
                honey	and	water	while	exercising.	Then	they	feel	better	and	they	can	continue	the	exercise.	That	tells	you	
                that	your	cortisol	and	other	adrenal	hormones	are	not	working	efficiently	enough	to	extract	the	glycogen	
                out	of	your	liver	and	you’re	not	getting	their	right	metabolism	into	the	muscle	tissue	and	you’re	getting	
                fatigued	during	exercise.	You	should	be	able	to	move	through	exercise	with	some	fluid	replacement	but	
                not	this	significant	craving	for	carbohydrate	sports	drinks	and	then	when	you	do	drink	them	you	feel	a	lot	
                better.	That’s	another	tip-off	something	is	wrong.

	               The	seventh	one	is	after	exercise	you	don’t	recover	well.	Remember,	the	best	thing	to	do	after	exercise,	
                and	yoga	has	it	already	built-in	traditionally,	you	lay	down	for	10-20	minutes,	sometimes	longer,	in	the	
                corpse	pose	and	you	integrate	all	of	your	body	and	your	hormones	and	your	blood	flow	and	your	mind	
                settles	down.	That’s	where	you	get	all	the	benefits.	So	after	exercise,	you	go	to	the	gym	and	have	a	shower,	
                relax,	have	a	sauna,	relax,	even	lay	down	for	a	little	bit	and	then	you	should	come	up	and	feel	quite	good.	
                Those	people	who	don’t	feel	good	after	exercise,	they	feel	even	more	tired,	more	burnt-out,	they	pushed	
                themselves,	they	struggled	through	and	it	takes	them	not	hours	but	days	to	recover	from	exercise,	is	a	tip-
                off	for	adrenal	problems.

	               The	eighth	one	is	if	you	can’t	lose	weight	or	if	you	gain	weight	too	easily.	That’s	often	an	adrenal	imbalance	
                that’s	influencing	how	your	body	patterns	fat,	how	it	relates	to	insulin	and	that	insulin	is	the	key	to	putting	
                fat	in	and	out	of	the	adipose	cells.
	               The	ninth	one	is	skin.	If	your	skin	is	thinning,	more	so	than	you	expect,	and	of	course	it	naturally	thins	
                somewhat	during	aging,	then	you	may	have	too	much	cortisol	going	on	in	the	body.	But	if	it’s	becoming	
                dry,	flaky	and	there’s	a	persistent	dermatitis,	itching	and	scaliness,	dandruff,	that	also	may	give	you	a	clue	
                that	you’re	having	trouble	with	your	adrenal.

	               The	tenth	one	is	body	hair.	If	you	have	low	amounts	of	body	hair	or	you	had	normal	amounts	when	you	
                were	younger	and	you	find	that	it’s	thinning,	which	happens	somewhat	with	aging,	then	we	find	that	it’s	
                thinning	and	there’s	less	of	it,	including	underarm	hair	and	lower	arms	and	lower	legs,	or	there’s	patches	
                where	you	find	that	there’s	no	hair,	this	is	body	hair,	not	head	hair,	then	that’s	also	a	tip-off	that	there’s	
                trouble	with	the	adrenal	gland.

Kevin:	         A	couple	of	questions	inside	of	all	this.	Some	of	these	symptoms	seem	the	same	as	thyroid.	How	do	we	
                know	which	ones	are	which?	How	do	we	separate	it?

Dr.	Williams:	 They	 interrelate.	 We	 have	 HPA,	 meaning	 hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal	 axis,	 and	 we	 have	 an	 HPT	
               axis,	hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid	axis.	And	then	they	overlap	so	we	have	an	HPTA,	hypothalamus-
               pituitary-thyroid-adrenal	axis.	They	will	cross	over.	Your	thyroid,	as	you	remember,	produces	hormones	
               that	help	our	body	utilize	oxygen	in	the	cells.	The	thyroxin	inside	the	cell	is	necessary	for	the	synthesis	of	
               steroid	hormones,	which	are	produced	by	the	adrenal	glands.	They	play	key	interactive	and	overlapping	
               roles.		 The	way	we	find	out	which	is	which	is	through	the	testing.

                                 PAGE 18 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

Kevin:	         With	the	blood	pressure,	do	both	numbers	drop?

Dr.	Williams:	 Both	numbers	tend	to	drop	equally,	but	if	the	bottom	number	drops	more	than	ten	then	you	know	for	
               sure	that	there’s	a	very	likelihood	of	adrenal	fatigue.

Kevin:	         When	I	was	experiencing	some	of	my	adrenal	issues	I	had	some	cramping	in	my	muscles.	Is	that	regular	
                too,	or	is	that	maybe	something	different?

Dr.	Williams:	 You	can	have	cramping	and	pain,	muscle	pain	and	joint	pain	that	doesn’t	go	away.	You’ll	have	lean	muscle	
               loss	with	increased	body	fat.	So	you	have	abnormal	too	much	fat	to	lower	muscle	ratio.	Even	if	people	are	
               eating	pretty	lean	foods	they’ll	still	have	an	abnormal	ratio.	You	have	brain	fog	and	of	course,	irritability,	
               difficulty	sleeping,	the	food	cravings,	the	increased	appetite	that	I	mentioned.	But	you	can	also	have	the	
               neck	and	shoulder	and	back	pain,	muscle	aches	and	pains	and	joint	pains	that	kind	of	continuously	don’t	
               go	away.

Kevin:	         Great.	What	other	clinical	conditions	play	a	part	in	advancing	adrenal	fatigue?

Dr.	Williams:	 The	first	one,	like	we	talked	about,	is	thyroid.	There’s	an	important	relationship	to	both	of	those.	If	you	
               don’t	catch	that,	if	there’s	say	one	more	off	than	the	other,	say	the	adrenal	is	weaker	than	the	thyroid	or	
               the	thyroid	is	weaker	than	the	adrenal,	they	will	tend	to	compensate	for	each	other.	If	you	treat	just	the	
               adrenal	or	just	the	thyroid	in	some	of	these	cases	then	you’ll	make	the	other	problem	considerably	worse.	
               It’s	important	for	the	clinician	to	understand	both	of	these	conditions	very	well.

	               PMS	is	another	one,	premenstrual	syndrome.	It’s	associated	with	hypoglycemia,	which	is	another	clinical	
                condition	that	overlaps	and	plays	a	strong	part	in	adrenal	fatigue,	often	misdiagnosed,	if	you’re	looking	at	
                it	just	from	the	western	allopathic	model	where	you’re	only	looking	at	one	disease	at	a	time.	PMS	is	where	
                there’s	increased	irritability	and	a	lot	of	fatigue	and	food	craving,	the	hypoglycemic	pattern	that	parallels	
                often	with	PMS.

	               Depression	is	a	mood	disorder	but	sometimes	it’s	100	percent	endocrine	hormone	disorder.	Regulating	the	
                hormones	fixes	the	problem.	When	we	look	at	the	ratio	between	DHEA	and	cortisol	we	find	many	clues	
                for	people	who	are	suffering	from	depression.	In	other	words,	they	come	in	and	they	say,	“I’m	tired.	I’m	
                not	feeling	well.	I’ve	been	diagnosed	with	depression.	I’m	taking	these	antidepressants.	They’re	helping	a	
                little	bit.	They’re	helping	somewhat	with	my	mood	but	I’m	still	very	fatigued.”	It’s	not	really	addressing	the	
                adrenal	aspect	of	that.	As	I	just	mentioned,	low	back	pain,	neck	and	shoulder	pain,	muscle	tightness	and	
                stiffness	that’s	chronic	and	persistent.	You	can	get	treated	by	the	chiropractor.	You	can	get	acupuncture	and	
                massage.	It	might	feel	a	little	bit	better	afterwards	but	it	just	keeps	coming	back	and	you	keep	going	and	
                going.	You	need	to	look	a	little	bit	deeper	and	see	if	you	have	signs	of	adrenal	fatigue	going	on.

	               Allergies	 I	 mentioned	 already,	 all	 types	 of	 allergies	 including	 seasonal	 allergies	 and	 those	 people	 with	
                elevated	eosinophil	levels	that	have	real	classic	type	sensitivity	can	also	have	adrenal	fatigue	underlying	
                that.	But	clearly	those	people	who	don’t	have	classic	type	one	sensitivity	like	hay	fever	type	allergies	and	
                developed	allergies	as	an	adult	and	they	seem	to	get	worse	and	they	seem	to	be	related	a	lot	to	foods,	often	
                have	 adrenal	 fatigue	 as	 an	 underpinning	 problem.	 Then	 of	 course	 there’s	 the	 hypoglycemia	 and	 other	
                strange	phenomena	that	happen	around	insulin	either	too	low	or	too	high	and	its	relationship	to	cortisol	
                either	too	low	or	too	high.	Adrenal	fatigue	doesn’t	tend	to	push	towards	diabetes	or	hyperglycemia	it	tends	
                to	manifest	as	hypoglycemia.	If	you	have	hypoglycemia	you	also	want	to	evaluate	your	adrenal	problem,	

                                                Transcripts Module 2 / PAGE 19

                particularly	if	you	treat	it	effectively	and	you’re	on	the	hypoglycemic	diet	and	you	feel	a	little	bit	better	but	
                not	completely	resolved.	The	next	step	would	be	to	look	at	the	adrenal	glands.

Kevin:	         Let’s	get	into	the	testing.	What	are	some	of	the	ways	to	medically	test	to	make	sure	you’re	dealing	with	the	
                right	issue?

Dr.	Williams:	 The	testing	is	really	interesting.	We	know	a	lot	about	the	testing	now,	much	more	so	than	we	did	10	or	20	
               years.	The	quality	of	tests	are	quite	good.	There’s	going	to	be	three	types.	There’s	going	to	be	blood	testing,	
               urine	testing	and	saliva	testing.	All	three	are	very	useful	but	they	have	their	particular	purposes.	When	we	
               ask	which	test	is	best,	really	they’re	all	good	for	their	use.	However,	the	bottom	line	is	that	if	you’re	looking	
               for	general	evaluation	of	adrenal	fatigue	then	the	saliva	test	is	the	one	you	want	to	go	for.	Let’s	take	a	look	
               at	each	of	these	in	a	little	more	detail.

	               The	fasting	blood	test	we’re	going	to	be	looking	at	three	hormones	-	cortisol,	DHEA	and	pregnenolone.	
                The	two	precursor	hormones	are	pregnenolone	first	and	then	DHEA.	So	it’s	important	to	make	sure	that	
                the	 adrenal	 gland	 is	 producing	 enough	 of	 these	 hormones.	 Then	 we’re	 going	 to	 look	 at	 the	 DHEA	 to	
                cortisol	ratio.	When	we	do	blood	testing	it’s	important	to	keep	this	in	mind,	that	you’re	going	to	have	to	
                do	it	in	the	morning	before	nine	o’clock.	Closer	to	seven	is	better.	So	between	seven	and	nine.	That’s	when	
                your	cortisol	should	be	coming	up.	That’s	when	your	adrenal	gland	should	be	kicking	in	and	the	number	
                should	be	rising	nicely.	However,	it’s	a	circulating	level	of	the	cortisol	and	is	not	the	available	level.	It’s	not	
                a	tissue	level.	It’s	not	the	free	cortisol.	It’s	just	a	general	marker.	It’s	very	good	for	evaluating	Addison’s	and	
                Cushing’s	disease.	It’s	very	good	at	giving	you	an	idea	of	where	your	stress	is	pushing	your	cortisol	and	
                where	it	might	have	been	during	the	nighttime.	However,	it’s	a	snapshot	of	a	large	landscape.	Anybody	
                who	says	that	it’s	not	good	at	all	is	not	correct.	That’s	another	fact	and	fiction	issue.	It	is	important.	I	test	
                it	always	on	all	patients	all	of	the	time	when	we’re	looking	at	general	hormone	evaluation,	aging	evaluation	
                and	of	course	adrenal	evaluation.	But	the	testing	doesn’t	end	there.	

	               In	terms	of	serum	cortisol	tested	in	the	morning,	the	lab	ranges	are	in	very	small	amounts,	micrograms	
                per	deciliter	and	the	lab	ranges	are	on	average	between	6	and	20.	What	we	want	is	a	tighter	range.	If	your	
                fasting	 cortisol	 level	 is	 over	 15,	 pushing	 up	 to	 17	 for	 example,	 you	 likely	 are	 getting	 a	 little	 bit	 stress-
                induced	cortisol.	That’s	a	little	bit	too	much.	If	you	just	had	come	out	of	the	gym,	you	went	into	the	
                morning	and	exercised,	that	likely	should	be	a	little	bit	higher.	The	idea	is	to	go	in	in	the	morning,	fasting,	
                don’t	eat	any	breakfast,	don’t	drink	any	orange	juice,	water	is	OK,	no	exercise,	just	drive	yourself	to	the	lab	
                and	get	your	blood	tested.	That’s	a	better	measurement.	So	more	desirable	is	going	to	be	less	than	15	and	
                even	better	is	less	than	12.	You	want	it	in	the	optimal	range	to	be	kind	of	in	the	middle	of	the	laboratory	
                range.	I	always	look	for	between	8	and	12,	sometimes	even	less	than	10,	even	tighter	between	8	and	10.	If	
                it	starts	to	get	on	the	low	end	of	the	range,	meaning	between	6	and	8	then	it	could	be	normal	or	we	could	
                be	getting	some	suspicion	of	low	adrenal	gland	function.	So	the	take-home	points	here	are	if	it’s	at	the	
                low	normal	within	two	points	of	the		lower	end	of	the	range	or	within	two	points	at	the	higher	end	of	the	
                range	but	still	within	range	then	that’s	a	clue	that	we	need	to	test	a	little	bit	further.	If	it’s	in	the	middle	it’s	
                probably	OK	and	I	usually	don’t	test	any	further	than	that.

	               A	couple	of	other	things	to	look	at	in	your	general	laboratory	testing	for	adrenal	insufficiency	is	low	or	
                below	normal	sodium	or	higher	than	normal	potassium.	Then	you	look	at	some	of	the	kidney	functions,	
                blood	uronitrogen,	if	that’s	high	or	on	the	high	end	of	the	normal	range	you	might	suspect	that	you’re	
                having	some	adrenal	hormone	issues,	even	if	the	cortisol	is	tracking	within	the	laboratory	normal	ranges.	
                Then,	if	you	have	high	or	high	normal	eosinophils,	which	is	the	white	blood	cell	that	is	related	allergies.

                                  PAGE 20 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

	               On	the	DHEA,	that’s	your	dehydroepiandrosterone,	we’re	going	to	look	at	DHEA	sulfate	or	DHEA-s.	
                It’s	a	serum	study	in	the	blood.	It’s	an	age	and	gender-matched	range.	It’s	a	good,	solid	test	and	I	use	it	
                all	the	time.	For	adults	between	the	ages	of	45	and	65	the	range	can	vary	from	approximately	50	pushing	
                up	towards	300	for	males.	For	females	it’s	a	little	bit	less.	At	the	lower	end	approximately	30		pushing	
                up	towards	250.	However,	at	the	low	normal,	for	both	male	and	female,	if	it’s	under	100	we’re	already	
                starting	to	see	a	little	bit	of	low	adrenal	function,	not	producing	enough	DHEA.	If	you	want	more	optimal	
                numbers	and	you	want	to	optimize	your	adrenal	then	you’re	going	to	look	for	adult	ranges	for	the	men	to	
                be	250-300	and	for	women	150-250.

	               The	last,	third	one,	is	pregnenolone.	We’re	measuring	17-hydroxy	pregnenolone,	also	in	the	serum.	The	
                adult	range,	for	both	men	and	women,		not	an	age-matched	range,	is	approximately	from	350.	Here’s	
                where	I	see	a	lot	of	problems,	even	in	younger	people.	Young	adults	should	have	very	strong		pregnenolone	
                levels,	300,	350,	even	higher	to	400.	As	you	age	it	goes	down	gradually,	almost	to	nothing.	What	I	find	is	
                that	even	young	adults	will	have	low	levels	of		pregnenolone,	sometimes	150,	sometimes	100,	sometimes	
                35.	Older	adults	still	should	have	reasonably	strong	levels	of	pregnenolone.	Sometimes	they	have	10	or	less.	
                That	gives	you	a	strong	clue	that	pregnenolone	is	not	being	produced.	That’s	your	precursor	molecule.	If	
                you	don’t	have	enough	pregnenolone	you	can’t	make	DHEA	and	you	can’t	make	any	of	the	other	steroid	
                hormones	in	the	body.	Pregnenolone,	optimally	from	my	clinical	experience,	needs	to	be	at	least	100	and	
                I	prefer	to	have	it	between	150-350	in	both	men	and	women	in	the	adult	age	group.

Kevin:	         What	other	tests	are	there	for	cortisol	and	DHEA?	Which	ones	are	the	ones	you	should	take?

Dr.	Williams:	 The	next	tests	are	the	urinary	tests.	Those	are	usually	24-hour.	You	have	to	capture	every	drop	of	urine	
               that	you	excrete	over	24	hours,	collect	it	in	a	large	container	that	the	lab	gives	you	and	then	siphon	off	a	
               small	amount	and	bring	it	back	to	the	lab	and	then	they	measure	that	for	that.	It’s	used	to	help	confirm	
               diagnosis	of	Cushing’s	Disease	where	you	have	hypersecreteion	of	cortisol.	Sometimes	when	you’re	doing	
               the	blood	test	you	just	don’t	the	high	levels.	As	I	said,	it’s	like	a	snap	shot.	So	you’d	have	to	do	serial	testing	
               of	blood	throughout	the	day.	That’s	only	practical	if	you’re	in	the	hospital	or	if	you	want	to	sit	in	the	lab	
               all	day	or	come	and	go.	Usually	people	don’t	have	that	amount	of	time	so	they	do	the	24-hour	testing.	We	
               don’t	usually	do	that	for	standard	clinical	studies	of	cortisol.	We’ll	go	right	from	blood	testing	to	saliva.	
               However,	the	24-hour	urinary	test	for	catecholamines	produced	by	the	adrenal	medulla	is	very	useful	and	
               we	do	that	all	the	time	when	we’re	looking	for	deficiency,	adrenaline,	for	example,	or	other	hormones	that	
               are	not	related	to	cortisol.	However,	healthy,	normal	people,	even	with	adrenal	fatigue,	typically	don’t	have	
               significant	abnormalities	in	their	catecholamines.	I’ve	tested	them	many,	many	times	and	even	with	severe	
               adrenal	fatigue	that’s	based	on	the	hormones	from	the	adrenal	cortex,	primarily	cortisol	and	DHEA,	we	
               don’t	see	abnormals	in	the	24-hour	urine	catecholamine.	So	we	don’t	test	that	that	much.

