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Draft for comments Organic food products: New trading opportunities for developing countries? By Ulrich Hoffmann (UNCTAD, from Geneva) Rene Vossenaar (UNCTAD, from Geneva) and Veena Jha (UNCTAD, from New Delhi) Issues 1. Heightened consumer interest in food safety and quality has generated increased demand for organic food in international markets. Concerns about genetically modified organisms (GMOs), recent food scares related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, popularly known as the mad-cow disease) and other problems such as outbreaks of Foot and Mouth Disease will have far-reaching implications for agricultural policies and demand for food products, in particular in developed countries. 2. As a result, growth in demand for organic food products currently outpaces that of domestic supply in most developed countries. For example, UK demand for organic food increased 55 per cent in the year to April 2000,1 although from a low base. Even though the area of land under organic production or in conversion to organic farming in the United Kingdom increased from 50,000 hectares in 1996 to over 425,000 hectares2 today, imports continued to grow and now represent 75 per cent of organic sales. Import demand for organic food products is increasing in other countries as well, although in general the import penetration rates are much lower.3 Opportunities 1 Soil Association, Organic Food and Farming Report 2000 2 In the European Union as a whole, there are now over 120,000 enterprises with around 3.5 million hectares under certified agricultural production, representing 2.6 per cent of total agricultural land. Source: Stiftung Okologie and Landbau (SOL) in Organics Newsline, Vol. 2 Issue 12, 29 March 2001. 3 In Germany, 81 per cent of all organic vegetables on the market are domestically produced. With the supermarkets currently playing a small role, there is high growth potential in the German market. The Government of Germany recently announced plans to ensure that organic agriculture will obtain a 20 per cent market share in 10 years (Statement by Renate Künast, German Minister for Consumer Protection and Agriculture on 8 February 2001. See http://www.bml.de). The government is expected to start promoting increased marketing of organic foods, including through the introduction of a national logo. See: Organics Newsline, Vol. 2 Issue 12, 29 March 2001. 2 3. This can create new trading opportunities for developing countries.4 Although the certified organic agricultural sector in developing countries is still small, good conditions exist to increase production. Since many producers in developing countries use traditional production methods (using little or no chemical fertilizers and pesticides), larger conversion to certified organic production should be possible, provided that certification is affordable.5 In India, for example, there has been a long tradition of organic farming and on 70 percent of the arable land, agro-chemicals have not been used. Similarly, methods of ‘‘alternative’’ agriculture are used on around 10 per cent of the total cultivated area in Brazil. In Africa, organic production is still rarely certified, but in several African countries certified organic agriculture is growing. 4. In addition to offering potential trading opportunities, organic agriculture can have socio-economic and environmental advantages for many developing countries.6 A recent study shows that conversion to organic agricultural systems in developing countries is triggered by different objectives, such as: securing a place on international markets, export promotion, economic self-reliance, finding alternatives to decreased access to agricultural inputs, natural resource conservation, food self-sufficiency, and rural and wider social development.7 The impacts of organic production on food security, which can be both positive and negative, require careful attention in the context of agricultural policies.8 4 On trading opportunities for developing countries see also the review by the International Trade Centre (WTO/UNCTAD): “Organic food and beverages: World supply and major European markets” (ITC/P12.E/ PMD/MDS/99-VII), Geneva, 1999. 5 Abundant supply of labor and the fact that many local communities have a rich body of traditional knowledge related to farming practices further provide many developing countries with a comparative advantage in organic agriculture. 6 A recent paper commissioned by UNCTAD argues that “Oganic farming can enable Asian smallholders to attain household food security and modest income while regenerating the land, regaining biodiversity and supplying quality food to local communities”. Angelina M. Briones, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Organic Agriculture in Asia: Implications to Development, Environment and Trade in Developing Countries. Paper prepared for the project “Strengthening Research and Policy-Making Capacity on Trade and Environment in Developing Countries.” Workshop in Havana, May 2000. 7 Nadia Scialabba, Food and Agriculture Organization, Factors Influencing Organic Agriculture Policies, with a Focus on Developing Countries. Paper presented at IFOAM 2000 Scientific Conference, Basel, Switzerland, 28-31 August 2000. 8 While organic agriculture provides export opportunities and other benefits, careful choices have to be made. In Vietnam’s agricultural policy, for example, food security is an overriding priority. Therefore it is important to select crops that can be grown in an organic way without significantly reducing yields. For example, organic fruits and vegetables can be grown in an organic manner. In these cases Viet Nam should design proactive policies to promote both production and exports. In other cases, including important food categories such as rice, authorities consider that food security requirements may make it difficult to convert large areas of land to organic production. Here agricultural policies should focus on reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, even if organic standards would not be met. For example, rice, even higher grades, can be grown with lesser use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Veena Jha (ed.), Trade and Environment, Policy Implications for Viet Nam, forthcoming. 3 5. Exports are the major driving force of certified organic production in most developing countries. In Latin America, for example, despite growing domestic demand, the export market remains the main outlet for most organic crops. Constraints 6. Developing countries, however, face several market and export constraints. First, there is concern that national and regional standards and import procedures in developed countries may create obstacles to imports of organic products originating in developing countries.9 According to the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines,10 import requirements should be based on the principles of transparency and equivalency.11 In the European Union, Article 11 of Regulation 2092/91 should open the EU organic food market for products from third countries, based on the concept of equivalence. However, only six countries are on the “third country list”: Argentina, Australia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Israel and Switzerland. Only one country, the Czech Republic,12 has been added since 1991.13 7. Instead, in 1992 EU Council Regulation 2083 introduced a case-by-case import permit procedure as an alternative way to access the EU market for organic food products. The case-by case procedure, which applies to every consignment imported from a non-listed third country, was set up as a provisional measure. However, for non-listed countries this allegedly cumbersome procedure is still the only way to export organic products to the EU market. Apart from complex procedures to enter organic markets in developed countries, organic products from developing countries may also be subject to tariff and non-tariff obstacles targeted at conventional products. 8. Second, even where developing countries are able to increase production, problems in areas such as handling, transport and marketing may create export constraints. Certification can be a serious problem due to factors such as cost and lack of infrastructure. Options for reducing certification costs will be examined below. 9 Gunnar Rundgren (IFOAM), in his welcoming address at BIOFACH Trade Fair 2001, complained that “Worst affected of all is the area of international trade, where the EU recently adopted another 20-page regulation that will make the already existing trade barriers even higher. The US and Japanese rules seem to follow the EUs track of a regulatory nightmare in relation to imports” Press release. 10 Codex Alimentarius, Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods. GL 32 – 1999. See: http://www.fao.org/es/esn/codex/STANDARD/standard.htm 11 As set out in the “Principles for Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification” (CAC/GL 20-1995). 12 Regulation 548/2000 of 14 March 2000. 13 Other countries have initiated procedures to be included. For example, in February 1999, Costa Rica submitted an application. An EU mission visited Costa Rica in November 2000. In its Final Report, the mission recommended to include Costa Rica in the third country list, provided that the Costa Rican authorities inform the Commission that action has been taken to implement certain recommendations within 6 months. Europan Commission, Organic Farming in Costa Rica. DG(SANCO)/1252/2000 – MR Final. 4 9. Third, developing countries may find it difficult to secure price premiums. Experience from case studies in India (see below) seems to indicate that in many cases price premiums for growers are uncertain and difficult to secure. This is in part due to the fact that marketing chains tend to be complex. Thus, even where consumers and retailers are willing to pay a price premium, in many cases such premiums do not seem to have benefited producers. Sometimes certified organic products are sold in the market for conventional products. Much depends on the product category, market structures, sales strategies and other factors. Risks 10. There is uncertainty about the long-term implications of recent developments for trading opportunities for organic products originating in developing countries. For example, the effects of projected increases in organic production in developed countries (induced by ambitious Government plans and subsidies) on market prices and import levels are uncertain. If markets fail to expand at the same rate as production, there will be downward pressure on prices, lower margins and incentives to keep out imports. 11. In addition, there is concern that increased pressure for subsidies to promote organic agriculture may adversely affect the competitiveness of products imported from developing countries. Several developed countries provide subsidies to assist farmers during periods of conversion to organic agriculture. There are also pressures to increase post-conversion subsidies. For example, the Soil Association, a leading certification body of organic food in the United Kingdom, is promoting the idea of an Organic Stewardship Scheme, which would provide long term support for organic farmers in recognition of the environmental benefits or organic produce.14 Thus, pressures for subsidies for organic farming are often linked with “multifunctionality” arguments. 