	               The	most	important	one	is	going	to	be	your	saliva	testing.	You’re	going	to	do	multiple	samples	over	a	24-
                hour	period,	usually	four	but	sometimes	up	to	six	levels	of	testing.	Typically	four	is	enough.	What	you’re	
                measuring	 inside	 the	 saliva	 is	 a	 bioavailable	 form	 of	 cortisol	 and	 it	 reflects	 or	 mirrors	 the	 tissue	 levels	
                that	would	be	in	your	body	and	your	body’s	cells.	It’s	a	very	good	test	and	quite	accepted	now	by	even	
                traditional	MDs	and	many	of	the	national	labs	now	also	offer	salivary	cortisol	testing.	The	labs	will	chart	
                out	the	levels	of	the	cortisol	within	the	saliva	on	the	times	that	you	test	it.	Then	they	will	give	you	a	curve	
                or	a	graph	and	then	you	can	evaluate	if	you	are	in	the	normal	or	if	you	have	imbalances.	For	example,	you	
                may	start	off	in	the	morning	just	fine,	then	slump	down	in	the	afternoon	and	then	in	the	middle	of	the	
                night	you’re	back	to	normal.	So	that	would	be	more	of	a	stage	one	or	the	adrenal	imbalance	phenomena.	
                Even	though	you	may	have	some	fatigue	it’s	not	significant	in	terms	of	cortisol	output.	

                                             Transcripts Module 2 / PAGE 21

	              Then	you	might	see	other	forms	of	imbalance	would	include	maybe	too	much	cortisol	in	the	morning.	
               So	you’re	wired	but	say	you	didn’t	sleep	well	at	nighttime	so	you	have	the	wired-tired	phenomena,	too	
               much	cortisol,	which	means	that	your	adrenal	is	putting	out	cortisol	but	it’s	putting	out	too	much	in	an	
               imbalanced	response	to	obviously	no	stress	if	you’re	sleeping	or	just	getting	up	in	the	morning	but	your	
               body	is	kind	of	in	a	state,	an	imbalanced	state	like,	“God,	I	have	to	get	up.	I		have	something	to	do,”	and	
               yet	because	that	was	likely	higher	during	the	nighttime	your	sleep	hasn’t	been	good	so	now	you’re	also	tired.	
               That	may	normalize	out	the	rest	of	the	day.

	              Another	type	of	imbalance	would	be	in	the	morning	where	it’s	low-normal	or	too	low	in	the	morning.	
               Those	are	the	slow-to-start	people.	What	people	tend	to	do	is	they	tend	to	drink	coffee	or	strong	green	tea	
               in	the	morning	or	they	push	themselves	to	exercise.	They	get	adrenaline	going	and	feel	a	little	bit	better	
               but	then	they	crash	an	hour	later.	Instead	of	in	the	afternoon	they	have	a	morning	slump,	usually	between	
               11am	and	1pm.	They	eat	something	and	either	feel	better	or	feel	very	sleepy.	If	they	eat	and	feel	better	then	
               you	know	that	they’re	still	having	adrenal	slump	but	their	insulin	is	working	well,	their	glucose	is	likely	
               working	well.	Don’t	forget,	on	the	lab	testing,	you	have	to	check	also	glucose	and	insulin	to	compare	those	
               two.	Or	a	good	clinician	would	be	doing	that.	If	they	eat	something	and	then	feel	sleepy	afterwards	or	have	
               to	take	a	nap	afterwards	now	the	clues	are	strong	that	you	have	adrenal	deficiency	and	hypoglycemia.

	              If	your	testing	is	all	the	way	at	the	low-normal	even	though	it’s	in	the	right	curve	if	it’s	at	the	low-normal	
               or	below	normal	anywhere	along	the	testing	line	then	you’re	in	full	adrenal	fatigue	syndrome.	

	              What	I	want	to	mention	is	that	in	the	morning	the	levels	will	be	higher.	In	the	middle	of	the	day	they’re	
               going	to	be	considerably	lower,	pretty	much	to	about	half	of	the	morning	levels.	That’s	a	normal	curve.	The	
               afternoon	they	should	go	down	again	and	then	gradually	move	towards	fairly	quiescence	state	during	the	
               middle	of	the	night.	So	by	10pm,	11pm,	midnight	there	should	be	very	low	levels	of	cortisol	in	your	body.	
               That	allows	you	to	sleep.	If	they’re	too	low	or	too	high	at	nighttime	then	you’re	going	to	have	insomnia	or	
               you’re	going	to	wake	up	after	you	fall	asleep,	about	an	hour	or	two	afterwards.	Or	if	they’re	too	low	to	begin	
               with,	say	at	six	or	seven	in	the	evening,	then	you’re	going	to	crash	and	fall	asleep	on	the	couch.	That	means	
               that	you’re	extremely	sleepy	regardless	of	how	much	activity	you	put	out	during	the	day.	If	you	worked	
               hard,	if	you	were	building	a	new	house	and	you	were	putting	up	the	roof	and	framing	and	everything	like	
               that	of	course	you	should	be	exhausted	by	the	end	of	the	day.	This	is	just	normal	activity	and	exhaustion	
               following	it,	no	output.

Kevin:	        Can	you	mention	some	of	the	values	for	urine	and	saliva?	You	mentioned	them	for	the	blood	testing.

Dr.	Williams:	 The	values	on	the	urine	are	going	to	stay	pretty	consistent	but	on	the	saliva	they’re	going	to	vary	from	lab	
               to	lab.	For	the	24-hour	urine	cortisol	for	adults	the	range	is	going	to	all	the	way	down	to	zero	up	to	50	
               micrograms	per	24	hours.	So	we’re	not	looking	for	deficiency	here.	You	could	get	some	clues	if	it’s	on	the	
               very,	very	low	end,	close	to	zero.	But	maybe	we’re	looking	to	see	if		it’s	too	high,	above	50.	

	              On	the	salivary	testing	the	results	vary	from	lab	to	lab.	Genova	Diagnostics	that	I	use,	they	use	micrograms	
               per	deciliter	and	some	of	the	labs	use	picograms	per	deciliter.	All	of	the	salivary	labs	are	going	to	measure	
               DHEA.	They’re	not	going	to	track	the	DHEA	as	they	do	the	cortisol,	most	of	them	won’t.	They’re	going	
               to	look	at	the	morning	DHEA.	The	morning	salivary	DHEA	is	in	picograms	per	milliliter	with	Genova	
               Diagnostics,	the	lab	that	I	use.	It’s	going	to	be	71-640	picograms	per	milliliter.	That’s	a	very,	very	large	
               range.	 In	 the	 middle	 of	 the	 range	 is	 where	 you	 want.	 In	 other	 words,	 probably	 the	 average	 would	 be	
               between	200	and	400.	That’s	quite	acceptable.	If	you’re	way	down,	below	100,	down	below	normal,	then	

                                 PAGE 22 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

                I’d	 still	 suggest	 that	 your	 DHEA	 is	 too	 low.	 More	 importantly	 is	 the	 relationship	 between	 the	 DHEA	
                and	the	cortisol.	As	we	look	at	many	lab	tests,	not	just	adrenal	hormones	but	even	cholesterol	and	LDL	
                ratios,	LDL	to	HDL	ratios	and	triglycerides	to	HDL	ratios,	we	find	that	it’s	in	the	relationship	between	
                different	numbers,	between	different	functions	in	the	body,	between	different	levels	of	hormones,	that	you	
                really	start	to	get	better	clues	for	these	syndromes	that	are	not	classical	diseases.	In	the	cortisol	to	DHEA	
                relationship	the	ratio	is	going	to	be	based	on	DHEA	to	cortisol.	What	you’re	looking	for	here	is	that	if	
                you	have	high	levels	of	DHEA	and	low	levels	of	cortisol	that’s	closer	to	normal.	If	it’s	reversed,	where	you	
                have	low	DHEA	and	high	cortisol,	now	we	have	usually	aging	phenomena	occurring	or	accelerated	aging	
                or	early	aging	and	certainly	have	some	form	of	adrenal	imbalance	going	on.	The	ratio,	as	I	mentioned,	of	
                DHEA	to	cortisol,	is	critical	during	aging	and	many	diseases.	This	high	cortisol	to	low	DHEA	ratio	in	
                conjunction	with	stress	in	your	life	is	a	strong	predictor	of	depression.

	               The	third	ratio	to	look	at	would	be	low	DHEA	and	low	cortisol.	Now	we	have	both	of	the	main	hormones	
                in	the	burnout	phase	of	adrenal	deficiency	and	that’s	really	in	your	late	stage	of	the	condition.	So	even	
                if	you’re,	on	your	salivary	testing,	if	your	cortisol	level	is	say	in	the	mid	to	low-normal	range	and	it	has	a	
                normal	curvature,	if	the	DHEA	is	very	low	then	the	ratio	will	be	out	of	balance	and	that	is	a	predictive	
                marker	for	adrenal	health,	suggesting	low	adrenal	function.

	               The	DHEA	and	pregnenolone	can	also	be	tested	in	the	saliva.	Blood	testing	is	very	good	for	DHEA	and	
                pregnenolone.	 So	 I	 typically	 will	 look	 at	 blood	 testing	 for	 cortisol,	 DHEA	 and	 pregnenolone	 and	 if	 I	
                find	clues	there	I’ll	look	at	the	saliva	testing	for	cortisol	and	DHEA	and	sometimes	we’ll	extend	it	out	to	
                saliva,	pregnenolone.	Also	sometimes	we	look	at	testosterone,	particularly	in	women	because	most	of	their	
                testosterone	is	being	produced	by	the	adrenal	gland.	You	add	them	all	together,	factor	them	all	together.	
                You	look	at	the	ratios	and	then	you	come	up	with	the	answer,	clinical	answer,	and	whether	that’s	suggestive	
                of	adrenal	fatigue.

Kevin:	         If	someone	at	home	wanted	to	either	suggest	to	a	practitioner	what	kind	of	test	they	should	take	or	they	
                wanted	to	do	it	themselves,	what	would	be	the	best	protocol?	Where	would	they	start?	What	exactly	would	
                they	do?	How	would	they	move	forward?

Dr.	Williams:	 You	start	with	blood	testing	and	you	do	fasting	cortisol,	DHEA	and	17-hydroxy	pregnenolone.	Then	you	
               also	do	the	saliva	test.	They	usually	are	called	adrenal	stress	index	or	something	like	that,	depending	on	the	
               lab	where	they	measure	salivary	cortisol	and	DHEA	and	provide	you	a	ratio	and	provide	you	with	a	graph.	
               I	know	that	many	holistically-oriented	practitioners	go	right	to	the	saliva	test	now.	I	don’t	agree	with	that.	
               There’s	a	lot	of	reasons	why	you	want	to	look	at	it	from	a	couple	different	angles	and	make	sure	that	you’re	
               cross-checking	and	cross-referencing.	However,	for	the	average	person	they	can	order	their	own	salivary	
               test	kit	and	use	that	as	a	starting	point	and	if	there’s	abnormals	don’t	jump	to	conclusions	but	then	get	the	
               blood	testing.	That	would	also	be	a	good	way	to	do	it.

Kevin:	         When	does	urine	fit	in?

Dr.	Williams:	 Urine	doesn’t	really	fit	in.	As	I	said,	we’re	testing	for	catecholamines	and	looking	for	high	cortisol	that	we’re	
               not	picking	up	in	a	snapshot	in	the	blood.	But	for	adrenal	fatigue	phenomena	blood,	cortisol,	DHEA,	
               pregnenolone	and	salivary	cortisol	and	DHEA	with	ratios	and	with	an	index,	is	the	way	to	go.

Kevin:	         Great.	What	are	some	of	the	issues	that	could	mask	or	cause	an	adrenal	misdiagnosis?

                                             Transcripts Module 2 / PAGE 23

Dr.	Williams:	 Those	include	anemia,	chronic	infection	and	chronic	liver	disease.	Also,	as	we	mentioned,	hypothyroidism.	
               So	low	thyroid	gland	function	or	imbalances	or	trouble	with	thyroid	hormone	conversion	can	also	mask	
               or	cause	a	misdiagnosis.	Now,	here’s	where	fact,	fiction	and	some	of	my	clinical	disagreement	would	come	
               in	with	holistic	practitioners.	One	of	the	things	that	sets	me	apart	is	that	I	have	more	than	30	years	of	
               clinical	experience.	I’ve	been	doing	this	and	only	this	for	a	long	time.	Sometimes	there’s	some	rare	cases	
               that	I	haven’t	seen	yet	or	have	seen	only	one	or	two.	But	adrenal	fatigue,	chronic	fatigue,	fibromyalgia,	
               I’ve	seen	thousands	of	cases	of	each.	They	overlap.	So	I’ve	done	hundreds	and	hundreds	and	hundreds	if	
               not	thousands	of	cases	of	testing.	So	I	have	a	very	good	idea	of	what	works	and	what	doesn’t	work,	what	
               provides	the	advantage.	This	is	what	we	want	people	to	do.

	              Here’s	where	the	problem	comes	in	for	a	lot	of	holistic	practitioners.	They	start	with	the	salivary	testing.	
               The	patient	comes	in	with	fatigue,	hard	to	get	up	in	the	morning,	aches	and	pains.	They	say,	“You	must	
               have	adrenal	fatigue	syndrome.	Let’s	do	salivary	testing.”	The	numbers	look	a	little	bit	below	normal	and	
               they	say,	“Ah,	look,	here	we	go.”	They	haven’t	looked	at	the	blood	count.	Fatigue	can	be	caused	by	anemia.	
               It	can	be	caused	by	low	thyroid	function,	infections	going	on,	chronic	low-grade	infections	from	Lyme	
               disease	to	more	exotic	and	less	exotic	diseases.	They	can	cause	all	the	same	phenomena.	Many	chronic	liver	
               diseases	will	have	fatigue	as	a	factor.	So	fatigue	itself	should	not	be	the	only	criteria	to	start	testing	for	and	
               then	coming	up	an	isolated	diagnosis	of	adrenal	gland	weakness.	Keep	in	mind	that	the	most	common	
               symptom	of	adrenal	fatigue,	all	the	way	to	Addison’s	Disease,	is	weakness.	100	percent	of	the	people	have	
               weakness.	But	also	100	percent	of	anemic	people,	100	percent	of	hypothyroid	people,	100	percent	of	liver	
               disease	people,	100	percent	of	chronic	infection	people	also	have	fatigue.	The	difference	is	with	the	adrenal	
               fatigue	people	they	will	often	say	they	feel	like	they’re	coming	down	with	the	flu	but	they	don’t	have	a	fever	
               and	they	don’t	have	the	achiness	and	so	forth.	So	we	sometimes	say	it’s	flu-like	fatigue.	It’s	associated	with	
               weakness,	just	like	when	you’re	coming	down	flu	you	feel	very	weak.	So	you’re	tired	and	weak	at	the	same	
               time.	With	those	other	conditions	you	may	be	just	simply	tired	but	not	have	the	weakness.

	              The	other	thing	is	that	there’s	an	overlap	between	Metabolic	Disease	or	Syndrome	X	and	fatigue	syndrome.	
               With	Addison’s	Disease	100	percent	of	the	people	lose	weight,	can’t	gain	weight	and	they	keep	on	losing	
               weight	and	they’re	losing	muscle	strength	as	well.	With	adrenal	fatigue	sometimes	people	are	underweight,	
               sometimes	they’re	overweight.	Many	of	them	are	in-between.	They	have	a	mixture	of	too	much	cortisol	
               with	too	little	DHEA.	Sometimes	too	little	cortisol	and	sometimes	it	combines	with	too	little	DHEA,	
               depending	on	the	day,	the	time	of	today	and	so	forth.	But	in	the	end	they	end	up	with	more	chunkiness	
               and	more	fat	around	the	middle	of	their	body	that	they	can’t	lose.	So	they’re	tired	and	they	have	this	other	
               phenomena.	The	postural	hypotension	is	only	about	25	percent	of	the	people	have	that	with	complete	
               Addison’s	Disease.	So	adrenal	fatiguers,	almost	70	percent	of	them	don’t	have	postural	hypotension	or	low	
               blood	pressure.	With	Addison’s	Disease	95	percent	of	the	people	have	low	appetite	but	with	adrenal	fatigue	
               people	they	first	start	off	with	increased	appetite.	There’s	a	lot	of	overlap	with	adrenal	fatigue	and	also	with	
               nausea	and	abdominal	pain.	Chronic	fatigue	people	also	often	have	an	adrenal	fatigue	layer	and	they	often	
               have	Irritable	Bowel	Syndrome	at	the	same	time.	

	              The	three	or	four	main	conditions	other	than	anemia,	hypothyroid,	chronic	infection	and	chronic	liver	
               disease,	that	are	associated	with	adrenal	fatigue	are	Chronic	Fatigue	Syndrome	and	Chronic	Fatigue	Immune	
               Deficiency	Syndrome,	Fibromyalgia	and	a	wide	range	of	immune	deficiency	syndromes	including	HIV.	
               Also,	 they’re	 going	 to	 overlap	 and	 there’s	 going	 to	 be	 multi-layers	 with	 headache	 phenomena,	 Irritable	
               Bowel	Syndrome,	chronic	nausea.	If	you	look	at	other	conditions	that	are	associated	with	that,	alcoholism,	
               a	craving	for	alcohol,	is	strongly	associated	with	adrenal	hormone	deficiency.	Some	heart	diseases	are.	Blood	
               pressure	diseases,	low	and/or	high,	hypoglycemia	I	already	mentioned,	rheumatoid	arthritis	and	several	of	

                              PAGE 24 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

              the	other	autoimmune	diseases,	including	MS,	can	be	associated	with	adrenal	hormone	deficiency.	Then	
              asthma	and	allergies.	Asthma	is	particularly	strongly	related.

Kevin:	       Great.	We’re	going	to	be	talking	more	about	some	of	these	associations	in	module	three,	as	well	as	start	to	
              talk	about	some	of	the	things	that	you	can	do	to	help	yourself	get	better.	

	             Dr.	Williams,	thank	you	so	much.

Dr.	Williams:	 You’re	very	welcome.

Module 3
                                   PAGE 26 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

Kevin:	          Welcome	everyone.	This	is	Kevin	Gianni	from	The	Complete	Adrenal	Health	Program.	Today	we	have	
                 module	three	for	you.	In	module	three	we’re	going	to	be	talking	about	vitamin	deficiencies.	We’re	going	
                 to	be	talking	about	major	factors	in	adrenal	health	imbalance	and	we’re	going	to	be	talking	about	diet	
                 and	many	other	things	you	can	do	to	help	rebuild	your	adrenals.	We’re	here	with	Dr.	J.E.	Williams.	Dr.	
                 Williams,	welcome.

Dr.	Williams:	 Thank	you.

Kevin:	          Let’s	get	started.	Let’s	do	a	little	bit	of	review	of	what	we	talked	about	in	module	two,	cause	of	adrenal	
                 fatigue,	burnout,	some	of	these	modern	lifestyle	diseases.

Dr.	Williams:	 It’s	very	important	to	understand	that	this	is	a	stress	and	lifestyle	disease.	That’s	90	percent	of	what	people	
               experience	 related	 to	 chronic	 fatigue,	 depression,	 anxiety	 and	 sleep	 disorders.	 It’s	 rare	 that	 you	 find	 an	
               adrenal	 organic	 disease,	 which	 is	 Addison’s	 and	 Cushing’s	 Syndrome.	 It’s	 so	 important	 that	 I’ll	 repeat	
               myself.	It’s	a	stress	and	lifestyle	disease.	It’s	predominantly	modern	and	European	and	North	American.	
               The	logical,	aggressive,	stressed	cultures.	You	rarely	see	anything	like	this	in	Latin	America	or	India	where	
               people	take	it	easy,	where	they	rest	more,	where	they	have	a	lot	more	support	in	their	family.	They	do	a	
               lot	of	limbic	brain	movement	like	dancing.	That’s	part	of	the	cure,	by	the	way,	limbic	moving	including	
               dancing	and	tai	chi	and	yoga.	You	also	see	it	primarily	in	the	temperate	northern	climates	and	less	in	the	
               warmer,	tropical	climates.	It’s	a	condition	that’s	found	in	China	and	it’s	been	long	understood	in	it’s	way	
               of	diagnosing	kidney	yin	and	yang	and	kidney	ching	deficiency	disorders.

	                It’s	also	a	continuum.	It’s	not	just	a	simple	disorder.	It’s	a	band	or	a	progressive	condition	that	can	be	
                 paused,	halted.	It	can	start	and	stop.	It	becomes	more	and	more	complicated	the	worse	it	gets.	You	begin	
                 with	the	adrenal	fatigue,	which	can	be	chronic,	at	low-level	and	progresses	to	an	HPA	axis	imbalance.	
                 There’s	good	evidence	now	that	hypo-function	or	lower	function	of	the	HPA	axis	is	in	the	high	percentage	
                 of	patients	with	chronic	fatigue	syndrome	and	that	the	mild,	low	levels	of	cortisol	and	this	blunted	adrenal	
                 corticotrophin	response	through	the	HPA	axis	in	response	to	stressors	and	environment	and	psychologically,	
                 and	also	things	that	you	cause	yourself,	all	the	worries	and	anxieties,	induce	a	negative	feedback	sensitivity.	
                 Then	you	have	disruption	of	the	glucocorticoid	hormones.	That’s	the	mid-stage	of	this	continuum	and	
                 much	more	difficult	to	re-regulate.	

	                If	 it	 continues	 you	 push	 all	 the	 way	 into	 what	 we’ve	 been	 terming	 as	 adrenal	 burnout,	 which	 is	 really	
                 a	 neuro-endocrine-immune	 dysfunction.	 That’s	 the	 highly-complex,	 very	 difficult	 to	 re-regulate	 with	
                 immune	system	blunting	or	dampening	of	the	T	cell	and	B	cell	responses,	interaction	between	cytokines,	
                 which	are	messenger	molecules	like	hormones	but	that	regulate	the	immune	system	and	disruption	of	the	
                 balance	between	T-lymphocyte	helper	cells	and	variations	in	rhythms	that	day	and	nighttime,	as	well	as	in	
                 response	to	stressors.	So	that’s	the	final	edge	of	the	continuum.	

	                Then	you	start	to	see	layering	into	that,	chronic	infections	like	Epstein	Barr,	like	Lyme	Disease	and	so	
                 forth.	I’m	not	talking	about	acute	infections,	I’m	talking	about	the	chronic	ones.

	                Then	 there’s	 a	 long	 list	 of	 conditions	 that	 are	 associated	 with	 adrenal	 fatigue,	 including	 these	 hard	 to	
                 diagnosis	and	kind	of	soft	and	amorphic	conditions.	The	main	ones,	as	you	may	recall,	are	Addison’s	and	
                 Cushing’s.	The	third	aspect	is	Syndrome	X	and	metabolic	diseases.	Then	we	talked	about	hypoglycemia,	
                 PMS,	 rheumatoid	 arthritis	 and	 other	 autoimmune	 conditions	 like	 Hashimoto’s	 hypothyroidism,	 of	
                 course,	Chronic	Fatigue	Syndrome	and	it’s	immune	disorder	cousin,	Fibromyalgia,	depression	and	anxiety	

                                              Transcripts Module 3 / PAGE 27

                disorders,	 panic	 disorders	 and	 then	 very	 importantly,	 post	 traumatic	 stress	 syndrome	 and	 Gulf	 War	
                Syndrome.	They	all	fall	under	and	are	associated	with	adrenal	fatigue.

Kevin:	         Let’s	move	into	some	of	the	major	factors	in	lifestyle	that	are	causing	some	of	this	adrenal	stress,	adrenal	
                health	imbalance.

Dr.	Williams:	 The	number	one	factor	is	stress.	We	talked	about	that	in	module	one	so	I	won’t	dwell	on	that	here	because	
               we’re	going	to	look	at	daily	lifestyle	factors	in	this	module.	Stress	is	the	cause.	That	can	be	acute,	overwhelming	
               stress	like	happens	in	a	fire,	during	war-time	or	an	acute	worry,	you’re	losing	your	home,	you’re	losing	
               your	mortgage,	your	stock	portfolio	has	gone	down	or	the	daily	grind	of	work,	of	an	incompatible	work	
               relationship,	an	unhappy	marriage	and	the	constant	pressure	that	we	put	on	ourselves	and	that	we	live	
               under	in	the	modern,	western	world.	So	stressors	of	all	types	create	that.	The	amount	that	we	see,	almost	
               an	epidemic,	of	this	problem,	is	really	due	to	modern,	western	living	and	is	lifestyle-based	and	is	stress-
               induced,	for	sure.

Kevin:	         Why	don’t	we	talk	about	something	people	probably	don’t	want	to	hear	about	but	the	role	that	stimulants	
                play,	as	well.

Dr.	Williams:	 As	soon	as	you	start	to	feel	fatigued	the	natural	response	is	to	rest.	When	you	override	that	response	or	the	
               stress	gets	so	severe	that	the	hormones	are	kind	of	taking	over	that	natural	response	then	the	first	thing	we	
               do	is	we	reach	for	something	that’s	going	to	give	us	more	energy.	Typically	we’re	going	to	reach	for	legal	
               substances	that	are	widely	available	in	your	local	supermarket.	That’s	caffeine-containing	sodas	of	all	types	
               including	natural	sodas	and	of	course,	coffee	and	also	chocolate.	The	cacao	that	chocolate	is	made	from	has	
               caffeine.	Some	types	like	Venezuela	dark	chocolate	have	more	caffeine	than	others.	And	green	tea.	If	you	
               abuse	any	of	the	three	of	those	you’re	going	to	push	your	caffeine	level	up.	You	actually	will	feel	better	and	
               I’d	like	to	in	a	few	minuets	talk	a	little	more	about	caffeine,	what	it	does	to	cortisol.	You	do	feel	better.	You	
               feel	balanced	again.	By	11	o’clock	you’re	already	fatiguing	and	people	will	push	more	and	more	coffee.	By	
               the	evening	they	can’t	sleep.	So	typically	what	they	do	is	they	push	the	coffee	in	the	morning	and	then	they	
               take	the	alcohol	in	the	afternoon	and	evening.	They	start	off	with	their	happy	hour	and	then	they’re	trying	
               to	calm	themselves	down.	It	doesn’t	work	very	well	because	both	the	caffeine	and	the	alcohol	cause	sleep	
               disruption	and	the	cycle	not	only	starts	all	over	but	it	worsens	over	time.	So	caffeine	is	a	major	disruptor.

	               I’m	not	saying	caffeine	is	bad	for	you.	It’s	actually,	in	small	dosages	when	you	don’t	have	adrenal	fatigue,	it’s	a	
                very	useful	and	healthy	substance.	It’s	been	used	by	people	in	the	middle	east	and	Africa	and	Mediterranean	
                for	thousands	of	years.	

	               Chocolate	has	low	levels	of	caffeine	compared	to	coffee,	but	some	are	stronger	than	others,	and	the	amount	
                that	you	eat	is	going	to	add	more	caffeine.	But	it	has	two	other	things	in	it	that	feed	this	type	of	addiction,	
                that	stimulates	brain	neurochemistry	similar	to	what	caffeine	does.	That’s	the	high	sugar	content	and	the	
                high	fat	content.	So	now	you	have	caffeine,	sugar	and	fat	and	it	becomes	a	very	addictive	substance.	Even	
                a	healthy,	organic	chocolate	is	going	to	have	these	same	properties	if	used	too	much.

	               If	 you	 find	 yourself	 needing	 more	 coffee,	 needing	 more	 chocolate,	 craving	 these,	 you’re	 likely	 to	 have	
                adrenal	fatigue	problems.	Green	tea	also	has	caffeine	in	it,	as	does	yerba	mate	from	Argentina.	If	you’re	
                using	 those	 you’re	 doing	 yourself	 a	 favor,	 you	 actually	 are	 getting	 anti-cancer	 benefits	 and	 other	 great	
                polyphenol	substances	in	green	tea	but	over-using	it	is	also	one	of	those	tip-offs,	if	you	need	to	keep	that	
                going	all	day	long.	Traditional	cultures	use	small	amounts	of	coffee	and	small	amounts	of	green	tea	in	

                     PAGE 28 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

    concentrated	doses,	but	very	small	amounts,	almost	down	to	a	thimble-full	they	may	take	every	few	hours.	
    So	they	modulate	that,	regulate	their	intake	throughout	the	day.	Europeans	and	Americans	tend	to		push	
    maximum	amounts	in	the	morning	and	then	they	keep	it	going	for	the	rest	of	the	day,	including	with	
    caffeine-containing	carbonated	beverages.	Everyone	knows	the	two	top	favorites.

	   The	other	substance	that	acts	as	a	stimulant	is	ephedra,	which	is	the	Chinese	herb	ma-huang.	It	contains	
    ephedrine	and	pseudo-ephedrine,	which	are	naturally-occurring	substances	also	made	as	pharmaceutical	
    drugs	 and	 are	 found	 predominantly	 in	 over-the-counter	 decongestants.	 They	 have	 a	 stimulant	 effect.	
    They	suppress	appetite,	improve	your	concentration,	increase	your	blood	pressure,	if	you	have	low	blood	
    pressure	and	are	suffering	from	adrenal	fatigue	and	they’re	a	great	decongestant.	They	open	up	your	nose	
    and	head.	As	I	mentioned,	people	with	adrenal	fatigue	often	have	allergies	and	congestive	problems.	Their	
    immune	system	is	off.	They	often	have	chronic	sinus	problems	as	well.	You	can	get	hooked	onto	these	over-
    the-counter	decongestants	containing	ephedrine	and	pseudo-ephedrine.	However,	some	people	are	going	
    to	use	the	natural	one,	the	ma-huang,	the	ground-up	Chinese	herb	concentrated	into	capsules.	Sometimes	
    they	make	tea	from	that.	They	can	stay	up	all	night	working	on	projects.	They	can	study	better.	They’re	
    more	alert.	Over	time	you	have	stress	combined	with	stimulant	use,	chronic	stimulant	use,	and	you’re	
    going	to	make	your	adrenals	much,	much	worse.	

	   Guess	what.	When	you’re	looking	for	a		natural	diet	pill	it’s	going	to	contain	caffeine	from	a	variety	of	
    sources	including		colonot	[?]	and	guarana	from	Brazil	and/or	green	tea	substances	and	ma-huang,	which	
    contains	the	ephedrine	and	pseudo-epinephrine,	in	relatively	high	dosages.	It	definitely	works.	Speeds	you	
    up.	Increases	your	heart	rate.	Lowers	your	appetite.	It’s	not	good	for	people	with	high	blood	pressure	and	
    eventually	will	contribute	to	destroying	your	adrenal	health.

	   Then	I	want	to	mention	ginseng.	We’re	going	to	talk	about	it	in	module	four,	in	some	detail,	along	with	
    other	adaptogenic	herbs	that	help	regulate	the	body’s	response	to	stress.	In	small	amounts	ginseng	is	quite	
    helpful.	But	when	you	abuse	ginseng,	when	you	take	too	much	of	it,	it	acts	as	a	stimulant	and	it	can	disrupt	
    adrenal	health.	For	women	particularly,	it	can	cause	heavy	menstrual	bleeding.	For	both	men	and	women	
    it	can	cause	agitation,	anxiety	and	sleeplessness,	which	of	course	further	disrupts	the	HPA	axis.	Sometimes	
    you	see	the	LA	Syndrome.	You	see	people	abusing	ginseng	and	drinking	too	much	coffee	and	taking	green	
    tea	and	popping	ephedra	pills	during	the	day	and	night.	When	you	add	illegal	drugs	like	cocaine	on	top	
    of	it	now	you’re	not	heading	for	adrenal	burnout,	you’re	diving	off	the	diving	board	into	a	swimming	pool	
    with	no	water.

	   It’s	 important	 to	 take	 a	 closer	 look	 at	 caffeine.	 Caffeine	 increases	 cortisol	 secretion.	 So	 when	 you’re	
    undergoing	stress,	as	we	mentioned,	it’s	going	to	stimulate	your	HPA	axis.	It’s	going	to	up-regulate	the	
    communication	between	the	hypothalamus	and	the	pituitary	and	the	adrenal	gland.	Your	body	is	going	to	
    produce	more	cortisol,	if	it’s	acute	stress.	During	exercise	your	body	responds	to	it	like	acute	physiologic	
    stress,	adrenaline.	So	you’re	going	to	feel	better.	You’re	going	to	feel	more	alert.	Your	heart	is	going	to	
    pump	more	blood.	That	should	be	balanced	with	rest	and	the	natural	dipping	down	of	the	cortisol	and	the	
    adrenal	gland	preparing	again	to	release	higher	levels.	It	also	releases	diurnal	on	a	daily	basis,	more	cortisol	
    in	the	morning	and	it	dips	down	through	the	day	until	it’s	very	quiescent	at	night.	

	   However,	caffeine	stimulates	cortisol	secretion	whether	you’re	undergoing	stress	or	whether	you’re	at	rest	
    or	before	exercise.	If	you’re	already,	number	one,	having	too	much	cortisol,	even	in	the	high	normal	ranges	
    as	 I	 mentioned	 yesterday,	 above	 15	 but	 still	 less	 than	 20,	 that’s	 within	 the	 upper	 normal	 range,	 you’re	
    probably	secreting	too	much	cortisol	on	a	regular	basis	and	that’s	a	response	to	stress.	Adrenal	glands	are	

                                              Transcripts Module 3 / PAGE 29

               still	working	well	enough	to	produce	that	but	if	you	add	on	top	of	that	caffeine	you’re	going	to	produce	
               more	cortisol.	You	may	be	pushing	that	number	after	you	drink	caffeine,	this	is	in	blood	tests,	above	20,	
               maybe	21,	22,	24.	That’s	too	much	chronically	and	that’s	going	to	lead	to	atrophy	of	that	hypothalamus	
               gland	and	eventually	will	contribute	to	the	burnout.	

	              So	 caffeine	 does	 increase	 cortisol	 secretion	 in	 the	 level	 in	 the	 blood.	 It	 also	 creates	 more	 wakefulness,	
               stimulates	the	nervous	system	and	also	increases	dopamine,	which	is	a	neurotransmitter	and	related	to	
               another	adrenal	hormone,	L-dopa.	Caffeine	up-regulates	the	stress	access	and	stimulates	both	corticoids	
               and	catecholamines.	It	increases	blood	pressure.	If	you	have	high	blood	pressure	caffeine	you	shouldn’t	take	
               much	or	any	of	it.	It	helps	to	dis-regulate	further	that	HPA	axis	and	the	cortisol	levels	in	the	body.	So	one	
               needs	to	be	careful	about	caffeine	use.	When	you’re	in	severe	disruption	you	can’t	have	any	at	all.

Kevin:	        Let’s	move	on	to	some	of	the	other	vitamin	deficiencies	and	nutrient	deficiencies.

Dr.	Williams:	 There’s	three	main	nutrients	that	we	need	to	replace,	we	need	to	take	a	closer	look	at	in	the	adrenal	gland.	
               Vitamin	C	is	one.	Second	is	vitamin	B5	and	the	third	is	the	amino	acid	L-tyrosine.

	              Let’s	look	at	vitamin	C	first.	Vitamin	C	occurs	throughout	all	cells	and	tissues	in	the	body.	It’s	actually	
               part	of	the	collagen,	which	is	like	the	mortar	between	the	bricks	that	provides	structure	to	your	entire	
               body.	So	vitamin	C	is	critical	and	has	numerous	other	functions.	Some	organs	have	higher	concentrations	
               of	vitamins	than	others.	That	usually	gives	us	a	tip-off	that	that	organ	is	largely	dependent	and	not	just	
               supportive	but	dependent	on	that	nutrient.	The	adrenal	gland	has	the	highest	concentration	of	vitamin	C	
               in	the	body.	That	gives	us	the	tip-off	that	vitamin	C	is	critical	for	adrenal	health.	