12. In developing countries, on the contrary, Governments give little support to organic production and hardly provide any subsidies. In Latin America, for example, no government provides subsidies or economic aid for organic production. Some countries give peripheral support. For example, in Costa Rica there is official funding for organic research and teaching, while in Argentina and Chile exporting agencies help producers attend international fairs. In general, though, the organic movement in Latin America has grown through its own efforts, aided by seed funding from international aid agencies, for extension and association building.15 The Government of India does not provide subsidies for organic production and exports. However, 14 British government challenged on support for organic market. The Soil Association. Press release. Patrick Holden, Soil Association Director, speaking at BioFach (15 February 2001). 15 Pipo Lernoud, IFOAM World Board Member based in Argentina. 5 IFOAM Members, NGOs and private bodies encourage organic agriculture.16 13. Developed countries’ subsidies may thus imply that products from developing countries may face stiffer competition in international markets for organic products. 14. Some other factors may adversely affect demand for products from developing countries. First, consumers of organic food are increasingly placing emphasis on food supplied locally supplied food. Second, the eastward enlargement of the European Union will affect the organic food market in Western Europe. Many countries with economies in transition in Central and Eastern Europe are in a similar position as developing countries in the sense that their farmers use no agro-chemicals. For example, a substantial share of agricultural output in Poland is effectively produced by organic methods. If these countries join the European Union, their organic producers would be in a strong competitive position vis-à-vis producers from developing countries because of being relatively close to the main consumer markets and being inside the EU market. This might imply that developing countries would run a considerable marketing risk if increasing the output of temperate organic products to serve the EU market. Standards issues 15. Issues related to standards require careful consideration. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) has been developing Basic Standards that reflect the current state of organic production and processing methods. According to IFOAM, these standards should not be seen as a final statement, but rather as work in progress to contribute to the development of organic farming throughout the world. IFOAM Standards have been developed, for example, for agricultural production; animal husbandry; aquaculture and forest management. Both private and official standards can play an important role in promoting organic agriculture.17 16. An increasing number of countries have developed national and/or regional legislation for organic standards. EU Council Regulation No. 2092/91 on organic production and labelling, which entered into force in July 1991, covers agricultural 16 The Spices, Coffee and Tea Boards (all organizations of the Government of India) also support production and exports of organic products, for example through training, presentation at organic trade fairs ressearch and development and the promotion of certification standards. The Agricultural and Processed Food Export Development Authority (APEDA) has been promoting exports of organic agriculture products. 17 In developing countries, voluntary standards and certification systems, developed with the involvement of farmers, developmental NGOs, traders and other stakeholders (often motivated by environmental and social objectives), play an important role in the promotion of organic agriculture, including the development of local and regional markets. They also help to raise awareness of the value of traditional knowledge and to allow local farmer communities to derive commercial benefits from organic agriculture. Such standards and certification systems should receive adequate attention in the development of national standards and certification system compatible with IFOAM and Codex Alimentarius. 6 products and foodstuffs from organic agricultural production. It was recently amended by Council Regulation (EC) No 1804/1999 to also cover livestock production. In the United States, the National Organic Program (NOP), within the United States Department for Agriculture, adopted a final regulation on organically produced agricultural products in December 2000.18 17. One concern is how to find a balance between the need for harmonization and the need to take account of local and regional conditions and needs. According to IFOAM, “organic agriculture is based on a close interaction between humans, agriculture and the local ecological conditions. Therefore, organic agriculture can be implemented differently in different areas…. It is a delicate balance to combine this need for regional variations with the international harmonization that is necessary for trade, fair competition and consumer trust in organic”. 18. The concept of equivalence should help to reconcile regional variations in organic standards with the promotion of international trade. Insufficient progress has been made, however, in putting this principle into practice. This is shown by the above-mentioned slowness in including more countries in the EU “third country list”.19 Developing countries have a long history in organic production. Several developing countries already have IFOAM-accredited certification bodies. There is a need for political will to make greater progress in recognizing standards and certification systems of developing countries. Price premiums 19. Price premiums are important incentives for many farmers to shift to organic production. Experience from Brazil indicates that a few large exporters of organic soya and sugar, who have well established marketing channels, have been able to catch significant price premiums. No information is available, however, on price premiums available for the numerous small farmers working with these large exporters or for small companies exporting through other channels. 