	              One	of	the	things	that	I’ve	found	with	my	patients	is	that	if	they’re	suffering	from	adrenal	deficiency	and	
               you	give	them	vitamin	C		you	have	to	increase	it	gradually,	gradually,	gradually	upward	because	the	body	
               can	only	absorb	50-100	milligrams	of	vitamin	C	at	a	time.	The	rest	is	excreted	through	large	intestine	as	
               well	as	through	the	kidney.	That’s	not	a	bad	things.	Sometimes	you	need	more	vitamin	C	to	be	pushed	
               through	those	organs.	But	you	really	want	most	of	it	into	the	blood	and	into	these	higher	levels.	The	best	
               way	to	take	it	is	three	times	a	day.	You’re	only	going	to	get	a	certain	percentage	absorbed	in	some	of	the	pills	
               you	take.	So	even	though	you	can	only	assimilate	50-100	milligrams	at	a	time	some	people	need	to	take	
               500	or	up	to	1500	milligrams	just	to	get	that	small	amount	out	of	there	into	their	bloodstream,	at	least	
               three	times	a	day.	So	what	I	found	is	that	even	though	500	to	1500	milligrams	is	your	basic	starting	dose,	
               people	under	stress	and	with	adrenal	deficiency	syndromes	need	more	vitamin	C,	they	need	it	on	a	regular	
               basis	and		they	need	to	re-saturate	that	adrenal	gland	slowly	and	gradually	over	a	period	of	time.	As	you	
               give	them	their	vitamin	C	you’ll	find	that	as	they	move	upward	towards	1,000,	2,000,	3,000,	4,500,	5,000,	
               5,500,	6,000,	in	that	upper	range	all	of	a	sudden	they	feel	a	lot	better.	That’s	my	tip-off	that	we’re	reaching	
               saturation,	the	adrenal	gland	is	absorbing	the	vitamin	C.	Their	mood	is	up.	Their	energy	is	up	and	they’re	
               feeling	a	lot	better.	Not	like	a	stimulant	like	a	caffeine-high,	but	the	well-being	that	it	gives	for	those	people	
               is	significant.	We	measure	that	and,	“OK,	you	need	to	be	on	this	dosage,	4500	or	6,000.”	That’s	a	total	
               amount	per	day,	divided	into	three	equal	amounts.	Sometimes	people	have	to	break	that	down	into	six	or	
               more	times	a	day	because	they	can’t	handle	the	acidic	component.	Of	course,	as	you	know,	vitamin	C	is	
               ascorbic	acid.	So	those	people	may	have	to	take	a	buffered	form	and	keep	it	modulated	equally	throughout	
               the	day.	

	              The	 third	 one	 is	 vitamin	 B5.	Very	 important.	 A	 key	 nutrient	 for	 adrenal	 health.	Vitamin	 B5	 is	 called	
               pantothenic	acid	and	it’s	essential	to	all	forms	of	life.	It’s	found	in	all	the	living	cells	of	your	body,	in	a	

                     PAGE 30 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

    very	special	form	called	co-enzyme	A.	Often	you	find	that	in	advanced	adrenal	fatigue	patients	that	they	
    have	two	other	things	going	on.	One,	they	have	enzyme	deficits.	I’m	not	talking	about	the	enzymes	that	
    found	in	foods	 like	papayas	and	pineapples	or	the	ones	 that	health	food	practitioners	claim	 are	 found	
    in	 raw	 foods	 and	 juices.	 These	 are	 enzymes	 that	 are	 made	 in	 your	 body	 and	 drinking	 more	 juice	 does	
    not	supply	these	type	of	co-factor	nutrients	in	large	enough	amounts	to	amount	to	anything.		These	are	
    necessary	for	all	cycles	in	all	cells,	including	building	hormones.	Every	step	in	the	building	from	cholesterol	
    to	pregnenolone	to	DHEA	all	the	way	down	to	cortisol	require	enzymatic	reactions	between	each	of	the	
    many,	many	steps.	Some	of	these	are	nutrient	derived	and	then	manufacture	rebuilt	chemically	through	               	
    the	biochemical	process	in	your	body,	co-enzyme-A	being	one	of	them.	You	may	see	it	in	the	pantothenic	
    acid,	vitamin	B5	or	co-enzyme-A,	which	is	a	more	refined	form	of	that,	more	of	a	nutraceutical	form.	It’s	
    absolutely	necessary	for	adrenal	health	and	for	appropriate	protection	of	cell	division	and	DNA	replication	
    as	well	as	transcription.	So	we	always	give	pantothenic	acid	along	with	vitamin	C.	

	   We	 know	 which	 foods	 contain	 vitamin	 C,	 citrus	 fruits	 and	 vegetables	 and	 mostly	 plant-based	 foods.	
    Pantothenic	acid,	on	the	other	hand,	is	mainly	found	in	organ	meats	like	liver	and	kidney,	also	egg	yolk,	
    fish	and	shellfish,	chicken,	milk,	yogurt.	But	in	the	plant-based	it’s	in	mushrooms,	avocados,	sweet	potatoes	
    and	yeast.	Nutritional		yeast	is	a	good	source,	or	whole	grains	like	brown	rice	and	whole	grain	wheat	if	
    you’re	not	sensitive.	

	   In	terms	of	supplements	you	often	find	pantothenic	acid	made	from,	in	terms	of	food-based	supplements,	
    made	from	yeast.	

	   The	dosages	that	are	required	are	relatively	high	compared	to	the	amount	that’s	used	in	the	body.	I	typically	
    will	use	150-250	milligrams	three	times	a	day,	again	prescribing	multiple	times	throughout	the	day.	It’s	
    not	good	enough	to	just	take	it	once.	That’s	several	hundred	milligrams	up	to	about	1,000	milligrams	a	
    day.	Sometimes	we	even	have	to	push	that	higher,	usually	the	co-enzyme-A	nutraceutical	form,	up	to	1500	
    milligrams	a	day,	that’s	500	milligrams	three	times	a	day,	or	even	higher.	

	   Then	the	last	one	is	L-tyrosine.	Tyrosine	is	an	amino	acid.	The	dosage	is	typically	250-500	milligrams	
    three	times	a	day.	You	may	recall	that	it’s	the	building	block	for	adrenaline	and	it’s	also	the	building	block	
    for	thyroid	hormone.		So	very	important	molecule.	It	comes	from	dietary	sources	and	is	synthesized	for	
    phenoalanine.	You	have	to	have	the	enzyme	processes	to	break	phenoalanine	down.	Stress	tends	to	disrupt	
    phenoalanine	metabolic	cycle	so	tyrosine	can	become	deficient	or	poorly	metabolized	from	phenoalanine.	
    It’s	found	in	high-protein	foods.	Of	course,	it’s	an	amino	acid.	Soy,	in	terms	of	plant-based	foods.	So	tofu	
    is	useful.	It’s	also	found	in	all	of	your	meats,	like	chicken,	turkey,	fish,	primarily.	And	then	other	plant-
    based	sources	would	be	nuts	like	raw	almonds,	avocadoes,	legumes,	lima	beans,	pumpkin	seeds	and	sesame	
    seeds.	And	it’s	found	in	cheeses	and	milk	and	yogurt.	To	be	most	effective	we	use	it	in	supplemental	form	
    250-500	milligrams	three	times	a	day.	

	   One	more	is	important,	sodium.	I	know	that	it’s	kind	of	classical	for	people	with	low	blood	pressure	and	
    borderline	low	adrenal	gland	for	their	MD	or	their	naturopathic	doctor	to	tell	them	to	include	more	salt	
    but	I	don’t	recommend	that	because	some	people	can	be	sodium-sensitive.	They	can	go	from	low	blood	
    pressure	to	seriously	high	blood	pressure	in	a	matter	of	weeks	to	months.	If	they’re	not	measuring	that	
    they	won’t	catch	it	and	it	can	cause	some	harm	and	cardiovascular	risk.	It’s	also	not	necessary	to	over-
    supplement	sodium.	There’s	ways	to	get	extra	salt	in	the	diet.	Drink	more	vegetable	juices,	particularly	
    adding	celery	in	there.	It’s	better	for	you	and	it’s	processed	better.	There	are	also	some	salty	special	foods	the	
    Asian	cultures	have	developed.	The	umeboshi	plums	in	Japanese	cuisine	are	salted,	a	special	nutritive	sour	

                                                 Transcripts Module 3 / PAGE 31

                  plum.	Also,	Chinese	dry	them.	They	cure	them	in	salt	and	they	have	kind	of	a	bittersweet,	quite	sour	flavor	
                  to	them.	One	or	two	of	those	a	day	are	typically	what	I	recommend	in	terms	of	diet,	not	adding	more	salt	
                  to	your	food	or	drinking	a	glass	of	salt	water.	

	                 If	people	do	need	more	sodium	I	recommend	they	take	it	in	a	tri-salt	form,	so	they’re	balancing	sodium	
                  with	potassium	and	magnesium	and	even	calcium.	They’re	getting	all	of	those	minerals	and	electrolytes	in	
                  a	balanced	form	all	at	the	same	time.	Watch	their	sodium/potassium	levels	in	their	bloodstream	and	watch	
                  their	blood	pressure.

Kevin:	           Let	me	ask	you	a	few	questions	about	this	here.	When	you’re	taking	vitamin	C	are	you	talking	about	a	
                  straight	vitamin	C	or	can	you	take	camu	camu	extract	or	acerola	cherry?

Dr.	Williams:	 With	vitamin	C	I’m	talking	about	the	nutraceutical	form,	the	pure	ascorbic	acid.	The	same	ting	with	the	
               vitamin	B5.	I’m	talking	about	either	pantothenic	acid	or	the	co-enzyme-A	form.	The	same	thing	with	
               L-tyrosine,	the	pharmaceutical-grade	form.	You	can	use	food-based	forms	and	the	dosage,	the	amount	of	
               vitamin	C	you	get	out	of	there	will	be	less	typically	per	dosage	but	it’s	going	to	work	the	same	way	in	the	
               body	as	long	as	it	can	be	taken	up	in	the	body	and	you	take	it	over	time.	I	prefer	plant-based	forms,	if	they	
               work,	or	supplementing	plant-based	forms	with	pharmaceutical-grade	forms.	Of	course,	I’m	a	clinician	
               so	people	pay	me	to	get	results.	I	need	to	get	them	getting	feeling	better	quite	quickly	in	order	to	have	
               confidence	in	my	work.	I	know	that	the	pharmaceutical-grade	vitamins	work.	They	raise	the	blood	levels.	
               I	know	that	from	testing	case	after	case.	I	also	know	that	over	time	short-term	and	long-term	they	work.	
               Perhaps	when	you’re	just	preventing	or	you’re	treating	lower-grade	levels	or	as	a	supplement	the	food-based	
               ones	would	be	great,	including	yeast-based	forms	of	these	vitamins,	B5	and	tyrosine.

Kevin:	           When	you	talk	about	pantothenic	acid,	do	you	get	that	from	a	B-complex?	Is	the	amount	in	a	B-complex	

Dr.	Williams:	 B-complex	is	important	to	take	in	addition	to	isolated	B	vitamins.	So	in	order	not	to	disrupt	the	relationship	
               of	the	entire	B	family.	I’m	very	strong	on	that,	that	you’re	taking	a	multivitamin	which	includes	a	B-complex	
               or	 a	 B-complex	 along	 with	 higher	 dosages	 of	 individual	 vitamins,	 in	 this	 case	 B5.	 In	 the	 B-complex,	
               especially	 if	 it’s	 food-based,	 you’re	 going	 to	 have	 very	 low	 levels.	 Nutritional	 levels	 are	 like	 one	 to	 five	
               milligrams.	Therapeutic	levels	needs	to	go	up	into	the	hundreds	of	milligrams	or	higher.

Kevin:	           With	salt,	is	there	ever	a	time	when	sea	salt	is	good?

Dr.	Williams:	 Sea	 salt	 is	 quite	 useful	 because	 it	 has	 a	 number	 of	 other	 minerals.	 Some	 of	 these	 specialty	 salts,	 like	
               Himalayan	salt,	have	other	minerals	with	it	besides	sodium.	Adding	those	to	food	or	water	is	quite	useful.	
               Some	naturopathic	doctors	believe	that	you	wake	up	in	the	morning,	your	cortisol	is	low,	your	adrenal	
               is	low,	instead	of	going	for	your	cup	of	coffee	or	your	green	tea	you	mix	sea	salt	in	a	glass	of	warm	water	
               and	drink	that	down	and	that	helps	to	nourish	your	adrenal	glands.	I	don’t	think	people	should	do	that	
               on	a	daily	basis	without	knowing	what	their	blood	pressure	is,	without	monitoring	their	blood	pressure,	
               without	knowing	what	their	sodium	levels	and	potassium	levels	in	their	blood	are,	as	well	as	magnesium	
               and	 calcium.	 It’s	 the	 sensitive	 individuals	 that	 could	 really	 disrupt	 the	 whole	 balance	 and	 add	 another	
               dimension	of	problems.	I	prefer	that	they	take	their	vitamins	in	the	morning	and	that	they	keep	their	green	
               tea	moderate	and	that	if	they’re	using	coffee	at	all	that	it’s	moderate.	The	very	ill	patients	can’t	have	any	
               green	tea	or	any	coffee.	They	just	need	to	focus	on	the	supplements	and	keep	their	salt	intake	moderate.	

                                 PAGE 32 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

	               Sometimes	in	Asia	what	they	do	is	they	use	very	mild	green	tea,	low-caffeine	forms,	and	they	add	umeboshi	
                plums	to	that.	That’s	a	good	morning	drink.	Also	they	will	take	ginseng	soup.	It’s	a	mild	amount	of	ginseng	
                that’s	been	cooked	in	fish	or	chicken,	like	in	a	slow	cooker,	and	they’re	just	going	to	drink	the	broth	off	of	

	               When	 you’re	 in	 recovery	 that’s	 what	 it	 is.	 It’s	 not,	 “How	 do	 I	 stimulate	 my	 adrenals	 more?	 How	 do	 I	
                jumpstart	them?	How	do	I	get	supplemental	extra	cortisol	in	a	crash	system?”	But,	“How	do	I	recover?	
                How	do	I	support	recovery?	How	do	I	nourish	myself	and	my	adrenal	glands?”

Kevin:	         Let’s	talk	a	little	bit	more	about	diet	and	how	diet	plays	a	role	with	adrenal	health.

Dr.	Williams:	 Modern	western	diet	is	a	[indecipherable]	to	adrenal	health.	You	have	three	things.	One,	stress.	Chronic,	
               unrelenting	 and	 sometimes	 acute	 stress,	 along	 with	 chronic	 stress.	Two,	 you	 have	 abuse	 of	 stimulants	
               like	caffeine	primarily.	And	three	you	have	a	diet	that	doesn’t	support	good	health.	We	all	know	that.	It	
               contributes	to	chronic	disease	like	cardiovascular	disease,	but	also	creates	more	dependence	on	food	and	
               moves	the	entire	system	towards	metabolic	disorders.	Those	include	high	refined	carbohydrates	so	your	
               white	flour	products,	your	sugary	sports	drinks,	your	high-fructose	syrup,	sodas,	even	you	have	to	watch	
               many	of	the	natural	sodas	have	fructose	in	them.	So	not	only	now	do	you	have	low	nutrient	density	in	
               your	foods	but	you	have	this	high	carbohydrate	that	is	easily	broken	down	to	sugars	in	your	body	and	now	
               you’re	creating	serious	imbalance	stressors	onto	the	system.	Refined	carbohydrates,	sugar	and	of	course	
               alcohol	are	the	three,	besides	stimulants,	substances	in	the	diet	that	have	to	go	if	you	want	to	recover	your	
               adrenal	health.

Kevin:	         Is	there	anything	in	the	vegan	diet	or	anything	missing	from	the	vegan	diet	that	maybe	should	be	considered	
                for	someone	who	is	going	down	that	path?

Dr.	Williams:	 Yes.	In	the	vegan	diet	you	have	one	serious	omission.	You’re	going	to	have	a	very	low	to	no	cholesterol	diet.	
               Over	time	vegans,	particularly	raw	food	vegans,	when	I	test	their	blood	they’re	going	to	find	that	their	
               cholesterol	is	below	130.	Keeping	your	cholesterol	in	the	normal	range	is	highly	important.	You	can’t	build	
               adrenal	hormones	from	that.	So	what	they’re	going	to	do	in	the	beginning	is	they’re	going	to	lose	weight,	
               moving	 towards	 underweight.	 They’re	 going	 to	 feel	 relatively	 good	 for	 months	 to	 maybe	 a	 year	 or	 so,	
               because	they’re	getting	high	nutrient	density	foods	that	are	normalizing	their	weight	and	their	metabolism	
               and	they’re	completely	off	of	all	the	processed	and	preserved	and	high	trans	fats	and	high	refined	sugar	
               foods.	However,	over	time	they’re	going	to	deplete	the	system	significantly.	We	all	know	about	vitamin	
               B12	and	iron	and	the	importance	of	those	and	the	low	levels	found	particularly	in	vegans	but	many	strict	
               vegetarians	as	well.	One	of	the	things	that	they	consistently	overlook	is	the	cholesterol.	You	need	enough	
               cholesterol	and	you	need	enough	of	the	LDL,	low	density,	as	well	as	the	HDL.	Those	are	the	two	that	
               these	adrenal	hormones	are	built	from,	the	adrenal	cortico	hormones.	So	check	your	lipids	and	make	sure	
               you’re	getting	enough,	that	your	cholesterol	is	high	enough.	If	you’re	vegan	for	six	months	to	two	years	and	
               cholesterol	is	looking	good,	the	range	is	135-165,	that’s	the	optimal	ideal	range,	don’t	stop	there.	You	need	
               to	check	it	every	year,	every	six	months	to	make	sure	it’s	not	dipping	down.	Eventually	it	will	go	down.	

	               It’s	important	that	vegans	have	enough	of	healthy	oils	in	their	diet.	They	may	need	to	supplement	with	flax	
                oil,	with	omega-3	from	sacha	inchi	oil	from	the	Amazon	and	some	of	these	healthier	vegan	sources.

	               Let’s	talk	about	what	to	do	on	a	daily	basis.	How	do	we	recover?	How	do	we	manage?	How	do	we	balance	
                and	how	do	we	restore	our	adrenal	function?	Because	it’s	a	lifestyle	and	stress-induced	disease,	number	one	

                                               Transcripts Module 3 / PAGE 33

                we	have	to	somehow	either	develop	better	coping	skills	with	our	stress	mechanisms	or	we	need	to	eliminate	
                stress	from	our	lives	as	much	as	possible.	Number	two,	we	need	to	change	our	diet	away	from	the	modern	
                western	American	diet	to	a	healthier	balanced	diet.	Number	three,	we		need	to	move	away	from	stimulants	
                like	coffee,	strong	green	tea	and	then	the	extra	things	we	might	be	needing	for	weight	loss	like	ma-huang,	
                which	contains	ephedrine	and	pseudo-ephedrine.	

	               The	main	hormone	that	we’re	going	to	look	at	is	cortisol.	The	two	others	are	DHEA	and	pregnenolone.	
                We’ll	talk	about	that	in	module	four.	To	manage	cortisol	we	start	as	soon	as	we	get	up	with	breakfast,	not	
                with	a	glass	of	salt	water.	Morning	is	when	your	cortisol	levels	should	come	up.	Deficient	cortisol	and	
                adrenal	fatigue	people	are	going	to	be	slow	to	start	in	the	morning	and	they	need	to	get	their	body	going.	
                Typically	they	also	will	be	borderline	hypoglycemic.	So	we	start	with	breakfast.	Breakfast	is	the	meal	of	
                champions.	 We	 all	 know	 that.	 But	 it’s	 not	 highly-refined	 carbohydrate	 cereal	 with	 lots	 of	 sugar	 on	 it.	
                Breakfast	is	the	most	important	meal	for	adrenal	fatigue	and	hypoglycemic	patients.	You	need	to	eat	your	
                breakfast.	Adrenal	people	don’t	want	to	eat	breakfast.	They	want	coffee.	They	want	green	tea.	They	want	
                their	glass	of	salt	water.	They	want	their	supplements.	They	tend	to	not	feel	good	with	breakfast.	When	
                they	do	eat	a	high-protein	breakfast	they	do	a	lot	better	through	the	entire	morning.	They	have	to	avoid	
                the	big,	sugary	breakfasts,	the	stimulants	and	then	move	towards	a	slow-burning	fuel	with	low	glycemic	
                index	carbohydrates	or	a	combination	of	high	protein.	They	also	may	need	a	little	more	oil	or	fat	in	their	
                diet.		 If	 they’re	 vegan	 they’re	 going	 to	 have	 to	 go	 for	 the	 plant-based	 forms.	 If	 they’re	 vegetarian	 but	
                not	completely	vegan	they	can	use	a	little	bit	of	unsalted	butter.		             You’re	going	to	eat	in	the	morning	
                relatively	early,	between	seven	and	nine	and	really	no	later	than	ten.	Almost	in	all	cases	people	feel	much,	
                much	better	with	a	high-protein	breakfast.

Kevin:	         And	then	moving	throughout	the	day?

Dr.	Williams:	 As	we	go	along	throughout	the	day	you	want	to	look	at	your	exercise.	If	you	can	move	in	the	morning	
               and	 you	can	do	 exercise	twice	a	day	 it’s	much	better	than	doing		 a	serious	 gym	workout	 where	 you’re	
               exhausted	 and	 you’re	 pushing	 your	 adrenaline	 and	 cortisol.	 Exercise	 should	 be	 regular	 and	 should	 be	
               balanced	between	your	work	and	your	rest	and	your	eating.

	               Here’s	 a	 standard	 routine	 for	 adrenal	 recovery.	 Go	 to	 bed	 early.	 Set	 a	 regular	 schedule.	 10	 o’clock,	 11	
                maximum,	you	should	be	in	bed,	every	single	night.	Sometimes	I	put	patients	to	bed	at	9	or	9:30.	You	
                should	also	get	up	early,	7	o’clock	to	9	o’clock.	No	later	than	that.	Often	adrenal	fatiguers	start	to	wake	up	
                after	9	at	night	and	get	a	lot	done	and	then	have	a	terrible	day	the	next	day.	That	contributes	to	the	cycle.	
                You	need	to	go	through	kind	of	a	withdrawal	phase	of	a	week	or	two	by	getting	yourself	into	a	regular	
                schedule.	But	don’t	oversleep.	You	need	seven	to	nine	hours	for	chronic	fatigue	and	for	adrenal	burnout	
                people,	but	sometimes	even	11	or	12.	But	not	11	or	12	every	day.	Do	not	over	sleep.	It	will	disrupt	your	
                system	further.	

	               What’s	important	is	the	last	two	hours	of	sleep	that	can	come	normally	for	healthy	people	in	the	early	
                hours	of	the	morning	between	four,	five,	six	and	seven.	For	adrenal	fatigue	patients	they	usually	have	sleep	
                disruption	during	the	night	and	they	may	not	get	that	last	two	hours	of	restorative	sleep	until	the	morning,	
                between	six	and	eight	or	seven	and	nine,	even	sometimes	between	eight	and	ten.	If	you	have	to	get	up	in	
                the	morning	and	go	to	work		you’re	just	going	to	continue	more	and	more	stress.	Now	you’re	putting	non-
                restorative	sleep	pattern	in	and	you’re	going	to	have	sleep	disruption.	Eventually	it’s	going	to	complicate	
                and	make	the	whole	process	worse.	

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	   When	you	get	up	in	the	morning,	eat	your	high-protein	breakfast	with	a	little	bit	of	complex	carbohydrate	
    like	whole	grain	bread	or	oatmeal.	If	you	can	use	a	little	bit	of	butter	or	plant-based	oils	or	fats	you	need	
    to	add	that	at	that	time,	like	flax	oil.	

	   Throughout	the	day	you	need	to	eat	like	a	hypoglycemic.	You	need	to	eat	small	meals,	high	protein	and	
    frequently.	If	you	can’t	do	that	then	you	need	to	eat	regular	meals,	two	or	three,	and	you	need	to	eat	high	
    protein	snacks	including	plant-based	protein	like	a	handful	of	almonds,	every	few	hours.	Make	sure	that	
    you	also	get	your	healthy	oils	a	few	times	a	day.

	   Avoid	 caffeine	 and	 alcohol.	 You	 may	 struggle	 through	 withdrawals	 for	 several	 days	 or	 even	 weeks	 but	
    eventually	you	will	feel	a	lot	better.	Avoid	your	stimulating	herbs	and	don’t	take	decongestants	containing	

	   Moderate	 your	 work	 routine.	Try	 to	 get	 some	 exercise	 in,	 as	 I	 mentioned,	 in	 the	 morning	 and	 in	 the	
    afternoon	or	evening.	As	many	times	as	you	can	during	the	week	work	in	your	garden.	Take	that	walk	in	
    the	park.	There’s	plenty	of	evidence--in	my	blog	I	even	have	an	article	on	it,	Japanese	call	it	Forest	Walking	
    or		Green	Zone	Walking,	in	Europe	they	call	it,	and	how	it	improves	the	immune	chemistry	in	your	body	
    and	your	T	cells	recover	better.	It’s	amazing	what	the	living	green	color	and	the	plants,	how	they	make	us	
    feel.	I	watched	the	Avatar	movie	last	night	for	about	the	20th	time	and	the	interconnection	of	the	Nave	
    people	with	the	forest	and	the	plants	and	their	planet.	That’s	really	what	it’s	all	about.

	   You	have	to	set	up	your	own	almost	kind	of	recovery	spa.	This	is	going	to	take	weeks.	It’s	going	to	take	
    months.	It’s	going	to	take	years.	Other	natural	therapies	that	you	can	fit	into	your	schedule	during	the	week	
    include	acupuncture,	massage	and	other	forms	of	bodywork,	and	meditation	practice.	Acupuncture	once	
    a	week	or	once	a	month	is	fine.	It’s	the	premier	therapy	for	balancing	the	adrenal	system.	It	will	not,	on	its	
    own,	serve	to	fix	or	to	cure	advanced	adrenal	deficiency	syndrome.	But	it	up-regulates	and	down-regulates	
    the	entire	HPA	axis	and	the	immune	system.	Acupuncture	done	in	the	hands	of	a	skilled	practitioner	is	
    excellent	if	you	have	access	to	it.	Massage	and	bodywork	help	de-stress	you,	give	you	a	relaxing	zone.	Also,	
    meditation	helps	you	to	develop	better	coping	mechanisms.

	   In	terms	of	exercise	you	want	to	make	sure	that	it’s	regular,	gentle.	My	recommendation	is	tai	chi,	number	
    one.	It’s	a	limbic,	moving	exercise	like	dancing.	That’s	also	good.	It	gives	you	enough	exercise	but	it	never	
    tires	you	out.	It	re-regulates	your	entire	autonomic	nervous	system	as	well	as	HPA	axis.	

	   If	you	wanted	to	totally	recover	you	could	probably	do	it	just	with	diet,	with	Chinese	herbs	and	tai	chi.	
    They’ve	done	it	for	thousands	of	years	in	China.	We	could	do	it	now	but	they	usually	go	to	the	temple	for	
    a	few	months	and	have	no	stress.	So	that	helps,	too.

	   Walking	is	great.	Do	it	every	day.	Don’t	do	power	walking	or	speed	walking	or	walk	in	the	hot	sun	in	the	
    middle	of	the	day	on	the	beach.	Do	gentle,	normal	walking.	Don’t	drag	yourself.	If	you	feel	so	tired	that	
    you	have	to	drag	yourself	out	it’s	better	to	rest.	Even	if	you	have	to	push	yourself	a	little	bit	until	that	walk	
    feels	 good	 during	 the	 walk	 and	 afterwards.	 Swimming	 is	 good,	 excellent,	 but	 pace	 yourself.	 Bicycling,	
    leisurely	not	long-distance,	is	also	good.	All	of	those	activate	limbic	and	rhythmic	systems	in	the	body.

	   Restorative	yoga	is	excellent.	Avoid	the	aggressive	forms	of	yoga.	There’s	many	of	them	but	two	of	the	most	
    available	are	Bikram’s	yoga	or	any	forms	of	hot	yoga,	and	classical	Ashtanga	yoga	series	one	and	series	two.	
    They	are	excellent	forms.	I	practice	them	myself	and	I’m	a	great	proponent	of	them	however	for	adrenal	

                                            Transcripts Module 3 / PAGE 35

               fatigue	people	you	want	to	focus	on	restorative,	gentle	yoga.	Not	so	gentle	that	it	puts	you	to	sleep.	But	
               rhythmic,	regular	like	gentle	Vinyasa,	is	outstanding	to	restore	and	recover	from	adrenal	deficiency,	adrenal	
               insufficiency	and	the	adrenal	fatigue	in	its	entire	spectrum.

               When	you	were	talking	about	diet	you	didn’t	mention	fruit	in	the	morning.	Is	that	something	to	avoid	or	
               is	it	something	you	can	eat	with	some	protein	or	some	fat?

Dr.	Williams:	 Fruit	in	the	morning	is	out	for	adrenal	fatigue	people.	Number	one,	it’s	high	sugar.	Number	two,	these	are	
               not	natural	heritage	fruits.	These	are	genetically-modified,	highly-hybridized	packages	of	water	and	sugar.	
               Even	if	there’s	organic	they’re	still	high	sugar.	

	              What	you	see	for	adrenal	fatigue	patients,	chronic	fatigue	patients,	stress	people,	a	lot	of	the	vegans,	their	
               energy	is	very	low.	They’ve	gone	hypoglycemic	at	nighttime	and	their	cortisol	is	not	coming	up.	So	they	
               go	for	the	natural	fruit	juices	and	the	fruit	salads	and	the	fruit	smoothies.	They’re	going	to	feel	a	little	bit	
               better	afterwards	and	over	a	long	period	of	time	they’re	going	to	be	much	worse.

	              Let	me	add	a	couple	of	breakfast	tips,	if	I	can.	The	four	breakfast	tips	for	adrenal	recovery	and	cortisol	
               balancing	are	number	one,	eat	light.	Don’t	eat	a	heavy	protein.	Eat	light.	If	you’re	a	fast-burner,	if	your	
               metabolism	is	strong	and	you’re	a	lean	person	then	you’re	going	to	need	more	protein	for	breakfast.	If	
               you’re	 a	 slow-burner	 you’re	 going	 to	 need	 a	 low-glycemic	 index	 complex	 carbohydrate	 to	 break	 down	
               slowly	over	the	morning.	Keep	that	in	mind.		 The	fourth	one	is	avoid	sweets	including	fruits.

Kevin:	        Great.	Thank	you.	This	is	the	end	of	module	three.	In	module	four	we’ll	be	diving	a	little	bit	deeper	into	
               some	of		the	herbs	and	some	of	the	other	things	that	you	can	do	to	help	bring	your	adrenals	back	into	great	

	              Dr.	Williams,	thank	you.

Dr.	Williams:	 You’re	welcome.

PAGE 36 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

Module 4
                                 PAGE 38 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

Kevin:	         Welcome	everyone.	This	is	Kevin	Gianni	from	I	want	to	personally	thank	you	for	
                taking	 an	 interest	 in	 your	 health	 and	 investing	 in	 this	 special	 program.	 The	 Complete	 Adrenal	 Health	
                Program	will	teach	you	the	cutting	edge	natural	approaches	to	adrenal	treatment.	First,	before	we	start,	
                I‘d	 like	 to	 introduce	 our	 special	 guest,	 Dr.	 James	 Williams.	 Dr.	 Williams	 is	 a	 pioneer	 in	 the	 field	 of	
                integrative	medicine	and	longevity	and	quality	of	life.	He’s	the	author	of	five	acclaimed	books	including	
                “Viral	Immunity”	and	“Prolonging	Health.”	With	more	than	25	years	clinical	experience	treating	chronic	
                disease	he	brings	his	experience	with	over	100,000	patient	visits	directly	to	you.	In	this	program	I’ll	be	your	
                host	while	Dr.	Williams	shares	this	important	information	with	you.	

	               Before	 we	 start	 I	 want	 to	 share	 this	 important	 disclaimer	 with	 you.	 The	 information	 in	 this	 course	 is	
                intended	to	for	educational	purposes	only.	It	does	not	replace	the	evaluation	and	advice	of	a	qualified,	
                licensed	healthcare	professional.	For	detailed	information	about	your	adrenal	health,	please	consult	with	
                your	physician.

	               So	let’s	get	started	on	this	module.

	               Welcome	everyone.	This	is	Kevin	Gianni	from	The	Complete	Adrenal	Health	Program.	Today	what	we’re	
                going	to	be	doing	is	going	through	the	holistic	treatment	that	Dr.	Williams	has	used	on	his	patients	with	
                great	success.	We’re	going	to	be	running	over	some	of	the	things	that	we	talked	about	in	module	three	
                but	we’re	also	going	to	be	expanding	on	some	of	the	other	things	that	you	can	do	that	actually	with	your	
                adrenals,	particularly	herbs.

	               Dr.	Williams,	welcome.

Dr.	Williams:	 Thank	you	for	having	me	on	the	program.	I’m	looking	forward	to	helping	our	listeners	and	solving	one	of	
               the	major	crisis	in	health	in	the	modern	world.

Kevin:	         Let’s	talk	about	the	principals	that	are	based	around	healing	the	adrenals.	Let’s	go	through	the	steps	and	
                then	we’ll	go	into	detail	and	drill	down	the	very	specifics.

Dr.	Williams:	 The	 most	 important	 thing	 to	 remember	 is	 that	 this	 is	 really	 a	 maladaption	 syndrome	 and	 not	 to	 stay	
               focused	on	the	adrenal	gland,	particularly	if	cortisol,	as	we	mentioned,	is	too	low,	and	how	to	fill	that	up.	
               I	call	that	the	bucket	theory	of	natural	health	and	if	the	bucket’s	half	empty	fill	it	half	way	up	and	you’ve	
               got	a	full	bucket.	If	it’s	empty	all	the	way	fill	it	all	the	way	up.	In	this	case	we’ve	got	a	bucket	with	a	hole.	
               But	the	real	problem	is	the	garden.	We	carry	water	to	the	garden	back	and	forth	from	the	stream.	It’s	a	real	
               big	environmental	issue.	It’s	a	maladaptive	syndrome	of	how	the	human	body	and	the	environment	inter	
               and	co-relate	within	the	body	with	all	these	higher	and	lower	centers,	hypothalamic-pituitary	and	adrenal	
               and	other	axes.	The	three	main	reasons	for	that,	of	course,	are	stress,	over-use	of	stimulants	and	high	sugar,	
               high	fat,	high	salt	diet,	the	Standard	American	diet.	

	               The	first	thing	is	you	have	to	have	a	plan.	Then	you	make	your	lifestyle	adaptations	and	then	you	support	
                your	 adrenal	 health	 with	 nutrients	 and	 correct	 diet.	You	 sure	 up	 some	 of	 the	 precursor	 hormones	 like	
                DHEA	and	pregnenolone.	Then	you	take	your	adaptogenic	herbs,	like	ginseng,	and	give	it	replacement	of	
                cortisol.	And	finally	you	have	to	give	it	time.	It	takes	months,	years	of	time	to	restore	adrenal	health.

Kevin:	         In	the	previous	modules	we		put	together	a	lot	of	information.	Now	I	want	to	wrap	it	all	up	in	a	systematic	
                way.	I’m	a	big	advocate	of	making	plans.		What	are	the	steps?	Let’s	walk	someone	through	this	particular	

                                             Transcripts Module 4 / PAGE 39

                plan	so	they	can	get	their	adrenals	back	into	great	health.

Dr.	Williams:	 We’re	going	to	go	through	it	step	by	step	in	a	lot	of	detail.	I’ll	go	as	clearly	as	possible.	This	is	exactly	how	
               I	work	with	my	patients	in	my	clinic.	I’ve	teased	out	the	most	important	points	for	people	to	do	self-
               assessment.	Remember,	self-assessment	is	always	subjective,	even	for	doctors	themselves.	As	I	say,	doctors	
               make	the		worst	patients	because	they	have	the	information	and	they’re	still	very	subjective	about	their	
               view.	In	other	words,	it’s	kind	of	backed	up	with	emotions	and	you	can’t	see	things	so	clearly	when	they’re	
               right	in	front	of	your	face.	It’s	a	good	starting	point,	however.	Then	we’ll	bridge	into	when	you	need	help	
               along	the	way.