20. Developments in market structures have a significant impact on who will capture price premiums. In most OECDs and major product groups, a few specialized organic traders tend to dominate imports.20 These traders may receive most of the price premiums. To obtain a larger share of price premiums, producers and exporters 18 http: //www.ams.usda.gov/nop 19 It is too early to assess how equivalency will work out in practice in the United States. To enter the US organic market, certifying agents operating in foreign countries can seek accreditation or recognition. They may receive recognition (a) when USDA has determined, upon the request of a foreign government, that its authorities are able to assess and accredit certifying agents as meeting the requirements of the NOP or (b) under an equivalency agreement negotiated with the United States. 20 ITC, op. cit. and M. Buley, An overview on the European market with special emphasis on Germany, paper presented at Export Seminars on Export Development of Organic Food and Beverages in Asia, ITC, 14 September 2000. 7 in developing countries need to design appropriate marketing strategies, seek more direct links with retailers in importing countries, including through e-commerce, and create partnerships. Fairtrade organizations also play an important role in helping small producers to benefit from trade, including in the area of organic products. 21. An important policy objective is to reduce certification costs for developing countries. Several steps can be taken. Small countries, in particular the least developed countries (LDCs), have difficulties in establishing national certification infrastructure. Assistance from donors, as well as cost-sharing with developed country partners, for example in the framework of fairtrade and development projects, may be the preferred option. Assistance could also be provided, including by developmental NGOs, to small rural and indigenous communities in both LDCs and other developing countries. Certification bodies operating in developing countries should be encouraged to train local inspectors and other local personnel. For example, Demeter and SKAL, the largest international certification bodies operating in India, employ local personnel and inspectors. 22. Developing countries with a relatively large organic potential should establish national standards and develop a national certification system. Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica and Tunisia have already established national standards. Institutional frameworks to promote certified organic agriculture are also important. In India, a “National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP)” has been established to provide an institutional mechanism for production and export of organic food products, taking into account the requirement of international markets. In Tunisia, the proximity of the EU organic market has triggered a relatively quick policy response from the Tunisian Government. Measures are being taken to encourage farmers’ conversion to organic production while remaining competitive.21 Policies 23. From the analysis presented above it follows that comprehensive policies are needed to ensure that developing countries can exploit their comparative advantage in organic agriculture and derive trade, economic, social and environmental benefits from increased demand for organic products in international markets. The international community should support the efforts of developing countries in this regard and open their markets for organic products from developing countries. However, the commercial risks of embarking on a large-scale promotion programme for organic agriculture also require careful attention, as building up standards and certification infrastructure that is credible in developed countries will be expensive. 24. The international community should also pay full attention to trade policy issues. For example: 21 Nadia Scialabba, op. cit. 8 Governments should comply with their obligations under the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.22 They should also encourage private certification bodies to ensure that their organic standards and conformity assessment procedures do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade. There is also a need for effective application of the principles of equivalency and special and differential treatment for developing countries. Governments should carefully examine the impact of subsidy programmes on the competitiveness of organic products from developing countries. Subsidies that adversely affect exports of developing countries should be avoided; Developed countries should provide technical assistance to allow developing countries to meet standards for organic products in international markets; Possibilities to provide additional market access23 and trade preferences for organic products could be explored. The role of UNCTAD 25. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), in cooperation with other intergovernmental organizations and other stakeholders has been assisting developing countries in their efforts to promote organic production and exports.24 26. This is being done in the context of UNCTAD’s work on trade and environment as well as commodities.25 Such work is carried out through UNCTAD secretariat policy research, technical cooperation projects and consensus building at the intergovernmental level. For example, an UNCTAD Expert Meeting,26 to be held in Geneva from 16 to 18 July 2001, will inter alia address ways to enhance developing countries’ production and export capacities of organic agricultural products. The Expert Meeting will provide an opportunity to discuss a range of relevant trade policy and other issues between experts (from Governments, private sector, NGOs, intergovernmental organizations and other stakeholders) and make 22 WTO Member States have notified draft standards and regulations under Article 2.9.2 of the TBT Agreement. These notifications can be found on the WTO website. 23 Recently, the US Department of Agriculture raised the specialty sugar quota from 4,656 tons in 1998/99 to 14,656 tons in 1999/00, in large part, to accommodate the growth in organic sugar demand in the United States. Peter J. Buzzanell (Executive Director, Peter Buzzanell & Associates, Inc.) Organic Sugar: Short Term Fad or Long Term Growth Opportunity? For the International Sugar Organization, 9th International Seminar "Hot Issues for Sugar" November 21, 2000, London, United Kingdom. 24 According to the Plan of Action, adopted by UNCTAD’s tenth Conference, UNCTAD’s work on trade and environment should inter alia focus on “supporting developing countries’ efforts in promoting production of and trading opportunities for environmentally preferable products.” (Paragraph 147, 5th bullet). 25 UNCTAD, Organic Agriculture in Developing Countries: Potential for trade, environment improvement and social development. Report by the UNCTAD secretariat. UNCTAD/COM/88, July 1996. 26 Expert Meeting on “Ways to enhance the production and export capacities of developing countries of agriculture and food products, including niche products, such as environmentally preferable products (EPPs)”, 9 recommendations to national Governments, the international community and the UNCTAD secretariat. 27. Of particular relevance is work carried out under UNCTAD/UNDP projects in India and Viet Nam. Under the project “The Role of Business Partnerships in 27 Promoting Sustainable Development” (IND/99/965), UNCTAD has commissioned studies on organic pepper28, coffee,29 Darjeeling tea30 and rice.31 A workshop on organic tea was held in Darjeeling on 11 May 2000. In addition, workshops on organic spices and organic coffee were organized in cooperation with the Spices Board and the Coffee Board, in Cochin on 23 August 2000. A publication containing the results of this project is under preparation. 28. Under the project “Trade, Environment and Development: Policy Implications for Vietnam” (VIE/98/036), Vietnamese researchers have carried out a series of studies on organic agricultural production and trading opportunities. Preliminary results were discussed in the workshop on Exploring the Opportunities for Expanding Vietnamese Organic Agriculture Export (Hanoi, 6 September 2000). The field research carried out under the project has enhanced understanding of constraints and opportunities for organic production in Viet Nam and identified products with the best potential. Several recommendations have been made for a comprehensive national strategy on organic agriculture, including linking such efforts with ongoing initiatives in the area of “safe vegetable production (SVP).” A publication containing the results of this project is under preparation. 29. Opportunities for promoting production and exports from developing countries have also been examined under the interregional project “Strengthening Research and Policy-Making Capacity on Trade and Environment in Developing Countries”. (INT/98/A61).32 The theme was included in the agenda of workshops in Los Baños (the Philippines), Havana and Dar es Salaam. Several papers33 have been prepared 27 Atul Kaushik and Mohammed Saqib, A Study of the Impact of Environmental Requirements on India’s Export Performance and a Scoping Study for Environmentally Friendly Products. See in particular Section VI on Environmentally Friendly Products (in process of publication). Study carried for UNCTAD under projects IND/97/955 (funded by UNDP New Delhi) and INT/92/06 (funded by the Government of the Netherlands). 28 A. Damodaran (Indian Institute of Plantation Management), Constraints and Prospects of Organic Spices farming in India. Paper prepared for UNCTAD. 29 A. Damodaran (Indian Institute of Plantation Management), Constraints and Prospects of Organic Coffee Farming in India. Paper prepared for UNCTAD. 30 Atul Kaushik and Mohammed Saqib, op. cit. and A. Damodaran, Indian Institute of Plantation Management, Constraints and Prospects of Organic Tea farming in India. Paper prepared for UNCTAD. 31 U.S. Bathia, Constraints of and Prospects for Organic Rice. Forthcoming. 32 The project has been funded by the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) and implemented in collaboration with the Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (FIELD). Ten developing countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, India, Philippines, South Africa, the United Republic of Tanzania, Tunisia and Uganda) have been participating in this project. 33 René Vossenaar and Veena Jha, Trading opportunities for organic food products from developing 1 0 that together with the conclusions and recommendations, will be published on the UNCTAD web site. The main conclusions will be presented at the forthcoming meeting of the WTO Committee on Trade and Environment in June 2001. 30. With the support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Canada, UNCTAD is also implementing a technical co-operation project “Standards and Trade” (INT/99/A64) on the effects of environment- and health related requirements in developed country markets on exports of developing countries.34 Under this project, research teams from three developing regions (Central America, South Asia and Southern Africa) are inter alia examining opportunities for increasing organic agricultural exports. Preliminary results of work carried out in South Asia were discussed in the joint UNCTAD/World Bank South Asia Workshop on Agriculture, SPS, and the Environment: Capturing the Benefits for South Asia, held in New Delhi, from 11 to 13 January 2001. 31. Through these projects, UNCTAD inter alia seeks to help fill gaps in information and analysis. Currently, most information on organic agriculture is available from certification bodies, ministries, research institutes, certain import promotion agencies, fairtrade organizations and some NGOs in developed countries. Some information on commercial opportunities and policy developments is being made available on a growing number of INTERNET websites. Intergovernmental organizations, in particular the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/WTO) also carry out analysis on organic agriculture, in particular with a view to assisting developing countries. Lack of objective information, however, remains a problem for the formulation of coherent policies in developing countries aimed at combining export promotion with other economic, social and environmental objectives. 32. Therefore UNCTAD’s projects seek to collect additional primary and secondary information, in particular from farmers, commodity boards, government ministries and other stakeholders in developing countries. For example, the analysis carried out under projects in India and Viet Nam is largely based on interviews with producers/exporters, industry associations and government officials. In particular these projects seek to collect information on supply factors, such as effects of conversion from conventional to organic production methods on yields and costs, availability of organic materials and fertilizers, and other factors. Attention is also paid to the identification of institutional bottlenecks and possible policies aimed at resolving them countries. Study prepared under the project “Strengthening Research and Policy-Making Capacity on Trade and Environment in Developing Countries”. April 2001. 34 The main objectives are (a) to enhance understanding of the potential trade barrier effects of environmental, sanitary and health requirements and (b) to identify policies at the national and international levels aimed at avoiding that such measures have unnecessary adverse economic effects on developing countries. 1 1 33. Taking advantage of trading opportunities (through increased market shares, price premiums or a combination thereof) inter alia requires appropriate marketing of organic food products. Therefore, the UNCTAD projects also examine trade promotion policies, the role of NGOs in promoting trade in organic products and possibilities for promoting more direct links between producers and buyers and cooperation between producers/exporters in developing countries and importers/consumer organizations in developed countries. 34. There is now a need to work with a larger group of developing countries, including the least developed countries (LDCs). The recently-created UNEP- UNCTAD Capacity Building Task Force on Trade, Environment and Development (CBTF) seeks to assist interested developing countries, in particular LDCs35, to take advantage of trading opportunities for several categories of environmentally preferable products, in particular organic agricultural products.36 CBTF will closely cooperate with other relevant international organizations, such as the International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/WTO), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), producer associations in developing countries, buyer groups in developed countries, NGOs and other stakeholders. CBTF will promote training, national workshops, bilateral and regional seminars and other activities with a view to assisting developing countries in: Creating awareness among producers and industry associations; Identifying existing and potential supply capacities for specific categories of EPPs; Identifying international market trends; Removing policy, market and technical obstacles, such as lack of information, insufficient technical capacity, and absence of supportive policies; Identifying policies and measures to make certification more affordable, in particular for small producers Promoting regional cooperation; Building partnerships between producers/exporters in developing countries and importers/consumer interests in developed countries; Participating effectively in relevant international debates. 35. Apart from the above-mentioned expert meeting, the UNCTAD secretariat is preparing workshops, including under CBTF, in Cuba, India and Viet Nam. A Latin American regional workshop is under consideration. 35 UNEP and UNCTAD have designed a special capacity-building programme for LDCs. This programme inter alia seeks to assist LDCs in developing exports for niche markets, in particular agricultural food products. Initial work has been carried out in the context of an UNCTAD project in Madagascar. See: UNCTAD, Le commerce international et la protection de l’environnement à Madagascar, Analytical Studies on Trade, Environment and Development, No. 2, Geneva, 2000 36 CBTF activities will also be aided by the UNCTAD TrainForTrade 2000 package, which contains a Module on “Trading Opportunities for Environmentally Preferable Products”.
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