	               The	first	step	is	to	get	a	sense	of	where	you	are	on	the	adrenal	fatigue	continuum.	There’s	two	aspects	of	
                that.	Part	A	is	to	make	sure	that	you’re	not	high	cortisol	or	the	early	stages	of	adrenal	imbalance,	moving	
                towards	fatigue,	if	you	do	have	high	cortisol.	That’s	important	because	if	you	have	high	cortisol	and	you	
                treat	it	as	if	you	have	low	cortisol,	you’re	just	making	the	entire	problem	considerably	worse	and	you	may	
                feel	a	little	bit	better	but	you’ll	certainly	feel	more	imbalanced	in	the	process	if	your	doctor	doesn’t	catch	
                early.	Many	holistic	practitioners	out	there	make	this	mistake,	too.	

	               The	first	thing	is	to	separate	out	high		cortisol	from	low	cortisol,	getting	clues	and	tips	in	the	beginning	
                and	then	focus	on	the	low	cortisol,	which	is	the	adrenal	fatigue	syndrome,	where	you	fit	on	the	fatigue	
                continuum.	There’s	three	aspects	of	that.	The	first	is	your	symptoms.	We	went	over	those	in	detail	in	the	
                previous	module.	What	I	want	to	be	clear	about	now	is	that	first,	both	high	and	low	cortisol	have	fatigue	
                as	a	symptom.	Adrenal	fatigue	syndrome	is	not	just	being	tired,	it’s	feeling	weak	and	tired.	People	say	that	
                they	feel	exhausted.	They	feel	so	tired	they	can’t	get	out	of	bed	in	the	morning,	so	tired	that	they	have	to	
                nap	in	the	afternoon.	And	they	are	also	weak.	It’s	difficult	for	them	to	exercise.	Exercise	often	makes	them	
                worse.	That’s	the	adrenal	fatigue	with	low	cortisol.

	               The	adrenal	fatigue	imbalance	with		high	cortisol	or	early	stages	of	disruption	of	the	adrenal	and	HPA	axis	
                will	also	be	fatigue.	So	both	high	and	low	have	fatigue	as	a	symptom	but	with	high		cortisol	you’re	going	to	
                be	irritable.	There’s	going	to	be	increased	PMS	symptoms.	You’ll	be	snappy	and	anxious	and	easily	angered.	
                That’s	typically	high	cortisol.	Sometimes	there’s	adrenal	imbalance	to	the	point	where	the	adrenaline	is	also	
                jerking	up.	People	still	exercise.	They	still	feel	better	when	they	exercise.	They’re	not	that	tired	but	they’re	
                still	fatigued.	The	fatigue	tends	to	come	and	go	where	advanced	adrenal	fatigue	is	there	all	the	time.	

	               The	other	thing	with	high	cortisol	is	you	usually	have	increased	appetite,	without	having	exercise,	without	
                having	done	a	lot	of	yard	work	or	where	you	would	expect	to	have	it.	These	people	are	hungry	all	the	time.	
                They	have	increased	appetite	and	of	course	they	gain	weight.	So	they	easily	gain	weight	and	it’s	hard	to	
                lose	weight.	The	pattern	is	central	obesity	where	the	center	of	the	body	and	abdomen	below	the	breasts	in	
                women	and	up	under	the	ribs	in	men	and	down	to	the	waist	becomes	very	chunky.	This	is	not	just	belly	
                fat.	It’s	an	increasing	amount	of	fat,	usually	evenly	distributed	throughout	the	entire	waist.	We	look	at	the	
                waist	to	hip	ratio.	When	you	see	your	waist	becoming	wider	than	your	hips	than	that’s	usually	associated	
                with	the	problem	of	high	cortisol.	That	is	because	it’s	associated	with	insulin	resistance	syndrome	and	the	
                phenomena	that	goes	with	that	of	getting	fat	locked	into	the	adipose	cells	and	imbalance	in	insulin.

	               So	first	of	all	look	at	your	symptoms	and	see	if	you	can	get	an	idea	whether	you’re	high	or	low	cortisol.	
                Questionnaires	help.	They	give	you	a	list	of	symptoms	and	assessments.	There’s	a	variety	of	those	on	the	
                Internet	and	other	places.	Make	sure	you’re	looking	at	a	good	one.	You	might	take	one	or	two	and	along	
                with	your	own	assessment	of	symptoms	will	give	you	a	closer	idea	if	you	have	this	problem	and	remember	

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    high	or	low	cortisol,	where	do	you	fall	in	the	beginning	and	then	if	it’s	low	an	idea	of	where	you	fall	in	that	
    adrenal	fatigue	continuum.

	   Third	 is	 self-assessments.	 Those	 are	 the	 things	 we	 went	 over	 where	 you	 do	 your	 blood	 pressure	 sitting	
    or	lying	and	then	standing	up	quickly	and	if	you	get	dizzy	that	tells	you	right	away	that	you’re	having	
    postural	hypotension.	It	should	give	you	a	clue	that	you’re	having	trouble	with	your	adrenal	glands	and	
    hormones	related	to	that.	Even	if	you’re	not	dizzy	and	your	blood	pressure	numbers,	upper	and	lower,	
    drop	by	ten	points	then	you’re	pretty	sure	that	you’re	having	adrenal	hormone	problems.		 Looking	 at	
    your	pupil	index	and	looking	at	your	body	shape	and	type,	those	are	other	self-assessments.	That’s	part	A	
    of	assessments.

	   Part	B	is	medical	assessment.	That’s	where	the	doctor	is	looking	at	you	and	asking	you	questions,	doing	the	
    exam.	We	do	other	things	like	table	testing,	so	that	you	don’t	actually	have	to	lie.	We	put	you	on	a	special	
    table	that	tips	up	and	down.	Sleep	assessments	are	important	as	well.	

	   The	next	step	is	to	get	tested.	We’re	going	to	do	two	types	of	testing,	blood	testing	and	saliva	testing.	Those	
    are	the	basics.	Don’t	skip	the	blood	testing.	I	know	many	holistic	practitioners	jump	right	into	the	saliva	
    testing.	Make	sure	your	practitioner	knows	what	they’re	doing.	Make	sure	they’re	licensed	and	make	sure	
    that	they	have	privileges	to	order	lab	tests	because	in	many	states	you	have	all	types	of	holistic	people	and	
    they	 can’t	 order	 blood	 tests.	 A	 saliva	 test	 anybody	 can	 order.	 They’re	 not	 FDA	 approved,	 even	 though	
    they’re	a	very	well	understood	test	and	the	equipment	has	been	used,	most	of	it	comes	from	Germany	for	
    decades.	These	are	really	good,	established	tests	for	cortisol	and	DHEA.	But	they	have	not	been	approved	
    by	the	FDA	as	medical	tests	for	this	specific	problem	so	that	means	that	pretty	much	anybody	can	order	
    those	over	the	Internet.	You	need	to	work	with	a	good	lab,	however.

	   Let’s	look	at	blood	tests	first.	You’re	going	to	do	three	basic	tests.	Fasting,	always	between	seven	and	nine	in	
    the	morning.	You’re	going	to	look	at	cortisol,	circulating	levels,	DHEA-S,	that’s	DHEA	sulfate	not	plain	
    DHEA.	Total	DHEA	fluctuates	throughout	the	day	and	is	based	on	stress	and	eating	or	not	eating.	But	
    DHEA	sulfate,	a	precursor	of	DHEA,	is	much	more	stable.	It’s	what	we	use	to	test	in	anti-aging	medicine	
    and	adrenal	health	issues	and	also	many	other	medical	testing.	So	use	DHEA-S.	The	third	is	pregnenolone.	
    That’s	your	117-hydroxy	pregnenolone,	also	a	metabolite	of	prenenolone	that	is	more	stable.	So	the	three	
    are	fasting	cortisol,	DHEA-S	and	prenenolone.

	   You	also	want	to	look	at	testosterone.	Women	of	all	ages	should	measure	total	testosterone	level	and	men	
    over	40	when	their	testosterone	levels	produced	by	their	gonads	starts	to	decline	their	adrenal	gland	will	
    produce	some	and	in	some	cases	much	of	their	testosterone.	If	you’re	finding	a	lower	level	of	testosterone	in	
    women	of	any	age	and	men	over	40	then	you	can	also	get	a	clue	that	their	adrenal	gland	is	not	functioning	
    as	well.

	   The	next	test	is	saliva	testing,	your	adrenal	stress	index.	Depending	on	the	lab	you’re	going	to	do	four	to	
    six	samples	over	a	24-hour	period.	They’re	also	going	to	measure	DHEA.	In	the	salivary	testing	it’s	going	
    to	be	free-tissue	levels	of	cortisol	and	DHEA.	Then	they’re	going	to	plop	that	on	a	curve	so	you	don’t	
    really	need	to	know	all	of	these	small	numbers	that	go	with	all	these	different	levels.	When	you	look	at	
    the	graph	of	the	cortisol	it	should	match	to	the	higher	in	the	morning	and	mid-range	during	the	day	and	
    lower	at	nighttime.	Also,	when	you	do	the	salivary	test	you	can’t	have	any	bleeding	gums.	Even	microscopic	
    bleeding	will	cause	an	abnormal	sample	because	they’ll	be	measuring	both	saliva	and	blood	in	the	sample.	
    The	good	labs	will	wash	the	saliva,	filter	out	the	blood.	But	if	you	have	bleeding	gums	it’s	better	to	not	take	

                                 Transcripts Module 4 / PAGE 41

    the	salivary	test	until	you’ve	solved	that	problem.	That’s	correctable	by	getting	your	teeth	cleaned,	taking	
    away	any	irritants	that	are	on	your	teeth	like	hard	plaque	cutting	into	your	gums,	reducing	inflammation,	
    flossing	and	taking	high	dosages	of	vitamin	C	with	bioflavonoids,	typically	will	solve	that	in	a	few	weeks	
    and	then	you	can	do	your	saliva	test.

	   Third	step.	Once	you	have	a	sense	of	where	you	are	on	the	adrenal	fatigue	continuum,	you’ve	looked	at	
    high	 and	 low	 cortisol	 symptoms,	 you’ve	 taken	 questionnaires	 and	 you’ve	 looked	 at	 self-assessment	 and	
    perhaps	medical	assessment,	now	you	have	your	blood	results	and	your	salivary	results.	At	that	point	we	
    want	to	evaluate	the	state	of	your	condition.	We’re	going	to	look	at	three	different	aspects	of	that.

	   The	first	is,	do	you	have	normal	cortisol	and	normal	DHEA,	both	blood	and	saliva?	First	let’s	talk	mainly	
    about	blood	testing.	You	want	to	look	at	your	fasting	cortisol	and	your	fasting	DHEA-S.	If	they	are	falling	
    in	 the	 normal	 ranges,	 mid-normal	 ranges,	 you	 probably	 don’t	 have	 a	 problem.	 It’s	 likely	 coming	 from	
    somewhere	else.	If	they	are	in	the	low-normal	ranges	then	you	might	have	a	problem.	The	first	step	is	to	
    see	normal	cortisol,	normal	DHEA-sulfate,	probably	not	an	adrenal	problem.

	   You’re	also	measuring	prenenolone.	Low	pregnenolone	can	be	the	first	sign	of	a	faltering	adrenal	gland.	
    Typically	what	we’ll	see	is	very	low	normal	levels.	Pregnenolone	numbers	go	down	so	close	to	zero,	especially	
    as	you	get	older,	that	it’s	hard	to	find	one	that’s	below	the	normal	level.	But	if	it’s	in	the	very	low	normal	
    levels,	below	100	for	example,	then	that’s	a	tip-off	that	you’re	probably	starting	to	show	some	deficiency	of	
    the	adrenal	cortex,	even	if	you’re	normal	cortisol	and	normal	DHEA-s.	In	that	case	you	would	supplement	
    with	pregnenolone	and	you	would	make	lifestyle	adjustments.

	   Second	part	of	evaluating	your	blood	test.	You’re	going	to	have	normal,	high-normal	or	even	high	cortisol.	
    This	is	important	to	remember.	If	you	have		high	cortisol,	above	20,	then	you’re	either	very	stressed	or	
    you’re	moving	towards	Cushing’s	Syndrome	or	you’re	taking	Prednisone	or	other	medication	causing	that	
    level	to	be	elevated	or	you’re	having	imbalances	in	your	cortisol.	In	other	words,	you	may	be	slightly	high	
    in	the	morning	but	normal	during	the	rest	of	the	day.	Your	salivary	test	can	tease	that	out.	If	high	cortisol	
    is	a	red	flag	you	need	to	see	your	doctor	right	away.	Normally	what	we’re	going	to	see	is	normal	cortisol	
    values	in	the	mid	range	or	high-normal	range,	15-17,	and	at	the	same	time	we’re	going	to	see	low	levels	
    of	DHEA-sulfate.	Now	you	know	that	your	ratio	is	off.	The	low	DHEA	makes	the	body	respond	like	low	

	   The	 treatment	 for	 that	 would	 be	 to	 supplement	 your	 	 DHEA	 and	 pregnenolone	 and	 make	 lifestyle	

	   The	third	is	that	you’d	have	low	cortisol	or	very	low	normal	cortisol,	closer	to	five,	six,	seven,	eight.	We	like	
    cortisol	to	be	in	the	mid-range,	around	10,	11,	12	even	down	to	8	or	9	and	the	DHEA	to	be	very,	very	
    strong	and	the	pregnenolone	to	be	normal.	But	if	you	have	low	levels	of	cortisol	with	low	levels	of	DHEA-
    sulfate	and	pregnenolone	then	you	have	true	adrenal	deficiency	syndrome.

	   On	your	salivary	testing	if	you	have	one	or	more	times	during	the	day	when	your	cortisol	is	either	low	or	
    high,	you’re	certainly	having	imbalances	in	the	way	the	adrenal	is	functioning.	If	you	look	at	the	adrenal	
    index	you’ll	find	that	the	DHEA	to	cortisol	ratio	is	off	and	when	you	compare	to	your	blood	testing	you’ll	
    also	see	some	slight	abnormals	in	there.	

	   In	summary,	adrenal	fatigue	phenomena	and	maladaptation	syndrome	is	typically	an	imbalance	between	

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               cortisol,	DHEA-sulfate	and	pregnenolone,	as	well	as	other	adrenally-produced	hormones	like	testosterone,	
               as	well	as	influenced	by	insulin-like	growth	factor,	produced	in	the	liver	that	reflects	growth	hormone	and	
               insulin	itself.

Kevin:	        Let’s	talk	about	these	lifestyle	adaptations.

Dr.	Williams:	 That’s	the	first	step.	This	is	not	an	up-regulation	of	your	lifestyle.	This	is	not	your	January	1st	program	
               where	you	say,	“I’m	going	to	go	to	the	gym	three	times	a	week.”	If	you	have	adrenal	fatigue	you	can’t	go	to	
               the	gym	and	get	benefit	from	that.	You	won’t	keep	up	your	January	1st	promises.	You	won’t	be	able	to	get	
               on	a	healthier	diet	or	watch	your	sweets	and	salt	and	fat	intake	because	your	adrenal	glands	are	imbalanced	
               and	the	cravings	are	too	strong.	So	don’t	make	any	promises	that	you	can’t	keep.	

	              You	need	to	restore	balance.	You	need	to	make	adaptations	to	diet,	little	by	little.	Make	changes.	Don’t	
               go	to	full	extremes	if	you	have	adrenal	fatigue.	Make	small,	consistent,	easy	steps.	First	of	all	in	your	diet.	
               Lower	the	sugar.	Cut	out	the	stimulants.	Reduce	or	eliminate	alcohol.

	              The	next	is	rest	and	sleep.	Typically	adrenal	health	people	need	a	nap	in	the	afternoon,	but	don’t	oversleep.	
               It	will	disturb	your	sleep	cycle	at	night.	20-30	minutes	is	more	than	enough.	Set	your	alarm	on	you	cell	
               phone	so	you	don’t	sleep	an	hour	or	two	in	the	afternoon.	If	you	wake	up	refreshed,	you’re	on	the	right	
               track.	If	you	wake	up	drowsy,	groggy,	you’re	not.	Nighttime	sleep,	we’ve	talked	about	that,	seven	to	nine	
               hours	of	good	sleep.	You	must	try	your	best	to	restore	your	sleep.	If	you	fall	asleep	easily	but	wake	up	wide	
               awake	at	two,	three	or	four	in	the	morning,	then	you’re	having	nighttime	hypoglycemia.	So	your	cortisol	
               is	going		up	and	your	blood	sugar	is	going	down.	You	need	to	have	a	light	carbohydrate	snack	before	bed.	
               Honey	and	chamomile	tea	is	fine.	A	little	bit	of	natural,	organic	yogurt	with	some	granola	on	it	is	fine.	
               Not	too	sugary,	though.	No	fruits	and	certainly	no	stimulants.	That	often	will	help	prevent	nighttime	
               hypoglycemia.	However,	if	you	do	wake	up	like	that	and	you’re	wide	awake	the	best	thing	to	do	is	get	out	
               of	bed	and	have	a	snack,	a	chamomile	tea	with	honey	or	even	half	a	teaspoon	of	raw,	organic	honey	in	
               warm	water.	Within	30	minutes	or	so	your	blood	sugar	will	be	stabilizing	and	you’ll	be	able	to	go	back	to	

	              Make	sure	you	get	that	restorative	sleep.	You	need	at	least	two	hours	of	deep,	restorative	sleep.	That	usually	
               comes	at	the	end	of	your	sleep	cycle	because	these	adrenal	stress	people	have	disturbed	sleep	and	they	don’t	
               start	getting	into	the	restorative	cycle	until	after	four	in	the	morning,	often	not	until	five,	six	or	even	seven.	
               But	do	not	oversleep.

	              Try	to	balance	your	workplace.	The	amount	of	work	that	you	do	should	be	regular	and	balanced	so	that	
               you	don’t	have	to	take	any	long	vacations.	Your	immune	system	becomes	poor	functioning	in	this	adaptive	
               syndrome	of	adrenal	fatigue	and	you’re	more	susceptible	to	infection.	You’ll	be	on	and	off	work	with	cold	
               and	flu.	That’s	not	what	you	want.	You	want	to	balance	it	out.	Talk	to	your	employer	and	find	out	if	you	
               can	do	things	at	home.	Take	work	home.	Keep	it	up	regularly	and	don’t	overwork,	if	possible.

	              Stress.	You	have	to	manage	stress	better.	You	have	to	learn	coping	skills.	Talk	to	your	counselor,	your	coach.	
               Many	personal	trainers	and	massage	therapists	are	excellent	at	helping	with	that.	Psychologists	are	well-
               trained	in	coping	and	adapting	to	this	type	of	syndrome.

	              Exercise.	 You	 must	 exercise,	 every	 day	 if	 possible.	 But	 you	 cannot	 over-exercise.	 A	 full	 gym	 workout,	
               strength	training,	is	not	possible.	You’ll	make	yourself	worse.	Look	at	tai	chi.	Look	at	restorative,	gentle	

                                             Transcripts Module 4 / PAGE 43

               flow,	Vinyasa	yoga.	If	you’re	in	an	area	of	the	country	like	California	or	New	York	City,	Austin,	Texas	
               where	they	have	excellent	yoga	teachers	who	have	studied	in	India	and	have	more	than		10,	20	even	30	
               years	experience,	like	I	do,	then	get	some	personal	training,	some	coaching	directly	so	that	they	can	adapt	
               you	a	yoga	practice	that	you	can	do	at	home	every	day.	Maybe	you	can	get	to	class	once	or	twice	a	week.	
               And	look	at	light	weight	training.	If	you	can’t	get	yourself	to	the	gym,	walk.	If	you	can’t	walk	because	of	
               traffic	or	you	have	to	drive	to	a	park		and	it’s	too	much	stress	then	invest	in	a	treadmill	or	other	exercise	
               equipment	where	you	can	get	some	mild	exercise.	

	              Lastly,	consider	acupuncture.	It	is	premier	therapy	for	re-regulating	the	HPA	axis.	In	the	beginning	you	
               need	to	go	once	a	week.	Then	you	can	go	twice	a	week	and	then	once	a	month	and	then	every	three	or	four	

Kevin:	        Let’s	talk	about	some	of	the	supplements	that	you	can	take	to	add	nutrition	to	your	diet	that	you	might	
               not	get	from	food.

Dr.	Williams:	 The	next	step	is	taking	foundational	support,	nutritional	supplements.	These	are	not	curative	medications.	
               These	 are	the	substances	that	your	 body	needs,	particularly	your	adrenal	gland	and	adrenal	 hormones,	
               to	build	and	balance.	Remember,	it’s	all	about	adaptation,	restoring	and	recovering.	This	is	what	adrenal	
               health	is,	retraining	your	body	to	adapt	to	the	stresses	of	the	modern	world,	including	what	you	impose	on	

	              Two,	it’s	about	recovery	from	an	abnormal,	imbalanced	lifestyle	with	addiction	and	poor	diet	and	over-
               working	and	not	sleeping	right	and	recovering	the	essence	of	your	body’s	health,	particularly	in	the	adrenal	
               and	the	HPA	axis.	It’s	about	restoring	the	strength	and	the	normal	function	of	your	adrenal	gland.	

	              These	are	the	supplements	that	you	need	to	take.	Vitamin	C.	You	can	take	it	as	a	buffer,	ascorbic	acid	or	
               ascorbic	palmitate.		500	-	1500	milligrams	a	day	is	enough	to	start.	That	would	be	500	milligrams	three	
               times	a	day.	Then	gradually	every	few	days	increase	that	amount,	moving	upwards	towards	4500	-	6,000.	If	
               you	find	that	you	all	of	a	sudden	feel	better,	like	a	weight’s	been	lifted	off	your	back,	then	that	means	that	
               your	adrenal	gland	is	likely	not	getting	enough	of	its	main	nutrient	which	is	vitamin	C	and	you	need	to	
               take	higher	dosages.	Remember,	if	you	take	too	much	and	the	body	is	not	absorbing	it,	it	will	pass	through	   	
               the	kidneys	and	the	intestinal	tract	and	you’ll	have	gas	and	bloating	and	possibly	diarrhea	and	you’ll	urinate	
               more.	That	would	be	getting	to	much	vitamin	C.	Don’t	keep	pushing	it	up	to	10	or	12	or	20	grams.	Keep	
               it	at	somewhere	between		4500	and	6,000	milligrams.	That’s	4.5	-	6	grams	a	day,	spread	out	throughout	
               the	day,	at	least	three	times,	sometimes	four	or	five	times	is	better.	It’s	taken	away	from	food.	Ascorbic	
               palmitate	is	an	oil-based	form	and	it’s	taken	with	food.	I	usually	recommend	a	combination	because	you	
               need	to	take	vitamin	C	multiple	times	throughout	the	day	to	get	the	best	absorption.	So	buffered	ascorbic	
               acid	between	meals	and	ascorbic	palmitate	with	meals.

	              The	next	is	vitamin	B5.	You	take	that	as	calcium	paltothenate	or	in	the	co-enzyme	form	as	co-enzyme-A.	
               The	dosage	is	500-1500	milligrams	a	day.	Sometimes	you	need	to	take	more,	but	that’s	the	standard	spread	
               out	 three	 times	 a	 day.	You	 also	 need	 to	 take	 it	 with	 a	 B-complex	 or	 multivitamin	 and	 mineral	 with	 a	
               B-complex	embedded	in	the	formula.	This	is	very	important.	Any	time	you	take	high	dosages	of	any	single	
               B	vitamin	you	want	to	take	a	B-complex	with	it	to	keep	it	balanced	in	your	body	so	you	don’t	deplete	any	
               of	the	other	B	vitamins.	People	who	are	at	the	far	end	of	the	fatigue	spectrum	should	take	a	B-complex	
               with	nutrient	co-factors.	Those	are	all	the	co-factor	and	co-enzyme	forms	of	the	B	vitamins.

                                 PAGE 44 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

	               Lastly	is	L-tyrosine	amino	acid.	That’s	necessary	to	build	the	adrenal	medulla	hormones,	adrenaline	and	
                nor-adrenaline,	also	called		epinephrine	and	nor-epinephrine.	You	also	need	that	to	build	your	thyroid	
                molecules.	500-1500	milligrams	a	day	is	more	than	enough.	

	               Consider	electrolyte	replacement,	sodium,	potassium	and	magnesium.	I	recommend	not	taking	extra	salt,	
                even	though	it	sometimes	makes	people	feel	better	who	are	adrenal	fatigued.	Sometimes	salt	craving	is	a	
                sign	of	adrenal	fatigue.	Drinking	salt	water	in	the	morning,	adding	sea	salt	to	your	food	in	excess	only	will	
                cause	additional	problems	later.	If	you	do	need	extra	sodium	make	sure	it’s	taken	in	a	balanced	form	called	
                tri-salts.	That’s	sodium,	potassium	and	magnesium	together.	Once	a	day	in	the	morning.

Kevin:	         What	about	some	of	the	adaptogenic	herbs?	I	know	that	there’s	a	few	that	are	very	effective	for	adrenal	
                health.	We	haven’t	talked	about	these	yet	so	I’m	kind	of	excited	to	get	into	them.

Dr.	Williams:	 There’s	two	groups	of	the	herbs.	This	is	an	area	that	is	my	specialty.	I’ve	been	working	with	these	for	35	plus	
               years,	with	my	background	in	Chinese	medicine	in	particular.	These	herbs	come	from	Asia	and	the	far	east	
               and	often	from	the	colder	climates,	Korea,	North	China,	western	China,	Siberia	and	the	Ural	Mountains.	
               That	gives	you	a	clue	that	this	is	usually	a	problem	of	the	northern	hemisphere.

	               The	other	category	is	licorice	root.	We’ll	talk	about	that	separately.	First	of	all,	let’s	talk	about	adaptogenic	
                herbs.	 Adaptogen	 means	 something	 that	 helps	 you	 cope	 with	 stress,	 helps	 your	 body	 mechanisms,	
                principally	the	homeostatic	mechanisms	like	your	blood	pressure,	your	heart	rate,	your	kidney	function	
                and	 your	 electrolytes	 that	 keep	 your	 body	 alive,	 that	 slow	 down	 the	 aging	 process,	 and	 that	 make	 the	
                human	 body	 machine	 run	 well.	 Stress	 disrupts	 it.	 We	 have	 great	 mechanisms	 and	 functions	 that	 help	
                us	return	to	balance	after	being	stimulated	by	stress.	Yet	when	stress	is	ongoing,	if	it’s	too	strong	and	it’s	
                chronic,	like	in	modern	living,	then	adaptogenic	herbs	become	very	important	to	help	us	adapt	to	stress	
                and	aging.	As	we	age	adrenal	function	tends	to	decline.	In	a	healthy	older	person	it	will	still	be	strong.	But	
                on	the	average	person	it	tends	to	decline.	That’s	why	you	see	these	herbs	being	used	mainly	in	Asia	with	
                older	people,	because	they’re	not	as	able	to	cope	with	the	stresses	of	daily	life.	You	don’t	want	a	grouchy	old	
                man.	You	want	a	wise	older	person	not	a	grouchy	person.	

	               There’s	a	list	of	about	ten	of	them.	We’re	going	to	talk	about	five	or	six	of	these.	The	first	and	king	of	them	
                all	is	ginseng.	There	are	several	different	types	of	ginseng.	There’s	an	American	version	and	there’s	an	Asian	
                version.	The	Asian	version	is	panax	ginseng.	That’s	the	one	that	has	the	adaptogenic	properties	that	tend	to	
                boost	or	help	the	people	with	severe	fatigue	and	older	people.	The	american	version	of	panax	gingofolia	[?]	   	
                has	similar	properties	but	that	one	is	better	for	people	who	have	insomnia,	who	have	more	of	the	agitation,	
                a	little	bit	of	the	wired/tired	feeling.	Typically	I	recommend	panax	ginseng	in	extract	form,	250	milligrams	
                per	capsule.	That’s	standardized	to	contain	15	percent	of	ginsenocides.	

	               There	are	many	active	components	of	ginseng.	They’re	grouped	under	a	large	family	called	ginsenocides.	
                With	these	extracts	you’re	going	to	get	more	of	the	active	ingredient.	Remember,	you	need	to	take	moderate	
                to	 small	 amounts	 on	 a	 regular	 basis.	 	 Do	 not	 use	 these	 as	 stimulants.	 The	 dosage	 is	 250	 milligrams,	
                maximum	500	milligrams,	three	times	a	day.

	               The	 next	 one	 is	 rhodiola.	 Rhodiola	 is	 from	 the	 Ural	 Mountains.	 It’s	 typically	 my	 first	 choice	 for	 the	
                imbalance	of	the	HPA	axis.	It’s	Latin	name	is	rhodiola	rosea.	I	recommend	standardized	extract	with	100	
                milligrams	that	contains	at	least	three	percent	total	rosavins	[?].	Those	are	the	active	components	that	give	
                the	adaptogenic	effect.	You’re	going	to	take	100	-	250	milligrams	three	times	a	day.

                                  Transcripts Module 4 / PAGE 45

	   Eleutherococcus	or	so-called	Siberian	Ginseng	is	the	third	one.	It’s	latin	name	is	eleutherococcus	senticocus.	
    It’s	an	outstanding	adaptive	and	you	might	call	it	the	prince	of	the	adaptogenic	adrenal	support	world,	
    ginseng	being	the	king,	rhodiola	the	queen	and	eleutherococcus	the	prince.	We’ll	get	down	to	the	princesses	
    in	a	moment.	I	also	recommend	using	it	in	an	extract	form,	standardized	to	contain	at	least	0.8	percent	of	
    eleutherocides.	Typically	it	comes	in	a	250	milligram	capsule	and	you’re	going	to	take	one	or	two	of	those,	
    250-500	milligrams,	three	times	a	day.	

	   The	two	princesses	are	schisandra,	a	Chinese	herb	and	Romania.	Romania	is	the	princess	who	becomes	
    the	queen	or	the	step-sister	who	becomes	the	princess	of	the	ball.	In	Chinese	medicine	Romania	is	the	
    centerpiece	 of	 restoring	 kidney	 and	 adrenal	 function.	 For	 maladaptive	 syndrome	 we’re	 going	 to	 take	
    100	milligrams	of	the	concentrated	extract	at	least	five	to	one.	I	like	to	use	up	to	seven	or	eight	to	one	
    concentration.	Schisandra	is	another	Chinese	herb,	a	small	hard	berry	that’s	very	useful	for	chronic	fatigue	
    and	adrenal	syndrome.	It	also	has	antiviral	and	anti-inflammatory	properties.	We	use	it	a	lot	in	chronic	
    fatigue	patients	with	adrenal	deficiency	and	chronic	virus	conditions.	I	also	recommend	it	in	an	extract	
    form	that	contains	at	least	nine	percent	of	the	schisandrans	and	is	taken	in	100	milligram	capsule	up	to	
    400	milligrams	three	times	a	day.

	   Now,	you	don’t	take	all	of	these	all	at	the	same	time.	Sometimes	we	do	see	the	specialized	adrenal	support	
    supplements	that	have	several	of	these	in.	When	they’re	combined	together	they’re	used	in	very	low	dosages.	
    Typically	I	would	recommend	to	patients	one	of	these	adaptogens	in	these	moderate	to	higher	dosages	like	
    I	described,	taken	every	day,	based	on	their	condition,	along	with	an	adrenal	support	combination	of	these	
    different	herbs	and	lower	dosages.	Then	see	how	they	do	with	that.	If	there’s	positive	effects	or	no	effect,	
    adjust	dosage	or	adjust	the	herbs	that	they’re	taking.

	   The	 second	 aspect	 of	 herbal	 support	 is	 licorice	 root.	 This	 is	 a	 very	 important	 substance	 for	 regulating	
    aldosterone.	Aldosterone	is	another	adrenal	hormone	.	Sometimes	when	you’re	looking	at,	less	than	20	and	
    maybe	even	less	than	10	percent	in	my	patient	population,	when	you’re	looking	at	adrenal	health	and	you	
    do	all	the	measurements	that	I	do	and	patients	are	still	not	improving,	then	we	look	at	aldosterone	levels	
    in	blood	and	urine	and	if	those	are	low	then	they	need	to	be	improved.	Aldosterone	affects	blood	pressure,	
    how	the	kidneys	process	and	excrete	water	and	urine	from	the	body.	So	a	very	important	hormone.	If	it’s	
    very	low	it	can	cause	extreme	fatigue.	These	people	typically	feel	better	lying	down.	They’re	the	folks	that	
    fall	asleep	when	they’re	sitting	down,	no	matter	what’s	going	on	around	them.	These	are	the	folks	that	are	
    so	tired	they	need	to	lie	down.	They	don’t	need	to	take	a	nap	they	just	need	to	stabilize	their	blood	pressure	
    by	lying	completely	prone	for	five	or	ten	minutes.	They	feel	much	better	and	get	up	again	and	they	re-
    establish	their	balance.	So	aldosterone	and	blood	pressure	go	together.

	   Licorice	root	is	often	contained	in	the	general	adrenal	fatigue	supplements.	I	don’t	recommend	taking	those	
    for	this	reason.	It’s	a	highly-active	substance	containing	glycyrrhizinic	acid.	If	you	don’t	have	aldosterone	
    deficiency	you	can	over	stimulate	the	aldosterone	even	in	the	presence	of	low	cortisol	and	you’ll	raise	your	
    blood	pressure.	You’ll	hold	water	in	your	body.	It’s	well-documented	that	there’s	licorice	abuse	syndrome	
    and	toxic	in	high	dosages.	The	condition	just	gets	worse	and	worse	and	the	blood	pressure	keeps	going	up	
    and	up.	The	solution	is	to	stop	taking	the	licorice.	

	   However,	it	can	be	an	important	component	of	restoring	adrenal	health.	It’s	standardized	to	12	percent	
    glycyrrhizinic	 	 acid.	 You	 can	 take	 from	 10	 gradually	 working	 your	 way	 upwards	 to	 150	 milligrams	 a	
    day.	In	Chinese	medicine	they	use	licorice	in	every	formula	for	kidney	adrenal	deficiency,	every	formula.	
    However	they	use	it	in	very	small	dosages.	It’s	in	a	prepared	form	so	that	it’s	been	steamed.	Some	of	these	

                                  PAGE 46 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

                 active	components	that	cause	a	raise	in	blood	pressure	have	been	removed.	So	they	use	it	in	very	small	
                 amounts,	consistently	on	a	daily	basis		over	a	long	period	of	time.	Do	not	use	licorice	root	in	high	dosages	
                 to	stimulate	your	adrenal	gland.	It	can	cause	significant	problems.

Kevin:	          Let	me	ask	you	about	Holy	Basil.	Holy	Basil	has	been	effective	for	me.	What	are	some	of	your	thoughts	on	

Dr.	Williams:	 Holy	Basil	is	basically	just	basil	leaf	that	you	use	in	cooking	but	they	call	it	Holy	Basil	when	it	comes	from	
               India.	A	little	more	medicinal	in	its	properties.	It’s	very	mild	and	a	good	balancer.	If	you’re	having	mild	
               to	light	amounts	of	disruption	of	the	HP	axis,	stress-induced,	then	basil	is	a	nice	regulator.	There’s	a	few	
               other	ones.	They’re	not	going	to	restore	severe	adrenal	fatigue	and	they’re	not	strong	adaptogens	in	terms	
               of	helping	your	body	resist	stress	while	you’re	trying	to	restore.

Kevin:	          Let’s	move	on	into	medical	types	of	treatments,	things	like	glandular	extracts	and	possibly	even	hormones.

Dr.	Williams:	 The	next	level	of	restoring	adrenal	health--remember,	this	is	for	adrenal	fatigue	low	cortisol	patients.	You	
               can	now	add	on	adrenal	glandular	extract.	Most	of	those	that	are	made	in	the	United	States	are	required	
               to	 have	 the	 cortisol	 removed.	 There’s	 still	 a	 few	 that	 are	 produced	 because	 they’ve	 been	 in	 production	
               since	 the	 30s	 and	 40s	 when	 we	 didn’t	 have	 medical	 pharmaceutical	 hormones	 and	 there	 was	 a	 lot	 of	
               glandulars,	active	and	very	good	medicines	used	at	that	time	by	medical	doctors.	They	got	picked	up	by	
               the	naturopathic	doctors.	Many	of	those	have	lost	their	licensing	over	time.	There	was	only	a	few	left	and	
               naturopathic	doctors	and	holistic	Mds		would	know	how	to	access	those.	Most	of	the	ones	you	get	over-
               the-counter	are	going	to	be	glandular	extracts	of	the	adrenal	cortex	or	whole	adrenal	that	have	no	hormone	
               in	them.	They	do	not	help	very	much.

	                The	products	from	New	Zealand,	on	the	other	hand,	are	whole	adrenal	extract	from	organic	herds.	You	
                 want	to	make	sure	that	they’re	New	Zealand	bovine	or	porcine,	from	cattle	or	pig	sources,	and	that	you’re	
                 using	either	whole	adrenal	tissue	or	better,	adrenal	cortex,	because	that’s	where	the	cortisol	comes	from.	In	
                 those	cases	you	may	be	getting	perhaps	1-2.5	milligrams	of	natural	cortisol	and	all	of	the	other	hormones	
                 that	go	with	that	in	your	adrenal	glandular	extract	from	New	Zealand.	Typically	I	start	with	100	milligrams	
                 of	the	adrenal	cortex	in	the	freeze-dried	New	Zealand	bovine	source,	taken	several	times	a	day.	Between	
                 meals	is	best.	And	see	if	that	helps	improve	the	fatigue	and	reset	the	set	point	for	the	cortisol.	You’ve	got	to	
                 follow	your	labs	as	we	get	into	these	more	medical-based	testing	and	see	if	the	numbers	are	improving.

	                The	next	is	a	multi-glandular	formula,	or	a	hypothalamus	glandular	for	the	pituitary	and	hypothalamic	
                 deficiency	 or	 imbalance.	 As	 you	 know,	 if	 you	 have	 too	 much	 cortisol	 you’re	 going	 to	 shut	 down	 your	
                 hypothalamus	 and	 atrophy	 your	 hypothalamus.	 Adding	 a	 multi-glandular	 formula	 or	 hypothalamus	
                 glandular,	again	New	Zealand	bovine	source	is	best,	or	hypothalamus	and	pituitary	glandulars,	are	very	
                 helpful	for	these	patients.

	                Medical	 testing,	 we’re	 also	 going	 to	 look	 at	 FSH	 and	 LH	 and	 TSH.	 Those	 are	 pituitary-stimulating	
                 hormones.	They	tend	to	be	on	the	low	side	and		the	cortisol	and	thyroid	are	on	the	low	side	then	we	know	
                 that	it’s	really	more	of	a	central	deficiency	phenomena	like	an	HP	axis	phenomena.	Then	we	need	to	restore	
                 the	entire	system	and	these	multi-glandulars	are	helpful.

	                The	next	is	kind	of	the	star	of	the	show	or	the	rest	are	the	acts	that	lead	up	to	the	main	show.	This	is	to	
                 replace	your	precursor	hormones,	DHEA	and	pregnenolone.	First	of	all	I	want	to	mention	melatonin.	

                                Transcripts Module 4 / PAGE 47

    Melatonin	is	the	premier	rebalancing	hormone	in	the	body.	It	resets	the	biological	clock	and	it	serves	to	
    reset	the	HPA	axis.		In	aging,	in	menopausal	syndrome,	in	HPA	axis	and	adrenal	problems	we	want	to	
    make	sure	that	you’re	also	getting	melatonin.	That’s	taken	just	before	you	go	to	bed	at	night.	Start	off	with	
    a	low	dose,	0.5	milligrams.	No	more	than	three	milligrams.	Don’t	think	of	it	as	a	sleep	aid.	It’s	marketed	
    as	that.	That’s	not	what	it’s	for.	It	does	help	sometimes	but	a	lot	of	times	it	doesn’t	help.	What	you	want	
    to	take	melatonin	for	is	no	symptom	improvement	and	not	focusing	on	sleep	but	just	to	help	reset	that	
    biological	clock.	Then	you	add	DHEA	and	pregnenolone.	Looking	at	your	blood	testing	and	your	salivary	
    testing,	evaluate	how	low	or	how	moderately	low	you	are	and	then	supplement	accordingly.	I	use	dosages	
    in	DHEA	that	go	from	5,	10,	25,	50,	100	milligrams,	sometimes	more.	The	average	starting	dose	for	
    men	 is	25	milligrams	 twice	a	day	with	food	in	the	morning	 and	evening	and	for	 women	 the	 	 average	
    starting	dose	is	10	milligrams	twice	a	day	with	food,	morning	and	evening.	You	always	want	to	take	it	with	
    pregnenolone.	It’s	very	easy	to	get	the	DHEA	levels	in	the	blood	up.	It’s	very	hard	to	get	pregnenolone	
    levels	up.	Starting	dose	is	either	10	or	30	milligrams	for	both	men	and	women,	taken	twice	a	day	with	
    food.	Often	we	need	to	push	the	pregnenolone	level	up	to	100	or	200	twice	a	day	to	see	any	movement	in	
    the	laboratory	testing.	

	   Remember,	your	kidneys	excrete	cortisol,	DHEA,	pregnenolone,	all	these	hormones.	So	kidney	function	         	
    is	important.	If	you’re	drinking	too	much	water,	if	you’re	drinking	diuretic	juices	like	watermelon	juice	for	
    example,	you’re	going	to	increase	the	amount	of	urine	you	output.	You’re	going	to	excrete	more	of	these	
    hormones	and	losing	some	of	their	benefit	because	the	turnover	is	too	high.

	   Another	way	when	you	have	mild	imbalance	or	during	aging	when	your	DHEA	and	pregnenolone	are	
    going	down	is	to	take	your	DHEA	dose	with	your	evening	meal	and	your	pregnenolone	in	the	morning.	
    It	tends	to	help	regulate	the	body’s	rhythms	throughout	the	day	and	your	sleep	at	night.	So	take	a	low	to	
    moderate	dose	of	DHEA	at	night	with	dinner,	5,	10,	20,	no	more	than	25	milligrams.	Pregnenolone	in	
    the	morning,	10	or	30	milligrams,	with	breakfast.	Then	your	melatonin,	0.5-1	milligram	at	night.

	   The	next	step	for	adrenal	health,	particularly	with	true	cortisol	deficiency	is	bio-identical	replacement.	This	
    is	prescription	hormone	and	you’ll	use	bio-identical	cortisol,	also	called	hydrocortisone.	Dr.	Jeffries,	an	
    MD,		is	the	father	of	this	type	of	therapy	for	borderline	adrenal	deficiency.	Also	he	treated	lots	of	Addison’s	
    Disease	patients.	His	book	is	called	“Safe	Uses	of	Cortisol”	and	is	kind	of	the	bible	of	holistic	physicians	
    and	naturopathic	doctors	like	myself	who	use	it	as	a	guideline	for	cortisol	replacement.	Now	remember,	
    this	is	for	true	replacement	when	cortisol	levels	are	very	deficient	and	the	body	is	not	able	to	make	its	
    own.	You’ve	already	done	all	of	your	lifestyle	adjustments.	You’ve	already	taken	your	adaptogenic	herbs	
    and	replaced	your	DHEA	and	pregnenolone.	The	dosages	are	2.5-5.0	milligrams	two	to	four	times	a	day.	
    Dr.	Jeffries	likes	to	take	an	even	amount	throughout	the	day.	I	often	will	adjust	that	based	on	your	salivary	
    rhythms	of	cortisol.	If	they’re	low	in	the	morning	you	take	cortisol	in	the	morning.	If	they’re	high	cortisol	
    in	the	morning	then	we’ll	skip	that	dosage	and	we	take	that	between	11	and	1	in	the	afternoon,	again	later	
    in	the	day	and	then	skip	the	one	before	bed	if	you’re	having	sleep	problems.	If	you’re	low	throughout	the	
    entire	day,	below	normal,	kind	of	a	flat	line	curve,	then	you	want	to	take	it	four	times	a	day,	before	meals,	
    and	the	last	dose	at	bedtime	with	your	melatonin.	If	you’re	going	to	take	it	throughout	the	day	typically	
    we’ll	use	2.5	milligrams	four	times	a	day.	If	you’re	severely	deficient	or	require	more,	5.0	milligrams	two	
    to	four	times	a	day.	Keep	in	mind	that	the	dosage	should	stay	preferably	at	no	more	than	10	milligrams	a	
    day	and	never	more	than	20	milligrams	total	per	day.	If	you’ve	added	DHEA	and	pregnenolone	and	New	
    Zealand	adrenal	extracts	you	may	be	getting	more	than	total	of	20	milligrams	a	day	and	need	to	make	

                                 PAGE 48 / The Complete ADRENAL Health Program

	               A	couple	things	to	keep	in	mind.	The	amount	of	your	daily	cortisol	production	is	between	15	and	30	
                milligrams	per	day.	Your	blood	testing	shows	at	any	one	time	particularly	in	the	morning,	upwards	to	
                20	milligrams.	The	morning	physiologic	level	at	its	higher	end	is	15-20	milligrams.	Usually	we	say	that	
                if	you’re	having	17,	19,	20	milligrams	in	the	morning	you	may	be	producing	too	much	cortisol.	Look	at	
                your	salivary	testing	and	see	how	that	compares.	If	you’re	making	35-40	milligrams	a	day	that’s	enough,	if	
                you’re	under	chronic	stress,	that’s	enough	to	suppress	adrenal	production		down	to	zero.	Then	that’s	going	
                to	cause	that	collapse	syndrome.	A	normal	person	then	would	collapse	down,	would	rest	and	their	adrenal	
                gland	would	restart	itself	and	re-regulate	itself.	However,	most	of	the	time	it	doesn’t.	You’re	on	that	yo-yo	
                effect.	Finally	you	move	towards	burnout.	The	body	can	produce	up	to	300	milligrams	at	a	burst	when	
                there’s	strong	stress.	That’s	going	to	give	you	the	strength	to	lift	cars	and	leap	buildings	in	a	single	bound.	
                However,	even	Superman		has	his	weaknesses.	The	body	knows	that	and	will	re-regulate	and	you’ll	have	
                kind	of	a	crashing	phenomena	after	severe	stress.	You’ll	just	completely	pass	out,	fall	asleep	for	hours	or	
                even	more	than	a	day	and	then	your	body	kind	of	re-regulates	itself.	

	               Cortisol	and	these	other	hormones	are	excreted	by	the	kidneys.	So	if	you’re	taking	watermelon	juice,	for	
                example,		as	a	cleansing	program	or	to	misguidedly	tonify	your	kidneys	and	you’re	overdoing	it,	it’s	also	
                diuretic	 so	 you’re	 going	 to	 urinate	 more	 and	 you’re	 going	 to	 excrete	 the	 hormones	 that	 you’re	 putting	
                into	your	body	or	that	your	adrenal	is	trying	to	produce.	Make	sure	that	urinary	output	is	normal,	you’re	
                drinking	sufficient	amount	of	water	and	you’re	not	taking	any	unnecessary	diuretics	including	carrot	juice,	
                watermelon	juice	and	peaches,	which	are	all	strong	diuretics.

	               Lastly,	if	you’re	modulating	and	self-treating,	partnering	with	a	holistic	physician	and	you’re	doing	a	lot	
                of	work	by	yourself,	make	sure	you’re	testing	in	the	first	year,	regularly,	every	three	to	four	months,	so	you	
                know	the	objective	data,	if	you’re	making	progress	or	not.	Evaluate	your	symptoms.	Evaluate	your	quality	
                of	life.	Are	you	happier?	Is	your	energy	better?	Is	it	sustained?	How’s	your	sleep?	Do	you	have	less	food	
                cravings	for	sugar	and	salt?	That	gives	you	an	idea	that	you’re	making	progress.

Kevin:	         I	have	just	a	few	questions	here.	In	terms	of	the	glandular	extract,	is	there	any	way	to	get	those	same	type	
                of	compounds	in	a	vegan	source?

Dr.	Williams:	 There’s	no	such	thing	as	a	vegan	source	of	a	glandular	extract	because	they	all	come	from	animals.	What	
               you	have	to	do	is	you	have	to	use	pharmaceutical	grade	DHEA,	pregnenolone		and	cortisol.	Remember,	
               on	over-the-counter	most	states	have	DHEA	and	pregnenolone	available	but	a	lot	of	those	the	quality	is	
               not	that	good,	they	don’t	work	that	well.	You	need	a	pharmaceutical	grade,	micronized	form	of	DHEA	
               and	pregnenolone	as	well	as	cortisol.	Those	are	designed	to	mimic	and	match	the	body’s	molecules	of	the	
               hormones.	Therefore	they’re	called	bio-identical	and	they	have	no	animal	product	in	them.

Kevin:	         So	let’s	run	over,	very	briefly	if	you	can,	the	difference	in	this	plan	between	someone	who	had	high	cortisol	
                and	someone	who	had	low	cortisol,	just	in	case	someone	misunderstood.

Dr.	Williams:	 The	plan	that	I	outlined	is	for	low	cortisol	people	or	for	the	imbalances	of	the	adrenal	fatigue	continuum.	If	
               you	have	high	cortisol	then	you’re	going	to	focus	on	just	the	opposite.	You’re	going	to	promote	regulation	
               of	the	system,	of	there	HPA	axis	and	your	homeostatic	system,	blood	pressure,	kidney	function.	You’re	
               going	to	modulate	your	exercise	so	you’re	not	pushing	too	much	where	your	adrenaline	is	going	up	and	
               your	cortisol	is	always	going	up.	You’re	also	going	to	have	to	cut	back	if	not	eliminate	all	of	your	stimulants.	
               So	much	of	it	is	the	same	in	terms	of	lifestyle.	

                                            Transcripts Module 4 / PAGE 49

	             But	there’s	some	differences.	Let	me	go	over	the	things	that	are	the	same	first	and	then	talk	about	the	
              differences.	Your	foundation	support	supplements	will	be	the	same	-	vitamin	C,	B5,	L-tyrosine,	B-complex,	
              electrolyte	 replacement	as	necessary	depending	on	your	exercise	level	and	amount	that	 you	 sweat.	You	
              are	 going	 to	 have	 to	 do	 more	 stress	 reduction,	 more	 resting,	 because	 typically	 these	 people	 have	 more	
              sympathetic	 nervous	 system	 imbalance.	 Their	 hands	 can	 be	 sweating.	 They	 can	 be	 irritated,	 agitated,	
              talking	too	much	and	overly	responsive,	hyper	alert.	They	sleep	lightly	and	wake	up	with	a	start.	So	lots	of	
              stress	reduction.	Lots	of	meditation.	Lots	of	tai	chi.

	             The	adaptogenic	herbs	are	still	useful	but	you	would	not	use	the	ones	that	tend	towards	stimulation.	So	
              ginseng	is	out.	You	would	focus	on	rhodiola	and	eleuptocococus.	Licorice	is	also	out.	Glandular	extracts	
              are	out.	Anything	that	possibly	may	add	extra	hormone,	extra	cortisol,	you	shouldn’t	take.

	             Pregnenolone	is	in.	It’s	a	more	calming	and	quieting	hormone.	Remember	that	progesterone	and	cortisol	
              interrelate	and	women	particularly	often	need	to	look	at	balancing	and	regulating	progesterone,	not	just	
              DHEA	and	pregnenolone	and	testosterone,	all	male	hormones,	but	progesterone	as	well.	Some	doctors	
              also	 advice	men	to	 use	progesterone.	I’m	not	of	 that	camp	and	tend	to	prefer	to	regulate	 for	 men	 the	
              hormones	that	are	necessary	for	men	and	not	add	pregnancy	hormones.	But	for	women,	particularly	PMS	
              or	pre-menopausal,	progesterone	becomes	very	important	for	re-regulating	HPA	axis,	particularly	for	the	
              stress	phenomena	and	if	they	have	higher	cortisol.

	             You	would	never	take	cortisol	replacement	therapy.	So	no	bio-identical	hydrocortisone.	You	would	do	the	
              same	exact	lab	testing	as	you	would	for	low	cortisol.	Supplements	and	re-regulation	is	different.	Here’s	the	
              crux	of	the	matter.	It’s	easier	to	raise	cortisol	levels	artificially	than	it	is	to	lower	them.	There’s	no	drug	or	
              nutrient	or	vitamin	that	lowers	cortisol.	This	is	where	Holy	Basil	comes	in	and	these	mild	regulators	can	
              be	useful	to	down-regulate	cortisol.	So	Holy	Basil	would	be	a	good	choice.	Ashwaganda	would	be	a	good	
              choice,	an	Indian	herb.	Gotocola	would	be	a	good	choice.		Phosphatidylserine	is	a	specialized	nutraceutical	
              that	can	be	helpful,	100	-150	milligrams	a	couple	of	times	a	day	to	down-regulate	cortisol.	It	doesn’t	work	
              that	well	but	sometimes	it’s	useful.	The	last	one,	which	I	use	regularly,	is	gerovital,	originally	developed	
              in	Romania	in	the	60s	and	still	used	and	being	studied	by	scientists	as	a	new	medicine	for	stress	and	to	
              lower	cortisol.	You	can	obtain	it	in	pills	and	tablets	over	the	Internet,	however	the	injection	form	is	by	
              far	better	and	it’s	how	I	use	it	in	my	practice.	It’s	called	gerovital	or	GH3.	In	Europe	they	do	a	retreat	of	
              five	to	ten	days.	You	bring	a	person	in	to	the	spa	center.	They	inject	five	to	ten	milligrams	a	day	and	they	
              get	a	massage	and	they	get	good	food.	It’s	a	good	recovery	method.	For	busy,	modern	people	I	give	them	
              phosphyltidylserine,	Holy	Basil	and	have	them	practice	yoga	on	a	regular	basis,	tai	chi	on	a	regular	basis,	
              avoid	the	strong	gym	workouts,	avoid	any	type	of	athletic	training	where	they’re	going	into	say	training	to	
              run	a	marathon,	anything	that	stimulates	cortisol	production	like	caffeine	of	course,	and	adrenaline.	Then	
              do	regular	therapy	with	GH3.

Kevin:	       Great.	This	is	the	end	of	module	four.	This	has	been	the	complete	adrenal	health	program	with	Dr.	J.E.	
              Williams.	Dr.	Williams,	thank	you	so	much.

Dr.	Williams:	 You’re	very	welcome.	My	pleasure.

Kevin:	       Thanks	for	listening	to	this	module.	For	more	information	please	be	sure	to	review	the	course	materials	you	
              received	with	this	program	and	start	taking	action	on	what	you’re	heard	today.	If	you	have	any	questions,	
              please	visit	our	website	at


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